博碩士論文 101287601 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:18 、訪客IP:3.235.179.79
姓名 傅柏坦(Talat Bulut)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱
(EXPLORATION OF THE NEURAL CORRELATES OF SYNTACTIC PROCESSING IN CHINESE USING FUNCTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING AND EVENT-RELATED POTENTIALS)
相關論文
★ The influence of experience on the SNARC effect -the mapping between sequential information and spatial representation★ 中文名詞動詞的具體效果的神經相關活動
★ 字形和語意對短期記憶的影響: 從行為及腦造影實驗而來的證據★ 中文字音與字形相似度對語言短期記憶之影響
★ 非語音訊息對中英雙語使用者的語言短期記憶的貢獻★ 中文短期記憶之字形表徵研究
★ The temporal dynamics of the code-switching between alphabetic and logographic languages in unbalancedChinese-English bilinguals★ The acquisition of Chinese literacy as a second language correlates with statistical learning of implicit transitional probability
★ 以行為及腦造影證據探討英文字音及字形相似效果對中英雙語使用者之短期記憶的影響★  The behavioral and neural correlates of orthographic lexicon and orthographic buffer in Chinese writing
★ How the Brain Deals with the Asymmetry between Chinese Subject and Object Relative Clauses: Support for a Dynamic Processing Theory★ 視知覺相關能力以及統計學習能力對中文識字學習的影響:來自以中文為母語或外語學習者的證據
★ Correlation of statistical learning of different implicit transitional probabilities with Chinese literacy acquisition in non-native adult learners★ 字形相似性、字義相似性以及視覺相似性對於中文工作記憶的影響
★ The Characteristics and Neurophysiological Correlates of Componential Visual Statistical Learning★ 金錢酬賞之來源與其分配對公平性感知的影響
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 閱讀語句需要協調、統整多種語言處理的歷程,包括處理詞彙和複合語意,並確定單詞之間的結構和語法關係。 儘管已有許多研究探討和語句閱讀相關的神經因素及大腦區域,但這些大腦區域進行運算的確切法則和機制仍有待闡明。 來自印歐語言的神經心理學和神經影像學研究顯示,處理複合語意涉及大腦腹側結構(包括前顳葉皮層,anterior temporal cortex),處理語法則和大腦背側結構(包括左腦前額葉下回,left inferior frontal cortex)有關。 然而,來自不同語言類型的實徵研究結果對這些關聯是否在所有語言中都成立的普遍性提出挑戰。 此外,某些涉及不同認知範疇的因素(例如工作記憶),也已被觀察到會影響語言(特別是句法)的處理。
漢語具有中心在後(head-final)的特性,詞彙的語法類別也較為模糊,即動詞和名詞間的區分不太明顯,型態句法有限,和印歐語言大不相同。有鑑於此,本論文的主要目的是檢驗和閱讀語句相關之腦區的認知神經模型,是否適用於說明漢語的處理歷程。另外,本論文的第二個目的是研究和漢語句法加工相關的機制是否以及在多大程度上涉及其他認知領域、展現出跨認知範疇的特性。
為了探索漢語的語句閱讀和句法處理歷程,我們進行了兩個功能性核磁共振造影(FMRI)實驗(實驗一和三),自控節奏的閱讀行為實驗(實驗二)和腦電波儀(ERP)實驗(實驗四)。 來自實驗一和三的神經影像學結果顯示:位於大腦腹側區域的顳葉後部和前部,分別對由單字組成詞彙(compounding)和由詞彙組成語句(compositional semantics)的不同語義整合層次產生較大的反應,位於大腦背側區域的左腦前額葉下回和左腦頂葉下部則是和句法修正(syntactic revision)歷程有關,左腦頂葉下部的活化程度同時也和句法的複雜度有關。因為這些發現和根據語句處理的認知神經模型所形成的預測並不完全符合,因此我們認為漢語語句的閱讀比印歐語言更依賴由大腦腹側結構所支持的、由語意處理所驅動的歷程。
此外,來自本論文實驗四的腦電波結果顯示:在閱讀漢語中具有名詞性關係從句(prenominal relative clause)的語句時,出現在主語關係從句(subject relative clause)後的主語名詞(head noun)會比出現在賓語關係從句(object relative clause)後的主語名詞引發更強的P600效應。 這一發現與過往文獻中來自印歐語言(即主語名詞出現在關係從句之前)的研究結果有所不同,因此這些結果並不支持「句法處理乃由語法節點間的結構距離所決定」的理論觀點,但和「句法處理乃由具語法依賴性之詞彙間的線性距離所決定」的理論觀點一致。另外,雖然工作記憶表現的個別差異和數個測量語法處理的指標(例如:閱讀時間、功能性核磁共振造影的血氧濃度變化、腦電波訊號中的P600效應)間都沒有交互作用,但工作記憶的高低和某些腦電波訊號有關聯。因此,我們認為閱讀語句中的語法處理歷程,同時需要跨認知範疇及特屬於語言範疇的工作記憶資源。
總結來說,本論文的研究結果突顯了不同語言之句法處理歷程的特異性,並挑戰了假定有一具普遍性之句法結構偏好的語句處理理論; 這些發現也對跨語言共享的、和語句處理有關的相同神經網絡提出質疑。 另一方面,目前的實徵證據進一步強調:閱讀語句中的語法處理歷程同時需要跨認知範疇及特屬於語言範疇的認知資源,同時支持其他認知作業和只負責句法處理的工作記憶便同時參與在語句閱讀的歷程中。
摘要(英) Sentence reading requires orchestration of multiple linguistic operations including processing lexical and compositional semantics, and determining structural and grammatical relationships among words. Despite extensive investigations on the neural correlates of sentence reading, the exact computations of distinct brain regions associated with these operations remain to be elucidated. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging research in Indo-European languages has suggested involvement of a ventral stream (encompassing the anterior temporal cortex) in compositional semantics, and a dorsal stream (including the left inferior frontal gyrus) in the processing of syntax. However, whether these associations are general to all languages has been challenged by empirical findings from typologically different languages. Moreover, some domain-general factors (e.g., working memory) have been observed to affect language, particularly syntactic, processing.
The primary aim of the present dissertation is to test the predictions of the neurocognitive models of sentence processing concerning language-related brain regions in Mandarin Chinese, a head-final language with less transparent syntactic categories (i.e., less obvious verb-noun distinction) and with limited morphosyntax when compared to Indo-European languages. The secondary aim of the present dissertation is to examine whether and to what extent the correlates of syntactic processing in Chinese exhibit domain-generality.
Two FMRI experiments (Experiments 1 & 3), a self-paced reading experiment (Experiment 2) and an ERP experiment (Experiment 4) were carried out in order to explore sentential and syntactic processing in Chinese. The neuroimaging findings revealed a ventral stream spanning the posterior and anterior portions of the temporal lobe, which respond to lexical (compounding) and sentence-level (compositional semantics) integration, respectively, and a dorsal stream encompassing the left inferior frontal gyrus, which correlates with syntactic revision, and the left inferior parietal lobule, which is associated with both syntactic revision and complexity. These findings are not fully consistent with the predictions of the neurocognitive models of sentence processing. It is claimed that Chinese sentence processing is largely semantics-driven and more dependent on the ventral stream when compared to Indo-European languages.
Furthermore, it was found that when reading Chinese prenominal relative clauses, a stronger P600 effect was elicited by subject relative clauses than object relative clauses on the head noun. This finding contradicts with previous studies on processing of post-nominal relative clauses in Indo-European languages. It is claimed that a sentence processing account based on the linear distance between dependencies, rather than structural distance between syntactic nodes, can account for these findings. Moreover, while individual memory spans did not interact with most of the syntactic processing measures (reading time, BOLD signal, P600), they did modulate certain ERP correlates. Therefore, both domain-general and domain-specific verbal working memory resources underlying syntactic processing are proposed.
In conclusion, the current findings highlight language-specificity of syntactic processing, challenging sentence processing accounts which posit universal structural preferences. The findings also cast doubt on neurocognitive models which propose neural networks of sentence processing shared across languages. On the other hand, the present findings also underline both domain-specific and domain-general aspects of syntactic processing, which appears to be supplied by both domain-general and domain-specific working memory resources.
關鍵字(中) ★ 中文
★ 句法
★ 腦
★ 關係從句
關鍵字(英) ★ Chinese
★ syntax
★ brain
★ relative clause
論文目次 Chinese Abstract i
English Abstract iii
Acknowledgments v
Table of Contents vii
List of Figures xi
List of Tables xiii
CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. General introduction 1
1.2. Sentence processing and its neural representation 3
1.2.1. Electrophysiological components underlying sentence processing 4
1.2.1.1. ELAN 4
1.2.1.2. LAN 5
1.2.1.3. N400 5
1.2.1.4. P600 6
1.2.2. Models of sentence processing 7
1.2.3. Contrasts used to investigate syntactic processing 14
1.2.3.1. Syntactic violations 16
1.2.3.1.1. Violation of local phrase structure 16
1.2.3.1.2. Violation of agreement relations 21
1.2.3.2. Sentences versus word lists 26
1.2.3.3. Syntactically complex versus simple structures 29
1.2.4. Interim summary 33
1.3. Relative clause processing 34
1.3.1. Accounts of relative clause processing 36
1.3.1.1. Structural accounts 36
1.3.1.2. Memory-based accounts 38
1.3.1.2.1. Storage resources 38
1.3.1.2.2. Integration resources 40
1.3.1.2.3. Similarity-based interference 40
1.3.1.3. Frequency-based accounts 41
1.3.2. Relative clause processing in Chinese 43
1.3.2.1. Previous studies reporting SRC advantage 46
1.3.2.2. Previous studies reporting ORC advantage 49
1.3.3. Interim summary 52
1.4. Domain-generality versus domain-specificity of syntactic processing 53
1.4.1. Verbal working memory capacity 57
1.4.1.1. Shared resource view 57
1.4.1.2. Dedicated resource view 58
1.4.2. Statistical learning 59
1.5. General aims and hypotheses 60
CHAPTER 2: EXPERIMENT 1: NEURAL CORRELATES OF SENTENCE PROCESSING IN CHINESE 65
2.1. Background 65
2.2. Methods 69
2.2.1. Participants 69
2.2.2. Stimuli 69
2.2.3. Procedure 71
2.2.4. FMRI data acquisition 72
2.2.5. Data analysis 72
2.3. Results 73
2.3.1. Whole-brain analysis 74
2.3.2. Region of interest analysis 78
2.4. Discussion 80
2.5. Conclusion 88
CHAPTER 3: EXPERIMENT 2: BEHAVIORAL CORRELATES OF SYNTACTIC PROCESSING IN CHINESE RELATIVE CLAUSES 90
3.1. Background 90
3.2. Methods 93
3.2.1. Participants 93
3.2.2. Stimuli 93
3.2.3. Procedure 95
3.2.4. Working memory task: Forward digit span 96
3.3. Results 96
3.3.1. Comprehension results 97
3.3.2. Reading time results 99
3.4. Discussion 102
3.5. Conclusion 105
CHAPTER 4: EXPERIMENT 3: HEMODYNAMIC CORRELATES OF SYNTACTIC PROCESSING IN CHINESE RELATIVE CLAUSES 106
4.1. Background 106
4.2. Methods 110
4.2.1. Participants 110
4.2.2. Stimuli 110
4.2.3. Procedure 111
4.2.4. FMRI data acquisition 112
4.2.5. Data analysis 112
4.2.6. Working memory task: Forward digit span 112
4.3. Results 113
4.3.1. Whole-brain analysis 113
4.3.2. Application of a sentence reading mask 114
4.3.3. Region of interest analysis 116
4.4. Discussion 118
4.5. Conclusion 121
CHAPTER 5: EXPERIMENT 4: ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL CORRELATES OF SYNTACTIC PROCESSING IN CHINESE RELATIVE CLAUSES 122
5.1. Background 122
5.1.1. Predictions 124
5.2. Methods 125
5.2.1. Participants 125
5.2.2. Stimuli 126
5.2.3. Procedure 126
5.2.4. EEG recording and preprocessing 127
5.2.5. Statistical analyses 128
5.2.6. Working memory tasks 129
5.2.6.1. Forward digit span task 129
5.2.6.2. Operation span task 129
5.3. Results 130
5.3.1. Comprehension results 130
5.3.2. ERP Results 132
5.3.2.1. RC Region 133
5.3.2.2. Relativizer region 137
5.3.2.3. Head noun region 140
5.3.2.4. Application of a different baseline for the head noun 142
5.4. Discussion 146
5.5. Conclusion 157
CHAPTER 6: GENERAL DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS 158
6.1. General discussion 158
6.2. Limitations and future directions 169
6.3. Conclusion 176
BIBLIOGRAPHY 178
參考文獻 Alloway, T. P., Gathercole, S. E., & Pickering, S. J. (2006). Verbal and Visuospatial Short-Term and Working Memory in Children: Are They Separable? Child Development, 77(6), 1698–1716. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8624.2006.00968.x
Altmann, G., & Steedman, M. (1988). Interaction with context during human sentence processing. Cognition, 30(3), 191–238. http://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0277(88)90020-0
Aoun, J., & Li, Y. A. (2003). Essays on the representational and derivational nature of grammar: The diversity of wh-constructions. Cambridge, MA: MIT press.
Ashburner, J., Barnes, G., Chen, C., Daunizeau, J., Moran, R., Henson, R., … Phillips, C. (2013). SPM8 manual. Functional Imaging Laboratory. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2006.02813.x
Barber, H., & Carreiras, M. (2005). Grammatical gender and number agreement in Spanish: an ERP comparison. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17(1), 137–153. http://doi.org/10.1162/0898929052880101
Ben-Shachar, M., Hendler, T., Kahn, I., Ben-Bashat, D., & Grodzinsky, Y. (2003). The Neural Reality of Syntactic Transformations: Evidence From Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Psychological Science, 14(5), 433–440. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.01459
Ben-Shachar, M., Palti, D., & Grodzinsky, Y. (2004). Neural correlates of syntactic movement: converging evidence from two fMRI experiments. NeuroImage, 21(4), 1320–36. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.11.027
Berwick, R. C., Friederici, A. D., Chomsky, N., & Bolhuis, J. J. (2013). Evolution, brain, and the nature of language. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17(2), 98. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.12.002
Betancort, M., Carreiras, M., & Sturt, P. (2009). The processing of subject and object relative clauses in Spanish: an eye-tracking study. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology (2006), 62(10), 1915–29. http://doi.org/10.1080/17470210902866672
Bever, T. G. (1970). The cognitive basis for linguistic structures. Cognition and Language Development.
Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I., & Schlesewsky, M. (2013). Reconciling time, space and function: A new dorsal–ventral stream model of sentence comprehension. Brain and Language, 125(1), 60–76. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2013.01.010
Bornkessel, I., & Schlesewsky, M. (2006). The extended argument dependency model: a neurocognitive approach to sentence comprehension across languages. Psychological Review, 113(4), 787–821. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.113.4.787
Bornkessel, I., Zysset, S., Friederici, A. D., von Cramon, D. Y., & Schlesewsky, M. (2005). Who did what to whom? The neural basis of argument hierarchies during language comprehension. NeuroImage, 26(1), 221–33. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.01.032
Bozic, M., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (2010). Neurocognitive Contexts for Morphological Complexity: Dissociating Inflection and Derivation. Linguistics and Language Compass, 4(11), 1063–1073. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2010.00254.x
Brennan, J., & Pylkkänen, L. (2012). The time-course and spatial distribution of brain activity associated with sentence processing. NeuroImage, 60(2), 1139–48. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.01.030
Broca, P. (1861). Remarques sur le siège de la faculté du langage articulé suivies d’une observation d’aphemie. Bull Soc Anthropol, 6, 330–357. http://doi.org/10.1038/nature12077
Brouwer, H., Crocker, M. W., Venhuizen, N. J., & Hoeks, J. C. J. (2017). A Neurocomputational Model of the N400 and the P600 in Language Processing. Cognitive Science, 41, 1318–1352. http://doi.org/10.1111/cogs.12461
Brouwer, H., Fitz, H., & Hoeks, J. (2012). Getting real about Semantic Illusions: Rethinking the functional role of the P600 in language comprehension. Brain Research, 1446, 127–143. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2012.01.055
Bulut, T., & Wu, D. H. (2016). A brief review of linguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives on language processing. Cognition, Brain, Behavior, XX(2), 87–99.
Bybee, J., & McClelland, J. L. (2005). Alternatives to the combinatorial paradigm of linguistic theory based on domain general principles of human cognition. Linguistic Review, 22(2–4), 381–410. http://doi.org/10.1515/tlir.2005.22.2-4.381
Caplan, D., Alpert, N., & Waters, G. (1998). Effects of Syntactic Structure and Propositional Number on Patterns of Regional Cerebral Blood Flow. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 10(4), 541–552. http://doi.org/10.1162/089892998562843
Caplan, D., Alpert, N., Waters, G., & Olivieri, A. (2000). Activation of Broca’s area by syntactic processing under conditions of concurrent articulation. Human Brain Mapping, 9(2), 65–71. http://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(200002)9:2<65::AID-HBM1>3.0.CO;2-4
Caplan, D., Chen, E., & Waters, G. (2008). Task-dependent and task-independent neurovascular responses to syntactic processing. Cortex, 44(3), 257–275. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2006.06.005
Caplan, D., Vijayan, S., Kuperberg, G., West, C., Waters, G., Greve, D., & Dale, A. M. (2002). Vascular responses to syntactic processing: Event-related fMRI study of relative clauses. Human Brain Mapping, 15(1), 26–38. http://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.1059
Caplan, D., & Waters, G. (2013). Memory mechanisms supporting syntactic comprehension. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20(2), 243–68. http://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-012-0369-9
Caplan, D., & Waters, G. S. (1999). Verbal working memory and sentence comprehension. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22(1), 77–126. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X99001788
Cappa, S. F., & Perani, D. (2003). The neural correlates of noun and verb processing. Journal of Neurolinguistics. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0911-6044(02)00013-1
Caramazza, A., & Zurif, E. B. (1976). Dissociation of algorithmic and heuristic processes in language comprehension: Evidence from aphasia. Brain and Language, 3(4), 572–582. http://doi.org/10.1016/0093-934X(76)90048-1
Carreiras, M., Duñabeitia, J. A., Vergara, M., de la Cruz-Pavía, I., & Laka, I. (2010). Subject relative clauses are not universally easier to process: Evidence from Basque. Cognition, 115(1), 79–92. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2009.11.012
Chen, B., Ning, A., Bi, H., & Dunlap, S. (2008). Chinese subject-relative clauses are more difficult to process than the object-relative clauses. Acta Psychologica, 129(1), 61–65. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2008.04.005
Chen, J., & Shirai, Y. (2015). The acquisition of relative clauses in spontaneous child speech in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Child Language, 42(2), 394–422. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0305000914000051
Chen, Z., Grove, K., & Hale, J. (2012). Structural Expectations in Chinese Relative Clause Comprehension. In Proceedings of the 29th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics (pp. 29–37). Somerville, MA.
Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax Cambridge. Multilingual Matters: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (1981). Lectures on government and binding. Dordrecht: Foris.
Chomsky, N. (1993). Lectures on government and binding: The Pisa lectures. Walter de Gruyter.
Chomsky, N. (1995). The minimalist program. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Chomsky, N. (2002). Syntactic structures. Walter de Gruyter.
Chomsky, N. (2014). Aspects of the Theory of Syntax (Vol. 11). MIT press.
Cohen, L., & Mehler, J. (1996). Click monitoring revisited: an on-line study of sentence comprehension. Memory & Cognition, 24(1), 94–102.
Collins, C. (1994). Economy of derivation and the generalized proper binding condition. Linguistic Inquiry, 25(1), 45–61.
Comrie, B. (1998). Attributive clauses in Asian languages: Towards an areal typology. In W. Boeder, C. Schroeder, K. H. Wagner, & W. Wildgen (Eds.), Sprache in Raum und Zeit. In memoriam Johannes Bechert, Band 2 : Beitrage zur empirischen Sprachwissenschaft (pp. 51–60). Tugingen: Gunter Narr.
Comrie, B. (2002). Typology and language acquisition: the case of relative clauses. In A. G. Ramat (Ed.), Typology and Second Language Acquisition (pp. 19–37). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Constable, R. T., Pugh, K. R., Berroya, E., Mencl, W. E., Westerveld, M., Ni, W., & Shankweiler, D. (2004). Sentence complexity and input modality effects in sentence comprehension: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 22(1), 11–21. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.01.001
Conway, A. R. A., Kane, M. J., Bunting, M. F., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., & Engle, R. W. (2005). Working memory span tasks: A methodological review and user’s guide. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12(5), 769–786. http://doi.org/10.3758/BF03196772
Culicover, P. W., & Jackendoff, R. (2006). The simpler syntax hypothesis. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(9), 413–418. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.07.007
Curtiss, S., Fromkin, V., Krashen, S., Rigler, D., & Rigler, M. (1974). The linguistic development of Genie. Language, 50(3), 528–554. http://doi.org/10.2307/412222
Daneman, M., & Carpenter, P. A. (1983). Individual differences in integrating information between and within sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 9(4), 561–584. http://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.9.4.561
Daneman, M., & Merikle, P. M. (1996). Working memory and language comprehension: A meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3(4), 422–433. http://doi.org/10.3758/BF03214546
Dehaene, S., & Cohen, L. (2011). The unique role of the visual word form area in reading. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 15(6), 254–262. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2011.04.003
Diessel, H., & Tomasello, M. (2001). The development of relative clauses in spontaneous child speech. Cognitive Linguistics, 11(1–2), 131–151. http://doi.org/10.1515/cogl.2001.006
Ding, N., Melloni, L., Zhang, H., Tian, X., & Poeppel, D. (2016). Cortical tracking of hierarchical linguistic structures in connected speech. Nature Neuroscience, 19(1), 158–164. http://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4186
Drenhaus, H., Beim Graben, P., Saddy, D., & Frisch, S. (2006). Diagnosis and repair of negative polarity constructions in the light of symbolic resonance analysis. Brain and Language, 96(3), 255–68. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2005.05.001
Du, P. (2013). Internal and External Factors in the Processing of Chinese Relative Clauses. National Chung Cheng University.
Embick, D., Marantz, a, Miyashita, Y., O’Neil, W., & Sakai, K. L. (2000). A syntactic specialization for Broca’s area. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 97(11), 6150–4. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.100098897
Engle, R. W., Tuholski, S. W., Laughlin, J. E., & Conway, A. R. A. (1999). Working memory, short-term memory, and general fluid intelligence: A latent-variable approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 128(3), 309–331. http://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.128.3.309
Fasold, R. W., & Connor-Linton, J. (2006). An introduction to language and linguistics.
Feng, S., Legault, J., & Yang, L. (2015). Differences in grammatical processing strategies for active and passive sentences : An fMRI study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 33, 104–117. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2014.09.002
Ferreira, F. (2005). Psycholinguistics, formal grammars, and cognitive science. The Linguistic Review, 22(2–4), 365–380.
Ferreira, F., & Clifton, C. (1986). The independence of syntactic processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 25(3), 348–368. http://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(86)90006-9
Fiebach, C. J., Schlesewsky, M., & Friederici, A. D. (2001). Syntactic working memory and the establishment of filler-gap dependencies: Insights from ERPs and fMRI. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 30(3), 321–338. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010447102554
Fiebach, C. J., Schlesewsky, M., & Friederici, A. D. (2002). Separating syntactic memory costs and syntactic integration costs during parsing: the processing of German WH-questions. Journal of Memory and Language, 47(2), 250–272. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0749-596X(02)00004-9
Fiebach, C. J., Schlesewsky, M., Lohmann, G., Von Cramon, D. Y., & Friederici, A. D. (2005). Revisiting the role of Broca’s area in sentence processing: Syntactic integration versus syntactic working memory. Human Brain Mapping, 24(2), 79–91. http://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20070
Frazier, L. (1987). Sentence processing: A tutorial review. In M. Coltheart (Ed.), Attention and performance 12: The psychology of reading (pp. 559–586). Hillsdale, NJ, England: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Frazier, L. (1987). Syntactic processing: Evidence from dutch. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 5(4), 519–559. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF00138988
Frazier, L. (1990). Eploring the architecture of the language-processing system. In Cognitive models of speech processing: Computational and psycholinguistic perspectives (pp. 409–433).
Frazier, L., & Rayner, K. (1982). Making and correcting errors during sentence comprehension: Eye movements in the analysis of structurally ambiguous sentences. Cognitive Psychology, 14(2), 178–210. http://doi.org/10.1016/0010-0285(82)90008-1
Friederici, A. D. (2002). Towards a neural basis of auditory sentence processing. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(2), 78–84. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(00)01839-8
Friederici, A. D. (2011). The Brain Basis of Language Processing: From Structure to Function. Physiological Reviews, 91(4), 1357–1392. http://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00006.2011
Friederici, A. D. (2012). The cortical language circuit: From auditory perception to sentence comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16(5), 262–268. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2012.04.001
Friederici, A. D., Fiebach, C. J., Schlesewsky, M., Bornkessel, I. D., & von Cramon, D. Y. (2006). Processing linguistic complexity and grammaticality in the left frontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991), 16(12), 1709–17. http://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhj106
Friederici, A. D., Gunter, T. C., Hahne, A., & Mauth, K. (2004). The relative timing of syntactic and semantic processes in sentence comprehension. NeuroReport, 15(1), 165–169. http://doi.org/10.1097/00001756-200401190-00032
Friederici, A. D., Meyer, M., & von Cramon, D. Y. (2000). Auditory language comprehension: an event-related fMRI study on the processing of syntactic and lexical information. Brain and Language, 74(2), 289–300. http://doi.org/10.1006/brln.2000.2313
Friederici, A. D., Pfeifer, E., & Hahne, A. (1993). Event-related brain potentials during natural speech processing: effects of semantic, morphological and syntactic violations. Cognitive Brain Research, 1(3), 183–192. http://doi.org/10.1016/0926-6410(93)90026-2
Friederici, A. D., Steinhauer, K., & Frisch, S. (1999). Lexical integration: Sequential effects of syntactic and semantic information. Memory & Cognition, 27(3), 438–453. http://doi.org/10.3758/BF03211539
Friederici, A. D., Steinhauer, K., Mecklinger, A., & Meyer, M. (1998). Working memory constraints on syntactic ambiguity resolution as revealed by electrical brain responses. Biological Psychology, 47(3), 193–221. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-0511(97)00033-1
Friedrich, R., & Friederici, A. D. (2009). Mathematical Logic in the Human Brain: Syntax. PLoS ONE, 4(5), e5599. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0005599
Fromkin, V., Krashen, S., Curtiss, S., Rigler, D., & Rigler, M. (1974). The development of language in genie: a case of language acquisition beyond the “critical period.” Brain and Language, 1(1), 81–107. http://doi.org/10.1016/0093-934X(74)90027-3
Gennari, S. P., & MacDonald, M. C. (2008). Semantic indeterminacy in object relative clauses. Journal of Memory and Language, 58(2), 161–187. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.07.004
Gibson, E. (1998). Linguistic complexity: locality of syntactic dependencies. Cognition, 68(1), 1–76.
Gibson, E. (2000). The dependency locality theory: A distance-based theory of linguistic complexity. In Y. Miyashita, A. Marantz, & W. O’Neil (Eds.), Image, language, brain (pp. 95–126). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Gibson, E., & Wu, H.-H. I. (2013). Processing Chinese relative clauses in context. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28(1–2), 125–155. http://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2010.536656
Gordon, P. C., Hendrick, R., & Johnson, M. (2001). Memory interference during language processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 27(6), 1411–1423. http://doi.org/10.1037//0278-7393.27.6.1411
Gouvea, A. C., Phillips, C., Kazanina, N., & Poeppel, D. (2010). The linguistic processes underlying the P600. Language and Cognitive Processes, 25(2), 149–188. http://doi.org/10.1080/01690960902965951
Grodzinsky, Y. (1986). Language deficits and the theory of syntax. Brain and Language, 27(1), 135–159. http://doi.org/10.1016/0093-934X(86)90009-X
Grodzinsky, Y. (1989). Agrammatic comprehension of relative clauses. Brain and Language. http://doi.org/10.1016/0093-934X(89)90031-X
Grodzinsky, Y., & Friederici, A. D. (2006). Neuroimaging of syntax and syntactic processing. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16(2), 240–6. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.conb.2006.03.007
Gunter, T. C., Friederici, A. D., & Schriefers, H. (2000). Syntactic gender and semantic expectancy: ERPs reveal early autonomy and late interaction. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12(4), 556–68.
Hagoort, P. (2003). How the brain solves the binding problem for language: a neurocomputational model of syntactic processing. NeuroImage, 20, S18–S29. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.09.013
Hagoort, P. (2005). On Broca, brain, and binding: a new framework. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(9), 416–23. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2005.07.004
Hagoort, P. (2013). MUC (Memory, Unification, Control) and beyond. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(JUL), 1–13. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00416
Hagoort, P., Brown, C., & Groothusen, J. (1993). The syntactic positive shift (SPS) as an ERP measure of syntactic processing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 8(4), 439–483. http://doi.org/10.1080/01690969308407585
Hagoort, P., & Indefrey, P. (2014). The Neurobiology of Language Beyond Single Words. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 37(1), 347–362. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-neuro-071013-013847
Hahne, A., & Friederici, A. D. (2002). Differential task effects on semantic and syntactic processes as revealed by ERPs. Cognitive Brain Research, 13(3), 339–356. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0926-6410(01)00127-6
Hale, J. (2001). A probabilistic earley parser as a psycholinguistic model. In Second meeting of the North American Chapter of the Association for Computational Linguistics on Language technologies 2001 - NAACL ’01 (pp. 1–8). Morristown, NJ, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics. http://doi.org/10.3115/1073336.1073357
Hale, J. (2003). The information conveyed by words in sentences. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 32(2), 101–123. http://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022492123056
Hauser, M. D., Chomsky, N., & Fitch, W. T. (2002). The faculty of language: what is it, who has it, and how did it evolve? Science, 298(5598), 1569–1579. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.298.5598.1569
He, W., & Chen, B. (2013). The role of animacy in Chinese relative clause processing. Acta Psychologica, 144(1), 145–153. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.actpsy.2013.04.022
Hickok, G., & Poeppel, D. (2004). Dorsal and ventral streams: a framework for understanding aspects of the functional anatomy of language. Cognition, 92(1–2), 67–99. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2003.10.011
Hickok, G., & Poeppel, D. (2007). The cortical organization of speech processing. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 8(5), 393–402. http://doi.org/10.1038/nrn2113
Hockett, C. (1960). The Origin of Speech. Scientific American, 203(3), 88–96.
Hoeks, J. C. J., Stowe, L. A., & Doedens, G. (2004). Seeing words in context: The interaction of lexical and sentence level information during reading. Cognitive Brain Research, 19(1), 59–73. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2003.10.022
Hsiao, F., & Gibson, E. (2003). Processing relative clauses in Chinese. Cognition, 90(1), 3–27. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-0277(03)00124-0
Hsiao, Y., & Macdonald, M. C. (2016). Production predicts comprehension : Animacy effects in Mandarin relative clause processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 89, 87–109. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2015.11.006
Hsiao, Y., & MacDonald, M. C. (2013). Experience and generalization in a connectionist model of Mandarin Chinese relative clause processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 4(October), 767. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2013.00767
Hsu, C. C. N. (2008). Revisit relative clause islands in Chinese. Language and Linguistics, 9(1), 23–48.
Hsu, C. C. N., Hermon, G., & Zukowski, A. (2009). Young children’s production of head-final relative clauses: Elicited production data from Chinese children. Journal of East Asian Linguistics, 18(4), 323–360. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10831-009-9047-y
Huang, J., Zhu, Z., Zhang, J. X., Wu, M., Chen, H.-C., & Wang, S. (2012). The role of left inferior frontal gyrus in explicit and implicit semantic processing. Brain Research, 1440, 56–64. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.11.060
Huang, K., Itoh, K., Kwee, I. L., & Nakada, T. (2012). Neural strategies for reading Japanese and Chinese sentences: A cross-linguistic fMRI study of character-decoding and morphosyntax. Neuropsychologia, 50(11), 2598–2604. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.07.011
Humphries, C., Binder, J. R., Medler, D. A., & Liebenthal, E. (2006). Syntactic and Semantic Modulation of Neural Activity during Auditory Sentence Comprehension. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(4), 665–679. http://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.2006.18.4.665
Humphries, C., Love, T., Swinney, D., & Hickok, G. (2005). Response of anterior temporal cortex to syntactic and prosodic manipulations during sentence processing. Human Brain Mapping, 26(2), 128–38. http://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.20148
Hung, M. (1996). Chinese Sentence Patterns: A Case Study of the Textbooks for Elementary School Students.《中文句型:國小學生國語課本中所使用的句型分析》. National Kaohsiung Normal University.
Hung, Y. H., Pallier, C., Dehaene, S., Lin, Y. C., Chang, A., Tzeng, O. J. L., & Wu, D. H. (2015). Neural correlates of merging number words. NeuroImage, 122, 33–43. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.07.045
Isel, F., Hahne, A., Maess, B., & Friederici, A. D. (2007). Neurodynamics of sentence interpretation: ERP evidence from French. Biological Psychology, 74(3), 337–346. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2006.09.003
Ishizuka, T. (2005). Processing relative clauses in Japanese. UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics, 13, 135–157.
Izumi, S. (2003). Processing Difficulty in Comprehension and Production of Relative Clauses by Learners of English as a Second Language. Language Learning, 53(2), 285–323. http://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9922.00218
Jackendoff, R. (2007). A Parallel Architecture perspective on language processing. Brain Research, 1146(1), 2–22. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.08.111
Jackendoff, R., & Pinker, S. (2005). The nature of the language faculty and its implications for evolution of language (Reply to Fitch, Hauser, and Chomsky). Cognition, 97(2), 211–225. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2005.04.006
Jäger, L., Chen, Z., Li, Q., Lin, C.-J. C., & Vasishth, S. (2015). The subject-relative advantage in Chinese: Evidence for expectation-based processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 79–80, 97–120. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2014.10.005
Jiang, X., Tan, Y., & Zhou, X. (2009). Processing the universal quantifier during sentence comprehension: ERP evidence. Neuropsychologia, 47(8–9), 1799–815. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.02.020
Jobard, G., Vigneau, M., Mazoyer, B., & Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2007). Impact of modality and linguistic complexity during reading and listening tasks. NeuroImage, 34(2), 784–800. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2006.06.067
Just, M. A., & Carpenter, P. A. (1992). A capacity theory of comprehension: Individual differences in working memory. Psychological Review, 99(1), 122–149. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.99.1.122
Just, M. A., Carpenter, P. A., & Miyake, A. (2003). Neuroindices of cognitive workload: Neuroimaging, pupillometric and event-related potential studies of brain work. Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 4(1–2), 59–88. http://doi.org/10.1080/14639220210159735
Kaan, E., Harris, A., Gibson, E., & Holcomb, P. (2000). The P600 as an index of syntactic integration difficulty. Language and Cognitive Processes, 15(2), 159–201. http://doi.org/10.1080/016909600386084
Kaan, E., & Swaab, T. Y. (2002). The brain circuitry of syntactic comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(8), 350–356. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(02)01947-2
Kane, M. J., Tuholski, S. W., Hambrick, D. Z., Wilhelm, O., Payne, T. W., & Engle, R. W. (2004). The generality of working memory capacity: A latent-variable approach to verbal and visuospatial memory span and reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133(2), 189–217. http://doi.org/10.1037/0096-3445.133.2.189
Keenan, E., & Comrie, B. (1977). Noun phrase accessibility and universal grammar. Linguistic Inquiry, 8(1), 63–99.
Keller, T. a, Carpenter, P. A., & Just, M. A. (2001). The neural bases of sentence comprehension: a fMRI examination of syntactic and lexical processing. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991), 11(3), 223–37. http://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/11.3.223
King, J. W., & Kutas, M. (1995). Who did what and when -- using word level and clause-level ERPs to monitor working-memory usage in reading. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 7(1986), 376–395.
Kluender, R., & Kutas, M. (1993a). Bridging the Gap: Evidence from ERPs on the Processing of Unbounded Dependencies. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 5(2), 196–214. http://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.1993.5.2.196
Kluender, R., & Kutas, M. (1993b). Subjacency as a processing phenomenon. Language & Cognitive Processes, 8(4), 573–633. http://doi.org/10.1080/01690969308407588
Koenig, T., & Lehmann, D. (1996). Microstates in language-related brain potential maps show noun-verb differences. Brain and Language, 53(2), 169–182. http://doi.org/10.1006/brln.1996.0043
Kuhl, P. K. (2004). Early language acquisition: cracking the speech code. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 5(11), 831–43. http://doi.org/10.1038/nrn1533
Kuhl, P. K., & Miller, J. D. (1975). Speech perception by the chinchilla: Voiced-voiceless distinction in alveolar plosive consonants. Science, 190(4209), 69–72. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.1166301
Kuhl, P. K., & Padden, D. M. (1982). Enhanced discriminability at the phonetic boundaries for the voicing feature in macaques. Perception & Psychophysics, 32(6), 542–550. http://doi.org/10.3758/BF03204208
Kuhl, P. K., & Padden, D. M. (1983). Enhanced discriminability at the phonetic boundaries for the place feature in macaques. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 73(3), 1003–1010. http://doi.org/10.1121/1.389148
Kuo, W.-J., Yeh, T.-C., Lee, J.-R., Chen, L.-F., Lee, P.-L., Chen, S.-S., … Hsieh, J.-C. (2004). Orthographic and phonological processing of Chinese characters: an fMRI study. NeuroImage, 21(4), 1721–1731. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.12.007
Kutas, M., & Federmeier, K. D. (2011). Thirty Years and Counting: Finding Meaning in the N400 Component of the Event-Related Brain Potential (ERP). Annual Review of Psychology, 62(1), 621–647. http://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.093008.131123
Kutas, M., & Hillyard, S. (1980). Reading senseless sentences: brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science, 207(4427), 203–205. http://doi.org/10.1126/science.7350657
Kutas, M., & Hillyard, S. a. (1983). Event-related brain potentials to grammatical errors and semantic anomalies. Memory & Cognition, 11(5), 539–50.
Kutas, M., & Hillyard, S. A. (1984). Brain potentials during reading reflect word expectancy and semantic association. Nature, 307(5947), 161–163. http://doi.org/10.1038/307161a0
Kwon, N., Polinsky, M., & Kluender, R. (2006). Subject preference in Korean. In Proceedings of the 25th west coast conference on formal linguistics (pp. 1–14). Somerville, MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project.
Laine, M., Rinne, J. O., Krause, B. J., Teräs, M., & Sipilä, H. (1999). Left hemisphere activation during processing of morphologically complex word forms in adults. Neuroscience Letters, 271(2), 85–88. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0304-3940(99)00527-3
Lasnik, H. (2002). The minimalist program in syntax. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6(10), 432–437. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(02)01977-0
Law, S.-P., & Leung, M.-T. (1998). Sentence comprehension in Cantonese Chinese aphasic patients. Aphasiology, 12(1), 49–63. http://doi.org/10.1080/02687039808249443
Law, S. P. (2000). Structural prominence hypothesis and Chinese aphasic sentence comprehension. Brain and Language, 74(2), 260–268. http://doi.org/10.1006/brln.2000.2341
Law, S. P., & Leung, M. T. (2000). Sentence processing deficits in two Cantonese aphasic patients. Brain and Language, 72(3), 310–342. http://doi.org/10.1006/brln.2000.2298
Lee, C.-Y., Liu, Y.-N., & Tsai, J.-L. (2012). The time course of contextual effects on visual word recognition. Frontiers in Psychology, 3(August), 285. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00285
Lehtonen, M., Vorobyev, V. A., Hugdahl, K., Tuokkola, T., & Laine, M. (2006). Neural correlates of morphological decomposition in a morphologically rich language: An fMRI study. Brain and Language, 98(2), 182–193. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2006.04.011
Levy, R. (2008). Expectation-based syntactic comprehension. Cognition, 106(3), 1126–1177. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2007.05.006
Lewis, R. L., & Vasishth, S. (2005). An activation-based model of sentence processing as skilled memory retrieval. Cognitive Science, 29(3), 375–419. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15516709cog0000_25
Lewis, R. L., Vasishth, S., & Van Dyke, J. A. (2006). Computational principles of working memory in sentence comprehension. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10(10), 447–454. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.08.007
Li, P., Jin, Z., & Tan, L. H. (2004). Neural representations of nouns and verbs in Chinese: An fMRI study. NeuroImage, 21(4), 1533–1541. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2003.10.044
Li, Q., Zhang, J., & Yue, W. (2010). Chinese Relative Clauses Processing in Supportive Context Removing Ambiguity. Studies in Literature and Language, 1(4), 12–19. http://doi.org/10.3968/n
Lin, C.-J. C., & Bever, T. G. (2006). Subject preference in the processing of relative clauses in Chinese. Proceedings of the 25th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics, 254–260.
Lin, C. C. (2006). Grammar and Parsing: A Typological Investigation of Relative-clause Processing. English. Tucson: University of Arizona.
Lin, C. J. C. (2014). Effect of thematic order on the comprehension of Chinese relative clauses. Lingua, 140, 180–206. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2013.12.003
Lin, C. J. C., & Bever, T. G. (2010). Garden Path and the Comprehension of Head-Final Relative Clauses. In H. Yamashita, Y. Hirose, & J. L. Packard (Eds.), Processing and Producing Head-final Structures, Studies in Theoretical Psycholinguistics (pp. 277–297). Springer Netherlands. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9213-7
Lin, S. E., Chen, H. C., Zhao, J., Li, S., He, S., & Weng, X. C. (2011). Left-lateralized N170 response to unpronounceable pseudo but not false Chinese characters-the key role of orthography. Neuroscience, 190, 200–206. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroscience.2011.05.071
Lin, Y., & Garnsey, S. M. (2011). Animacy and the Resolution of Temporary Ambiguity in Relative Clause Comprehension in Mandarin. In H. Yamashita, Y. Hirose, & J. L. Packard (Eds.), Processing and Producing Head-final Structures (Vol. 38, pp. 241–275). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9213-7_12
Liu, C., Zhang, W. T., Tang, Y. Y., Mai, X. Q., Chen, H. C., Tardif, T., & Luo, Y. J. (2008). The Visual Word Form Area: Evidence from an fMRI study of implicit processing of Chinese characters. NeuroImage, 40(3), 1350–1361. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.10.014
Liu, Y., Li, P., Shu, H., Zhang, Q., & Chen, L. (2010). Structure and meaning in Chinese: An ERP study of idioms. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 23(6), 615–630. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2010.06.001
Luke, K.-K., Liu, H.-L., Wai, Y.-Y., Wan, Y.-L., & Tan, L. H. (2002). Functional anatomy of syntactic and semantic processing in language comprehension. Human Brain Mapping, 16(3), 133–45. http://doi.org/10.1002/hbm.10029
MacDonald, M. C., & Christiansen, M. H. (2002). Reassessing working memory: comment on Just and Carpenter (1992) and Waters and Caplan (1996). Psychological Review, 109(1), 35-54-74. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.109.1.35
Maess, B., Koelsch, S., Gunter, T. C., & Friederici, A. D. (2001). Musical syntax is processed in Broca’s area: an MEG study. Nature Neuroscience, 4(5), 540–545. http://doi.org/10.1038/87502
Mak, W. M., Vonk, W., & Schriefers, H. (2002). The influence of animacy on relative clause processing. Journal of Memory and Language, 47(1), 50–68. http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2001.2837
Makuuchi, M., Bahlmann, J., Anwander, A., & Friederici, A. D. (2009). Segregating the core computational faculty of human language from working memory. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(20), 8362–8367. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0810928106
Makuuchi, M., Bahlmann, J., & Friederici, A. D. (2012). An approach to separating the levels of hierarchical structure building in language and mathematics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1598), 2033–2045. http://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2012.0095
Marangolo, P., Piras, F., Galati, G., & Burani, C. (2006). Functional anatomy of derivational morphology. Cortex, 42(8), 1093–1106. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0010-9452(08)70221-1
Maruyama, M., Pallier, C., Jobert, A., Sigman, M., & Dehaene, S. (2012). The cortical representation of simple mathematical expressions. NeuroImage, 61(4), 1444–1460. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.04.020
Mazoyer, B. M., Tzourio, N., Frak, V., Syrota, A., Murayama, N., Levrier, O., … Mehler, J. (1993). The Cortical Representation of Speech. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 5(4), 467–479. http://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.1993.5.4.467
McCandliss, B. D., Cohen, L., & Dehaene, S. (2003). The visual word form area: expertise for reading in the fusiform gyrus. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7(7), 293–299. http://doi.org/10.1016/S1364-6613(03)00134-7
McElree, B., & Bever, T. G. (1989). The psychological reality of linguistically defined gaps. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 18(1), 21–35. http://doi.org/10.1007/BF01069044
McRae, K., Spivey-Knowlton, M. J., & Tanenhaus, M. K. (1998). Modeling the influence of thematic fit (and other constraints) in on-line sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 38(3), 283–312. http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1997.2543
Mecklinger, A., Schriefers, H., Steinhauer, K., & Friederici, a D. (1995). Processing relative clauses varying on syntactic and semantic dimensions: an analysis with event-related potentials. Memory & Cognition, 23(4), 477–94. http://doi.org/10.3758/BF03197249
Mehler, J., Nespor, M., Shukla, M., & Peña, M. (2008). Why is language unique to humans? In Percept, Decision, Action: Bridging the Gaps (pp. 251–284). http://doi.org/10.1002/9780470034989.ch20
Meinzer, M., Lahiri, A., Flaisch, T., Hannemann, R., & Eulitz, C. (2009). Opaque for the reader but transparent for the brain: Neural signatures of morphological complexity. Neuropsychologia, 47(8–9), 1964–1971. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2009.03.008
Meyer, L., Obleser, J., Anwander, A., & Friederici, A. D. (2012). Linking ordering in Broca’s area to storage in left temporo-parietal regions: the case of sentence processing. NeuroImage, 62(3), 1987–98. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.05.052
Misyak, J. B., Christiansen, M. H., & Tomblin, J. B. (2010a). On-line individual differences in statistical learning predict language processing. Frontiers in Psychology, 1(SEP), 31. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2010.00031
Misyak, J. B., Christiansen, M. H., & Tomblin, J. B. (2010b). Sequential expectations: The role of prediction-based learning in language. Topics in Cognitive Science, 2(1), 138–153. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1756-8765.2009.01072.x
Molinaro, N., Barber, H. A., & Carreiras, M. (2011). Grammatical agreement processing in reading: ERP findings and future directions. Cortex, 47(8), 908–930. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cortex.2011.02.019
Myers, J. (2009). Syntactic judgment experiments. Linguistics and Language Compass, 3(1), 406–423. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-818X.2008.00113.x
Myers, J. (2017). Morphological Processing of Compounds, Behavioral Studies. In R. Sybesma, W. Behr, Y. Gu, Z. Handel, C.-T. J. Huang, & J. Myers (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Chinese Language and Linguistics (pp. 94–100). Leiden: Brill.
Nakai, T., & Sakai, K. L. (2014). Neural mechanisms underlying the computation of hierarchical tree structures in mathematics. PLoS ONE, 9(11). http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111439
Neville, H., Nicol, J. L., Barss, A., Forster, K. I., & Garrett, M. F. (1991). Syntactically Based Sentence Processing Classes: Evidence from Event-Related Brain Potentials. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 3(2), 151–165. http://doi.org/10.1162/jocn.1991.3.2.151
O’Grady, W., Lee, M., & Choo, M. (2003). a Subject-Object Asymmetry in the Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Korean As a Second Language. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 25(3), 433–448. http://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263103000172
Ohta, S., Fukui, N., & Sakai, K. L. (2013). Syntactic Computation in the Human Brain: The Degree of Merger as a Key Factor. PLoS ONE, 8(2), e56230. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0056230
Osterhout, L., & Holcomb, P. J. (1992). Event-related brain potentials elicited by syntactic anomaly. Journal of Memory and Language, 31(6), 785–806. http://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(92)90039-Z
Osterhout, L., & Mobley, L. a. (1995). Event-Related Brain Potentials Elicited by Failure to Agree. Journal of Memory and Language. http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1995.1033
Packard, J. L., Ye, Z., & Zhou, X. (2010). Filler-Gap Processing in Mandarin Relative Clauses: Evidence from Event-Related Potentials. In H. Yamashita, Y. Hirose, & J. L. Packard (Eds.), Processing and Producing Head-final Structures (Vol. 38, pp. 219–240). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9213-7_11
Pallier, C., Devauchelle, A., & Dehaene, S. (2011). Cortical representation of the constituent structure of sentences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108(6), 2522–2527. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1018711108
Paradis, J., Crago, M., Genesee, F., Crago, M., & Genesee, F. (2016). Domain-General Versus Domain-Specific Accounts of Specific Language Impairment : Evidence From Bilingual Children â€TM s Acquisition of Object Pronouns Domain-General Versus Domain-Specific Accounts of Specific Language Impairment : Evidence From Bilingual C, 9223(March), 33–62. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15327817la1301
Peirce, J. W. (2007). PsychoPy-Psychophysics software in Python. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 162(1–2), 8–13. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2006.11.017
Phillips, C. (2009). Should we impeach armchair linguists? Japanese/Korean Linguistics, 17, 1–16.
Phillips, C., Kazanina, N., & Abada, S. H. (2005). ERP effects of the processing of syntactic long-distance dependencies. Brain Research. Cognitive Brain Research, 22(3), 407–28. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogbrainres.2004.09.012
Phillips, C., & Wagers, M. (2007). Relating structure and time in linguistics and psycholinguistics. Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics, (2), 739–756. http://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780198568971.013.0045
Pinel, P., Thirion, B., Meriaux, S., Jobert, A., Serres, J., Le Bihan, D., … Dehaene, S. (2007). Fast reproducible identification and large-scale databasing of individual functional cognitive networks. BMC Neuroscience, 8, 91. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-8-91
Pinker, S., & Jackendoff, R. (2005). The faculty of language: what’s special about it? Cognition, 95(2), 201–36. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2004.08.004
Pu, M.-M. (2007). The Distribution of Relative Clauses in Chinese Discourse. Discourse Processes, 43(1), 25–53. http://doi.org/10.1207/s15326950dp4301_2
Qiao, X., Shen, L., & Forster, K. (2012). Relative clause processing in Mandarin: Evidence from the maze task. Language and Cognitive Processes, 27(4), 611–630. http://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2011.578394
Qiu, Y., & Zhou, X. (2012). Processing temporal agreement in a tenseless language: an ERP study of Mandarin Chinese. Brain Research, 1446, 91–108. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2012.01.051
Rayner, K., & Pollatsek, A. (2006). Eye-Movement Control in Reading. In Handbook of Psycholinguistics (pp. 613–657). http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-012369374-7/50017-1
Reali, F., & Christiansen, M. H. (2007). Processing of relative clauses is made easier by frequency of occurrence. Journal of Memory and Language, 57(1), 1–23. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2006.08.014
Rogalsky, C., & Hickok, G. (2009). Selective Attention to Semantic and Syntactic Features Modulates Sentence Processing Networks in Anterior Temporal Cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 19(4), 786–796. http://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhn126
Rohde, H., Levy, R., & Kehler, a. (2011). Anticipating explanations in relative clause processing. Cognition, 118(3), 339–58. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cognition.2010.10.016
Roland, D., Dick, F., & Elman, J. L. (2007). Frequency of basic English grammatical structures: A corpus analysis. Journal of Memory and Language, 57(3), 348–379. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2007.03.002
Rumelhart, D. E., McClelland, J. L., & Williams, R. J. (1986). Parallel Distributed Processing: Explorations in the Microstructure of Cognition. (D. E. Rumelhart & J. L. McClelland, Eds.)Computational models of cognition and perception (Vol. 1). MIT Press.
Saddy, D., Drenhaus, H., & Frisch, S. (2004). Processing polarity items: contrastive licensing costs. Brain and Language, 90(1–3), 495–502. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0093-934X(03)00470-X
Sakai, K. L., Noguchi, Y., Takeuchi, T., & Watanabe, E. (2002). Selective Priming of Syntactic Processing by Event-Related Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation of Broca’s Area. Neuron, 35(6), 1177–1182. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0896-6273(02)00873-5
Santi, A., & Grodzinsky, Y. (2007). Working memory and syntax interact in Broca’s area. NeuroImage, 37(1), 8–17. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2007.04.047
Santi, A., & Grodzinsky, Y. (2010). fMRI adaptation dissociates syntactic complexity dimensions. NeuroImage, 51(4), 1285–1293. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.03.034
Saussure, F. De. (1986). Course in General Linguistics. London Fontana (Vol. 1). http://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.60.6.742
Schneider, W., Eschman, a, & Zuccolotto, a. (2002). E-Prime reference guide. Psychology Software Tools, 3(1), 1. http://doi.org/10.1186/1756-0381-3-1
Schriefers, H., Friederici, A. D., & Kuhn, K. (1995). The Processing of Locally Ambiguous Relative Clauses in German. Journal of Memory and Language, 34(4), 499–520. http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1995.1023
Semlitsch, H. V., Anderer, P., Schuster, P., & Presslich, O. (1986). A Solution for Reliable and Valid Reduction of Ocular Artifacts, Applied to the P300 ERP. Psychophysiology, 23(6), 695–703. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8986.1986.tb00696.x
Shapiro, K. A., Moo, L. R., & Caramazza, A. (2006). Cortical signatures of noun and verb production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(5), 1644–1649. http://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0504142103
Sheldon, A. (1974). The role of parallel function in the acquisition of relative clauses in English. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 13(3), 272–281. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(74)80064-2
Snijders, T. M., Vosse, T., Kempen, G., Van Berkum, J. J. a, Petersson, K. M., & Hagoort, P. (2009). Retrieval and unification of syntactic structure in sentence comprehension: an FMRI study using word-category ambiguity. Cerebral Cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991), 19(7), 1493–503. http://doi.org/10.1093/cercor/bhn187
Sprouse, J., Wagers, M., & Phillips, C. (2012). A test of the relation between working-memory capacity and syntactic island effects. Language, 88(1), 82–123. http://doi.org/10.1353/lan.2012.0004
Steinhauer, K., & Drury, J. E. (2012). On the early left-anterior negativity (ELAN) in syntax studies. Brain and Language, 120(2), 135–62. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2011.07.001
Stowe, L. A., Broere, C. A. J., Paans, A. M. J., Wijers, A. A., Mulder, G., Vaalburg, W., & Zwarts, F. (1998). Localizing components of a complex task. NeuroReport, 9(13), 2995–2999. http://doi.org/10.1097/00001756-199809140-00014
Stowe, L. A., Haverkort, M., & Zwarts, F. (2005). Rethinking the neurological basis of language. Lingua, 115(7), 997–1042. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.lingua.2004.01.013
Stromswold, K., Caplan, D., Alpert, N., & Rauch, S. (1996). Localization of syntactic comprehension by positron emission tomography. Brain and Language, 52(3), 452–73. http://doi.org/10.1006/brln.1996.0024
Su, Y. C., & Law, S. P. (1993). A study of the sySu, Y. C., & Law, S. P. (1993). A study of the syntactic comprehension of a Chinese agrammatic patient. In International Conference on Chinese Linguistics (Vol. 2).ntactic comprehension of a Chinese agrammatic patient. In International Conference on Chinese Linguistics (Vol. 2). Paris.
Su, Y., Lee, S., & Chung, Y. (2007). Asyntactic thematic role assignment by Mandarin aphasics: a test of the Trace-Deletion Hypothesis and the Double Dependency Hypothesis. Brain and Language, 101(1), 1–18. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2006.12.001
Sung, Y. T., Cha, J. H., Tu, J. Y., Wu, M. Da, & Lin, W. C. (2015). Investigating the Processing of Relative Clauses in Mandarin Chinese: Evidence from Eye-Movement Data. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 45(5), 1089–1113. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10936-015-9394-y
Sung, Y. T., Tu, J. Y., Cha, J. H., & Wu, M. Da. (2016). Processing preference toward object-extracted relative clauses in mandarin chinese by l1 and l2 speakers: An eye-tracking study. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(4), 1–14. http://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00004
Tai, J. H.-Y. (1973). Chinese as an SOV Language. In Papers from the Ninth Regional Meeting of Chicago Linguistic Society (pp. 659–671).
Tai, J. H.-Y. (2013). On Modality Effects and Relative Uniformity of Sign Languages. In P. Gang & S. Feng (Eds.), Eastward Flows the Great River: Festschrift in Honor of Professor William S-Y. Wang on his 80th Birthday (pp. 283–300). City University of Hong Kong Press.
Tai, J. H.-Y., & Du, P. (2016). “Nage” Before vs. After Relative Clauses in Chinese: A Processing View. In A. C. Chi-on, K. Bit-chee, & B. K. Tsou (Eds.), Commemorative Essays for Professor Yuen Ren Chao: Father of Modern Chinese Linguistics (pp. 275–292). Taipei: Crane Publishing.
Tan, L. H., Spinks, J. a, Gao, J.-H., Liu, H.-L., Perfetti, C. a, Xiong, J., … Fox, P. T. (2000). Brain activation in the processing of Chinese characters and words: A functional MRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 10(1), 16–27. http://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1097-0193(200005)10:1<16::AID-HBM30>3.0.CO;2-M
Traxler, M. J., Morris, R. K., & Seely, R. E. (2002). Processing Subject and Object Relative Clauses: Evidence from Eye Movements. Journal of Memory and Language, 47(1), 69–90. http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.2001.2836
Traxler, M. J., Williams, R. S., Blozis, S. a., & Morris, R. K. (2005). Working memory, animacy, and verb class in the processing of relative clauses☆. Journal of Memory and Language, 53(2), 204–224. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2005.02.010
Trueswell, J. C., Tanenhaus, M. K., & Garnsey, S. M. (1994). Semantic influences on parsing: Use of thematic role information in syntactic ambiguity resolution. Journal of Memory and Language. http://doi.org/10.1006/jmla.1994.1014
Trueswell, J. C., Tanenhaus, M. K., & Kello, C. (1993). Verb-specific constraints in sentence processing: separating effects of lexical preference from garden-paths. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19(3), 528–553. http://doi.org/10.1037/0278-7393.19.3.528
Tsai, P. S., Tzeng, O. J. L., Hung, D. L., & Wu, D. H. (2013). Using magnetoencephalography to investigate processing of negative polarity items in Mandarin Chinese. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 26(2), 258–270. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2012.09.002
Turner, M. L., & Engle, R. W. (1989). Is working memory capacity task dependent? Journal of Memory and Language, 28(2), 127–154. http://doi.org/10.1016/0749-596X(89)90040-5
Tyler, L. K., & Marslen-Wilson, W. D. (1977). The on-line effects of semantic context on syntactic processing. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 16(6), 683–692. http://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5371(77)80027-3
Tyler, L. K., Stamatakis, E. A., Post, B., Randall, B., & Marslen-Wilson, W. (2005). Temporal and frontal systems in speech comprehension: An fMRI study of past tense processing. Neuropsychologia, 43(13), 1963–1974. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2005.03.008
Unsworth, N., Heitz, R. P., Schrock, J. C., & Engle, R. W. (2005). An automated version of the operation span task. Behavior Research Methods, 37(3), 498–505. http://doi.org/10.3758/BF03192720
Van Der Lely, H. K. J. (2005). Domain-specific cognitive systems: Insight from Grammatical-SLI. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9(2), 53–59. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2004.12.002
Van Dyke, J. A., & McElree, B. (2006). Retrieval interference in sentence comprehension. Journal of Memory and Language, 55(2), 157–166. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jml.2006.03.007
Vandenberghe, R., Nobre, A. C., & Price, C. J. (2002). The Response of Left Temporal Cortex to Sentences. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14(4), 550–560. http://doi.org/10.1162/08989290260045800
Vasishth, S., Chen, Z., Li, Q., & Guo, G. (2013). Processing Chinese Relative Clauses: Evidence for the Subject-Relative Advantage. PLoS ONE, 8(10), e77006. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0077006
Vigneau, M., Beaucousin, V., Hervé, P. Y., Duffau, H., Crivello, F., Houdé, O., … Tzourio-Mazoyer, N. (2006). Meta-analyzing left hemisphere language areas: phonology, semantics, and sentence processing. NeuroImage, 30(4), 1414–32. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2005.11.002
Wang, S., Zhu, Z., Zhang, J. X., Wang, Z., Xiao, Z., Xiang, H., & Chen, H.-C. (2008). Broca’s area plays a role in syntactic processing during Chinese reading comprehension. Neuropsychologia, 46(5), 1371–8. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2007.12.020
Waters, G., & Caplan, D. (2005). The relationship between age, processing speed, working memory capacity, and language comprehension. Memory, 13, 403–413. http://doi.org/Doi 10.1080/09658210344000459
Waters, G. S., & Caplan, D. (1996). The capacity theory of sentence comprehension: Critique of Just and Carpenter (1992). Psychological Review, 103(4), 761–772. http://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.103.4.761
Wells, J. B., Christiansen, M. H., Race, D. S., Acheson, D. J., & MacDonald, M. C. (2009). Experience and sentence processing: Statistical learning and relative clause comprehension. Cognitive Psychology, 58(2), 250–271. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cogpsych.2008.08.002
Wu, F. (2011). Frequency issues of classifier configurations for processing Mandarin object-extracted relative clauses: A corpus study. Corpus Linguistics and Linguistic Theory, 7(2), 203–227. http://doi.org/10.1515/cllt.2011.010
Wu, F., Kaiser, E., & Andersen, E. (2010). Subject Preference, Head Animacy and Lexical Cues: A Corpus Study of Relative Clauses in Chinese. In H. Yamashita, Y. Hirose, & J. L. Packard (Eds.), Processing and producing head-final structures (Vol. 38, pp. 173–193). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. http://doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9213-7_9
Wu, F., Kaiser, E., & Andersen, E. (2012). Animacy effects in Chinese relative clause processing. Language and Cognitive Processes, 27(10), 1489–1524. http://doi.org/10.1080/01690965.2011.614423
Xu, J., Kemeny, S., Park, G., Frattali, C., & Braun, A. (2005). Language in context: emergent features of word, sentence, and narrative comprehension. NeuroImage, 25(3), 1002–15. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.12.013
Yamada, Y., & Neville, H. J. (2007). An ERP study of syntactic processing in English and nonsense sentences. Brain Research, 1130(1), 167–180. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2006.10.052
Yang, C. L., & Perfetti, C. A. (2006). Contextual Constraints on the Comprehension of Relative Clause Sentences in Chinese : ERPs Evidence. The Special Issue of Brain and Language in Language and Linguistics, 7(3), 697–730.
Yang, C. L., Perfetti, C. a., & Liu, Y. (2010). Sentence integration processes: An ERP study of Chinese sentence comprehension with relative clauses. Brain and Language, 112(2), 85–100. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2009.10.005
Yang, J., Tan, L. H., & Li, P. (2011). Lexical representation of nouns and verbs in the late bilingual brain. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 24(6), 674–682. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroling.2011.07.002
Ye, Z., Luo, Y., Friederici, A. D., & Zhou, X. (2006). Semantic and syntactic processing in Chinese sentence comprehension: evidence from event-related potentials. Brain Research, 1071(1), 186–96. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2005.11.085
Yu, J., & Zhang, Y. (2008). When Chinese semantics meets failed syntax. Neuroreport, 19(7), 745–9. http://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282fda21d
Zhang, J. X., Zhuang, J., Ma, L., Yu, W., Peng, D., Ding, G., … Weng, X. (2004). Semantic processing of Chinese in left inferior prefrontal cortex studied with reversible words. NeuroImage, 23(3), 975–982. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2004.07.008
Zhang, Y., Li, P., Piao, Q., Liu, Y., Huang, Y., & Shu, H. (2013). Syntax does not necessarily precede semantics in sentence processing: ERP evidence from Chinese. Brain and Language, 126(1), 8–19. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.bandl.2013.04.001
Zhang, Y., & Zhang, J. (2008). Brain responses to agreement violations of Chinese grammatical aspect. NeuroReport, 19(10), 1039–1043. http://doi.org/10.1097/WNR.0b013e328302f14f
Zhou, X., Jiang, X., Ye, Z., Zhang, Y., Lou, K., & Zhan, W. (2010). Semantic integration processes at different levels of syntactic hierarchy during sentence comprehension: an ERP study. Neuropsychologia, 48(6), 1551–62. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2010.02.001
Zhu, Z., Hagoort, P., Zhang, J. X., Feng, G., Chen, H.-C., Bastiaansen, M., & Wang, S. (2012). The anterior left inferior frontal gyrus contributes to semantic unification. NeuroImage, 60(4), 2230–7. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2012.02.036
Zhu, Z., Zhang, J. X., Wang, S., Xiao, Z., Huang, J., & Chen, H.-C. (2009). Involvement of left inferior frontal gyrus in sentence-level semantic integration. NeuroImage, 47(2), 756–63. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.04.086
指導教授 吳嫻(Denise H. Wu) 審核日期 2018-6-25
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明