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姓名 生頼直樹(Naoki ORAI)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱
(A Study on Seismic Resistance Evaluation Methods for Embankments with Consideration of Rainfall Effect)
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摘要(中) 根據最近的研究降雨會影響土堤的耐震能力,但是至今仍沒有一個
有效的考慮降雨影響的耐震評估方法。此外,剪力模數受到降雨的
影響為何也仍不清楚。為了避免降雨與地震對土堤造成的災害,前
述的兩個問題必須加以處理的。
本研究透過與動態有限元素法的分析結果的比對,檢視了一個基於
能以簡單的模式和少數的參數進行土堤穩定分析的 Newmark 方法而
發展出來的可以考慮降雨影響的方法。另一方面,也利用動態有限
元素法探討了剪力模數的改變對土堤耐震能力的影響。降雨的影響
係以吸力(suction)的改變來表示,而剪力模數因為降雨的改變則是
使用了可以考慮吸力影響的剪力模數模式。
與動態有限元素法的分析結果比較後發現,使用 Newmark 法考慮降
雨的影響,當輸入的地震之最大加速度較小時,會低估土堤的殘餘
位移;但當輸入的地震之最大加速度超過某個數值時,則會高估土
堤之殘餘位移。根據此一結果,本研究針對 Newmark 法提出了一個
修正係數與最大加速度的雙線性關係式。此外,本研究也發現剪力
模數的改變對於土堤的受震殘餘位移的影響很小,因此在土堤的耐
震評估中可以忽略其變化的影響。
摘要(英) According to the recent studies, it was shown that the rainfall would reduce the seismic
resistance of embankment. However, there is no general seismic resistance evaluation method
which can consider the effect of rainfall yet. In addition, the effect of shear modulus variation
due to rainfall is not clarified yet. In order to prevent the complex disaster of rainfall and
earthquake, these two problems should be addressed.
In this study, a method to consider the effect of rainfall based on Newmark method
was examined, which can conduct the analysis with simple model and a few parameters. The
applicability of the method was also examined comparing with the result of dynamic FEM
analyses. In addition, the effect of the change of shear modulus on the seismic resistance of
embankment was also examined by using dynamic FEM analyses. The effect of rainfall was
considered as a change of suction. The change of suction was taken into account in the shear
modulus model.
By comparing with the results of FEM analyses, it was found that for Newmark
method with the consideration of rainfall, the residual displacement is underestimated the
when the maximum input acceleration is small and overestimated when the maximum input
acceleration exceeds certain value. Thus, the correction coefficients for the results of
Newmark method are proposed based on the comparison of analysis results from Newmark
method and FEM method and the relationship between maximum input acceleration and
correction coefficient is bilinear. It is also found that the effect of shear modulus variation on
seismic displacement is small enough to be neglected for the seismic residual displacement
evaluation.
關鍵字(中) ★ 降雨
★ 土堤
★ 耐震
★ Newmark 法
★ 有限元素法
關鍵字(英) ★ Rainfall
★ embankment
★ seismic resistance
★ Newmark method
★ finite element method
論文目次 摘要 …………………………………………………………… i
Abstract ……………………………………………………………… ii
Acknowledgement …………………………………………………………… iii
Contents …………………………………………………………… v
List of Figures …………………………………………………………… viii
List of Tables …………………………………………………………… x
Format of Notation
Illustration ………………………………………………………………
xi
1. Introduction………………………………………………… 1
1-1 Background………………………………………………… 1
1-2 Aim of this study…………………………………………… 1
2. Previous studies…………………………………………….. 2
2-1 Outline……………………………………………………… 2
2-2 Current situation regarding seismic resistance evaluation…. 2
2-3 Review of seismic resistance evaluation methods…………. 3
2-3-1 Seismic resistance evaluation based on Newmark method… 3
2-3-1-1 Examination on the applicability of Newmark method……. 4
2-3-1-2 Comparison of Newmark method with FE method………... 5
2-3-1-3 Summary of this section……………………………………. 5
2-3-2 Seismic resistance evaluation based on finite element
method……………………………………………………… 6
2-3-2-1 Examination on the applicability of FLIP for high
embankment………………………………………………... 6
2-3-2-2 Examination on the applicability of FLIP by centrifuge tests 6
2-3-2-3 Summary of this section……………………………………. 7
2-4 The effect of rainfall on the seismic resistance of
embankments………………………………………………. 7
2-4-1 Effect of rainfall on critical acceleration…………………… 7
2-4-2 Effect of rainfall on residual displacement………………… 8
2-4-3 Effect of rainfall on shear wave velocity…………………... 8
2-5 Previous study to consider the change of soil parameter due
to rainfall…………………………………………………… 9
2-6 Summary…………………………………………………… 10
3. Examination of seismic resistance evaluation method with
the consideration of rainfall………………………………… 12
3-1 Outline……………………………………………………… 12
3-2 Preliminary analysis………………………………………... 12
3-3 A method to consider the effect of rainfall in Newmark
method……………………………………………………… 13
3-3-1 The calculation of weight…………………………………... 13
3-3-2 The calculation of cohesion………………………………… 143-4 Simulation analysis of model experiment………………….. 14
3-4-1 Analysis model…………………………………………….. 14
3-4-2 Soil parameters……………………………………………... 14
3-4-3 Input motions……………………………………………….. 15
3-5 Result of analysis…………………………………………... 15
3-5-1 Result of slope stability analysis…………………………… 15
3-5-2 Result of seismic response analysis………………………... 15
3-6 The applicability of Newmark method…………………….. 15
3-7 Discussion………………………………………………….. 16
3-8 Summary…………………………………………………… 17
4. The comparison of Newmark method to FE method……. 18
4-1 Outline……………………………………………………… 18
4-2 Analysis cases……………………………………………… 18
4-3 Target embankment………………………………………… 19
4-4 Analysis conditions………………………………………… 19
4-4-1 Analysis conditions for FE method………………………… 19
4-4-1-1 Analysis model……………………………………………... 19
4-4-1-2 Boundary conditions……………………………………….. 19
4-4-1-3 Input parameters……………………………………………. 20
4-4-1-4 Input motions………………………………………………. 20
4-4-2 Analysis conditions for Newmark method…………………. 20
4-4-2-1 Analysis model……………………………………………... 20
4-4-2-2 Input parameters……………………………………………. 21
4-4-2-3 The location of slip surface………………………………… 21
4-4-2-4 Input motions……………………………………………….. 21
4-5 The results of analysis……………………………………… 22
4-5-1
The relationship between the ratio of displacement and
maximum input acceleration……………………………….. 23
4-5-2
The relationship between ratio of displacement and degree
of saturation………………………………………………… 23
4-5-3
The relationship between ratio of displacement and height
of embankment……………………………………………... 23
4-6 The calculation of the correction coefficient……………….. 23
4-6-1 The concept of correction coefficient………………………. 23
4-6-2 The calculation procedure of correction coefficient……….. 24
4-6-3 The result of calculation on correction coefficient…………. 24
4-6-4 Multi linear regression analysis on Ay and α………………. 25
4-6-4-1 General……………………………………………………... 26
4-6-4-2 The results of analysis……………………………………… 26
4-7 Summary…………………………………………………… 26
5. The examination of the effect of shear modulus variation
due to rainfall on the displacement of embankments………. 27
5-1 Outline……………………………………………………… 27
5-2 Shear modulus model with the effect of rainfall…………… 27
5-2-1 General description for shear modulus model……………… 27
5-2-2 Effect of rainfall on shear modulus………………………... 28
5-3 Single element analysis…………………………………… 29
5-3-1 Mesh and boundary conditions……………………... 29
5-3-2 Soil parameters……………………………………………... 29
5-3-3 Water retention curve………………………………………. 30
5-3-4 The results of analysis……………………………………… 30
5-4 Seismic analysis on embankment………………………….. 31
5-4-1 Mesh……...………………………………………………… 31
5-4-2 Boundary conditions……………………………………….. 31
5-4-3 Input motions……………………………………………….. 31
5-4-4 The results of analysis……………………………………… 31
5-4-4-1 The results of hysteresis loop………………………………. 31
5-4-4-2 The result of residual displacement………………………… 32
5-4-4-3 The result of response acceleration………………………… 32
5-5 Summary…………………………………………………… 33
6. Conclusions………………………………………………… 34
References ……………………………………………………………… 35
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指導教授 陳慧慈、一井康二
(Huei-Tsyr Chen、Koji ICHII)
審核日期 2014-4-14
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