博碩士論文 101295001 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:57 、訪客IP:34.236.134.129
姓名 謝宜儒(I-Ju Hsieh)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱 道德決策判斷:以道德基礎理論探討道德基本原則如何形塑個體的政治意識形態、社會議題之態度與司法判決
(Moral decision making: An examination of moral foundations theory in the formation of political ideology, attitudes toward social issues, and judicial judgments)
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摘要(中) 道德是個體用來判斷好壞與對錯的基礎。它不僅會影響在假設情境中的判斷與抉擇,也會影響個體的政治意識形態以及對於各種備受爭議之議題的態度,更甚者,當個體的態度轉變成為實際的懲罰行為,道德依然是一個決定性的因素。研究一探討,面臨犧牲少數人拯救多數人的難題時,不同的決策方式和肢體接觸對於個體的道德決策判斷是否產生影響。共345名參與者完成道德兩難困境。在道德判斷中,個體以非自我中心觀點的方式對事件進行評價時,有無肢體接觸對參與者來說並不影響最後判斷的結果。在道德抉擇中,個體以自我中心的觀點進行評估,行動中是否包含肢體接觸就是個重要的關鍵。研究二探討,在台灣社會中道德觀對於政治意識形態和社會議題的態度。共835位參與者完成道德基本原則問卷、意識形態一致性量表與對於社會議題的立場。自由派的參與者較注重關懷和公平,而保守派的參與者則注重聖潔;注重權威與聖潔的參與者也分別支持實施死刑與反對安樂死。研究三探討個體道德觀對於其司法判斷結果的影響,102位參與者完成道德基本原則問卷以及司法判斷題目。當針對假設的犯罪行為進行量刑,一般民眾比專業法律人士更容易受到年齡與教育程度的影響,也比較容易在參照標準浮動的時候改變量刑,專業法律人士則否。綜合以上,道德觀影響範圍深遠,在個體的態度和行為上也有不同的影響,並具有一定程度上的文化普同性。最後,透過專業訓練,專業法律人士進行司法審判的量刑標準時,可能得以排除與案件無關的干擾因素,進而不受影響。
摘要(英) Morality is often described as a compass, that provides directions for good and bad, right and wrong, which may include both universal and subjective aspects. People rely on morality to evaluate situations, make judgments or decisions that lead to behaviors. Study 1 examined the relationship between physical contact and decision type in predicting “harm to save” behavior. In the choice condition only, participants reported significantly less utilitarian responses to the dilemmas that required having physical contact with the person to be harmed than dilemmas that did not require physical contact. This difference was not found in the judgment condition. Study 2 examined the relationships among moral foundations, political ideology, and controversial social issues in an Asian culture. Results indicated that binding foundations (i.e. Ingroup, Authority, and Purity) were associated with conservative tendencies, and individualizing foundations (i.e. Harm and Fairness) were associated with liberal tendencies. Also, participants who scored higher on Authority showed higher approval of death penalty, and those scored higher on Purity showed lower approval of euthanasia. Study 3 examined the associations among moral foundations, judicial judgments, and judgment bias. Results showed that age and education level predicted judgment in the community group only was. This group also registered significant changes to their decisions when the reference point changed, while the legal professional group did not register such change Results from these studies showed the wide range of effects that morality, from conceptual to practical aspects, on decision making, stands on controversial issues, as well as behaviors.
關鍵字(中) ★ 道德判斷
★ 道德抉擇
★ 道德基礎理論
★ 司法判斷
★ 政治意識形態
關鍵字(英) ★ moral judgment
★ moral choice
★ moral foundations theory
★ juducial judgment
★ political ideology
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 ii
Abstract iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
第一節 研究背景 1
第二節 研究動機與目的 2
第三節 章節安排 3
第二章 文獻探討 4
第一節 道德決策判斷中的心智歷程 4
壹、道德推理形成道德決策判斷 4
貳、道德直覺先於道德推理 7
參、認知與情感歷程相互競爭 10
第二節 道德決策判斷中的情緒喚起 14
壹、義務論與效益論 14
貳、道德決策判斷中的心理距離 17
參、判斷與抉擇 18
第三節 道德決策判斷中的普世性與相對性 20
壹、跨文化的證據 20
貳、共通的道德原則模組 25
參、文化內群體的差異 29
第四節 道德基本原則與司法判斷 32
壹、法庭中的認知偏誤 32
貳、偏誤的外在與內在因素 34
第五節 研究目的與假設 38
壹、肢體接觸與決策方式對於道德判斷的交互作用影響 38
參、道德基本原則對於司法判斷的影響 40
第三章 研究一 41
第一節 研究樣本 41
第二節 研究工具 41
第三節 施測程序 42
第四節 分析方法 42
第五節 分析結果與討論 43
壹、描述性統計 43
貳、控制變項分析 43
參、肢體接觸與決策方式主要效果分析 43
肆、交互作用結果分析 44
伍、族群差異 45
陸、討論與限制 46
(一)決策方式對於道德決策判斷的影響 46
(二)肢體接觸對於道德決策判斷的影響 47
(三)限制 47
柒、小結 49
第四章 研究二 50
第一節 研究樣本 50
第二節 研究工具 50
壹、道德基本原則 50
貳、政治意識形態 51
參、社會議題 51
第三節 施測程序 52
第四節 分析方法 52
第五節 分析結果與討論 52
壹、描述性統計與相關性分析 52
貳、道德基本原則與政治意識形態關聯性 54
參、道德基本原則與社會議題關聯性 57
肆、討論與限制 57
(一)道德基本原則與政治意識形態 58
(二)道德基本原則與社會議題 60
伍、小結 61
第五章 研究三 62
第一節 研究樣本 62
第二節 研究工具 62
壹、道德基本原則 62
貳、司法判斷作業 63
參、同理心 63
肆、政治意識形態 64
第三節 施測程序 64
第四節 分析方法 64
第五節 分析結果與討論 65
壹、描述性統計 65
貳、道德基本原則、司法判斷與同理心之族群比較 68
(一)道德基本原則 68
(二)同理心 69
(三)司法判斷 69
(四)政治意識形態 70
參、以道德基本原則預測司法判斷作業 70
(一)學生組 70
(二)社區民眾組 71
(三)專業法律人士組 71
肆、個體化與合併道德基本原則預測司法判斷作業 75
(一)學生組 75
(二)社區民眾組 75
(三)專業法律人士組 76
伍、區組間比較 80
陸、區分專業法律與非專業法律人士 81
(一)道德基本原則問卷 81
(二)道德基本原則短句 82
(三)區組間差異 83
柒、討論與限制 84
(一)組別在道德基本原則、同理心與司法判斷差異 84
(二)以道德基本原則預測司法判斷作業 87
(三)個體化與合併道德基本原則預測司法判斷作業 92
(五)研究限制 94
第六章 綜合討論 97
參考文獻 100
附錄 124
附錄一 道德兩難困境 124
附錄二 道德基本原則問卷 127
附錄三 意識形態一致性量表 129
附錄四 社會議題 130
附錄五 道德基本原則短句 131
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指導教授 段正仁 審核日期 2020-1-20
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