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姓名 徐胤埕(Yin-cheng Hsu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 貨櫃船舶排艙問題之研究─限制規劃法之應用
(The study of container ship stowage plan – application of constraint programming method)
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摘要(中) 貨櫃船舶之貨櫃排艙問題為定期航商重要的管理課題之一,於滿足船舶穩度安全限制下,最小化壓櫃情形,以降低貨櫃船舶滯港時間,進而使航商之碼頭作業成本下降。近年來,受貨櫃船舶大型化之影響,人工貨櫃排艙作業日漸複雜,故航商需要一套兼具安全與效率之輔助決策排艙系統,貨櫃排艙研究也因此應運而生。
以往貨櫃排艙問題研究多使用數學規劃方法配合啟發式演算法或巨集式啟發演算法,但其無法考量艙內之貨櫃擺放規則限制、貨櫃堆疊高度、重量等細部貨艙內限制式,故Delgado et al. (2012) 將貨櫃排艙問題分為兩階段子問題,分別為主積載規劃問題 (master planning)及艙位規劃問題(slot planning),主積載規劃問題使用數學規劃方法求解全船之貨艙貨櫃分配數量,於艙位規劃階段使用限制規劃法處理貨艙內細部限制式,但未探討貨艙內船舶橫向穩度問題以及甲版以上艙位規劃問題。
本研究延續其第二階段之艙位規劃問題,並利用限制規劃法能快速搜尋可行解之特性,建構及求解貨艙內之艙位規劃問題,包含貨櫃堆疊高度及重量、貨艙結構、20呎貨櫃無法堆疊於40呎貨櫃上方等限制,同時增加考量貨艙內平衡問題及甲板以上艙位規劃問題,並以航商A所提供之實際船舶資料進行測試,共9個貨艙範例,所有範例均能在1秒內尋找到可行解,且與實務人工排艙比較後,發現本研究所得到之可行解甚佳。
摘要(英) The container stowage problem is one of the important problem in liner shipping company, in order to decrease the port operating costs , this problem has to satisfy the ship’s stability and also has to minimize the number of over-stowage. Recently, due to the enlargement of containership, the manual operation of stowage plan is getting harder than before, so the liner shipping company is desperate for a container stowage decision making system that can reach both safety and efficiency.
It is our knowledge that the most research in the past are using mathematical programming method to solve the container stowage problem, but they can not considering the detail constraint in a bay, such as the limit of stack height and weight, 20’ containers cannot be stacked on top of 40’ containers and ship structure limit. Delgado et al. (2012) separated the container stowage problem into two phases, the master planning phase and the slot planning phase respectively, they use mathematical programming method to solve the master bay planning problem by distributing containers into bays without specific slot information, then use the constraint programming method to solve the slot planning problem, however, they didn’t mentioned the stability problem in a bay.
Our research is based on slot planning phase, by using the constraint programming method to build and solved the slot planning problem, including the limit of stack height and weight, 20’ containers cannot be stacked on top of 40’ containers and ship structure limit, in addition to considering the balance in a bay and solved the bay above deck. Without loss of generality, our test instances are all provided by the liner shipping company A, and able to solve all of the instances in less than 1 second, after compared with the manual stowage plan, we found that our feasible solution is quite good.
關鍵字(中) ★ 貨櫃排艙問題
★ 艙位規劃問題
★ 限制規劃
關鍵字(英) ★ Container stowage problem
★ Slot planning
★ Constraint programming
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
目錄 iii
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究背景與動機 1
1.2 研究目的與範圍 2
1.3 研究方法與流程 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 貨櫃排艙問題 5
2.1.1 蒙地卡羅模擬 8
2.1.2 0-1整數規劃模型 9
2.1.3 巨集式啟發解法 12
2.1.4 啟發式規則 18
2.1.5 限制規劃法 18
2.2 實務排艙作業 23
2.3 小結 24
第三章 方法建構 25
3.1 貨櫃排艙問題描述 25
3.1.1 名詞描述 25
3.1.2 研究假設 30
3.1.3 參數設定 30
3.1.4 限制式說明 31
3.2 全域限制式建構 34
3.3 模式搜尋 36
3.4 艙位規劃問題求解架構 36
3.5 Gecode軟體 41
第四章 範例測試與分析 44
4.1 範例測試資料與實驗環境說明 44
4.1.1 航線之港口資料 45
4.1.2 船舶資料 46
4.1.3 貨櫃資料 48
4.1.4 實驗環境說明 48
4.2 範例測試 48
4.2.1 簡例測試與結果分析 49
4.2.2 全船範例測試 53
4.3 小結 58
第五章 結論與建議 59
5.1 結論 59
5.2 建議 60
參考文獻 61
附錄一 限制規劃法介紹 64
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指導教授 陳惠國(Huey-kuo Chen) 審核日期 2014-7-22
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