博碩士論文 101323062 詳細資訊




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姓名 許世佳(Shih-Chia Hsu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 機械工程學系
論文名稱 用兩相流模式模擬球閥空蝕和性能之研究
(The Numerical Study of Ball Valve Cavitation and Performances Using Two Phases Flow Model)
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摘要(中) 球閥應用相當廣泛,除了當做流體的開關,還可調節流體的流量和壓力。它未來的發展趨勢,能夠用在大型化,高溫和高壓,能承受外界較惡劣的環境,管壁能耐腐蝕,又能用在長輸管線。其中高溫和高壓會衍生出空蝕問題。空蝕會把管壁材料受損,而影響整個球閥的性能。空蝕嚴重時會有哽塞流現象,使壓力差增加時,流量不會再增加,會失去閥的流量調節性。
本文用ANSYS FLUENT套裝軟體來進行數值模擬,研究重點是空蝕的預測。空蝕現象會有相變化,模擬空蝕需用兩相流模型。結果可以得氣態體積比例圖,來呈現球閥所含的蒸氣體積分量,這和空蝕現象描述相近,它是預測空蝕較準確的方式。本研究用不同壓力差和球閥轉角,來討論空蝕對不同壓力差和球閥轉角的影響。再用模擬結果算出球閥性能,討論性能對不同壓力差和球閥轉角的影響,還有對空蝕的相關性,並和氣態體積比例圖的結果比較,來驗證空蝕預測的準確性。
模擬結果得知,預測空蝕最準的方式是氣態體積比例圖,其次是空蝕係數和流動係數,最不準的為壓力圖。用壓力圖判斷空蝕比氣態體積比例圖會高估許多,所以壓力低於蒸汽壓空蝕不一定會發生。其空蝕的影響因素,球閥轉角的影響性會比壓力差的影響大很多,代表流場的幾何形狀是空蝕影響的主要因素。損失係數和流動係數主要由球閥轉角來改變,而對壓力差影響較小,而空蝕係數的改變,球閥轉角和壓力差都有影響。球閥適合操作的轉角和壓力分別為30度以內, 2 bar以下,若球閥完全沒有空蝕發生,轉角要調到20度以內。
摘要(英) Ball valve has more applications, in addition to the switch as a fluid, it can regulate fluid flow and pressure. These are trend of development in the future, can be used in large-scale, high temperature and high pressure, can withstand harsh environments compared to outside, The wall can resistant corrosive, and can be used in long-distance pipeline. High temperature and pressure will rise to cavitation problems. Cavitation will damage the wall material, which will affect the performance of the whole ball valve. Severe cavitation will occur choking flow, so that the pressure difference increases, the flow rate does not increase, it will lose the flow adjustability .
In this thesis, uses ANSYS FLUENT software package for numerical simulation research which focused on cavitation prediction. Cavitation will change phases, so it required two-phase flow simulation model. The results can be obtained volume fraction. It can show the fluid which contains vapor volume fraction in the ball valve. It is similar to describe cavitation phenomenon, and is more accurate to predict cavitation method. In this study, using differential pressure and the ball with different angle, discuss cavitation the effects of pressure difference and ball valve angle. Simulation results calculate ball valve performances, discuss performances the effect of pressure difference and ball valve angle, as well as the relevance of cavitation. These results compare to volume fraction to verify the accuracy of cavitation prediction.
From simulation results, the most accurate way for cavitation prediction is volume fraction, secondly is cavitation index and flow coefficient, the most inaccuracy is pressure contour. Using pressure contour would overestimate a lot with volume fraction, so the pressure is lower than the vapor pressure of cavitation may not occur. Cavitation effects on factors, ball valve angle will be much effective than the pressure difference, the geometry of the flow field is a major factor in cavitation effects. Loss coefficient and flow coefficient is mainly to change ball valve angle, but has little effect on the pressure difference. For change cavitation index, ball valve angle and pressure difference will be affected. ball valve is operated suitable angle and pressure are within 30 degrees, 2 bar or less, if the ball valve is no cavitation occurs within 20 degrees angle to be adjusted.
關鍵字(中) ★ 空蝕
★ 球閥
★ 兩相流
★ 氣態體積比例圖
關鍵字(英) ★ cavitation
★ ball valve
★ two-phase flow
★ volume fraction
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 IV
目錄 V
符號說明 VIII
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 前言...................................1
1-2 研究動機................................2
1-3 研究方向................................3
1-4 文獻回顧................................3
第二章 理論分析 6
2-1 空蝕現象................................6
2-2 空蝕微氣泡模型..........................10
2-3 球閥性能相關參數.........................13
2-4 球閥實驗裝置............................16
2-5 標準球閥模型............................17
2-6 閥的壓力曲線............................17
第三章 數值模擬方法 19
3-1 簡介...................................19
3-2 兩相流模型..............................20
3-3 統御方程式..............................21
3-3-1基本方程...........................21
3-3-2 k-ε紊流模型.......................22
3-3-3空蝕模型...........................24
第四章 模擬過程 26
4-1 模擬簡介................................26
4-2 模擬參數設定............................26
4-3 模型與網格..............................27
4-4 模擬步驟................................28
4-5 模擬後處理..............................29
第五章 模擬結果與討論 30
5-1 網格密度測試............................30
5-2 壓力輪廓圖..............................32
5-3 速度輪廓圖..............................33
5-4 氣態體積比例輪廓圖.......................34
5-5 球閥性能之討論..........................36
5-5-1 損失係數的討論....................36
5-5-2 流動係數的討論....................37
5-5-3 空蝕係數的討論....................39
5-6綜合討論................................40
5-6-1 閥轉角的影響......................40
5-6-2 壓力差的影響......................40
5-6-3 總結.............................41
第六章 結論與未來研究方向 42
6-1 結論...............................42
6-2 未來研究方向........................43
參考文獻 44
附錄 47
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指導教授 洪勵吾(Lih-Wu Hourng) 審核日期 2014-7-14
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