博碩士論文 101326002 詳細資訊




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姓名 馬宜君(Yi-jun Ma)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 雙重功能層柱改質黏土之製備與吸持特性研究
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摘要(中) 天然土壤受限於成分的特性及吸持機制,無法對有機及無機污染物兼具高親和力,因此過去許多學者曾以有機化合物改質土壤,欲增加改質土壤對有機污染物之吸持能力。但受限於土壤表面的親水性特性及狹窄的層隙間距,大分子有機聚合物難以嵌入層隙間,因此本研究目的有三個方向:○1改質土壤的表面特性,使其適合嵌入大分子有機聚合物○2探討其增加土壤有機成分及層隙間距的影響因子○3探討改質土壤吸持汙染物的效果。本研究選用不含有機質之鈉蒙特石(Na-MMT)作為吸附基質,另選取三種含不同官能基有機胺作為土壤有機質之來源,其目的在於增加土壤有機質含量及增加層間距離,且由其特殊結構與官能基使土壤可同時吸附重金屬與有機污染物,並利後續大分子高分子單體嵌入層隙間。實驗結果發現,比表面積大小依序為1,12-Diaminododecane(DDC)> 12-Aminododecanoic acid(ADA)> Octadecylamine(ODC),改質劑成功嵌入土壤中並增加層隙間距,碳鏈越長的改質劑增加層隙間距(basal spacing)的能力越顯著,以ODC的層隙間距最大,反應時間長短及溫度變化不會影響ODC層隙間距的大小,而改質ODC時加入改質劑的量對層隙間距的影響亦有限。嵌入時幫助反應的鹽酸可使ODC的層隙間距先增後減,但影響DDC層隙間距的能力並不顯著。由於官能基的特性及其和土壤鍵結的方式,改質土壤的金屬最大吸附量(mg/g)依序為DDC>ODC>ADA。改質土壤有機碳含量越高則其分佈常數Kd越大,Kom和水溶解度Sw成反比,本研究與文獻值作比較後發現實驗結果之 log Koc 與 log Kom 值皆高於文獻值,顯示本研究所用之有機改質劑為良好之分佈介質 。
摘要(英) Due to the composition and the sorption mechanism, natural soil dossesses low-affinity for both organic and inorganic pollutants. Many researchers have tried to modify the soil with organic contents in order to increase the holding capacity of organic pollutants in the modified soil. But due to the limits to the soil surface hydrophilic properties and narrow interlayer spaces, the macromolecular organic polymer is difficult to intercalate in the soil. As a result, the main purpose of this study is three­fold: first, to modify the surface characteristics of the soil so as to make the soil suitable for performing subsequent modification; second, to investigate the factors behind the augmentation of organic matter into layer of the soil; and third, to discuss the sorption effect of the modified soil.
In this study,we use organic amine with different functional modified groups and sodium montmorillonite(Na-MMT) in order to increase the soil organic matter content the basal spacing, and furthermore, to increase the sorption of organic and inorganic pollutants.
The experimental results show that the specific surface area of the modified soil can ranked in the order as follows: 1,12-Diaminododecane(DDC)> 12-Aminododecanoic acid(ADA)> Octadecylamine(ODC). The modifiers successfully intercalate in the soil and increase the basal spacing. Modifiers with longer carbon chain can obviously increase more basal spacing. Compared to the other modified soils, ODC has the maximum basal spacing. Time and temperature almost did not affect the ODC basal spacing. With the addition of HCl, ODC basal spacing decreases after an initial increase, but DDC did not affect the basal spacing. Due to the characteristics of the functional groups and their way to bond with soil, the maximum amount of metal absorption (mg/g) was ranked as follows: DDC>ODC>ADA. If the organic content in the modified soil is higher.The larger distribution constant (Kd) was found. Also, there is an inverse correlation between Kom and the water solubility (Sw). The results of log Koc and log Kom are higher than the literature values, which show that the modified soil in this study is a well-distributed media.
關鍵字(中) ★ 層狀矽酸鹽
★ 嵌入
★ 改質
★ NOCs
★ 分佈介質
關鍵字(英) ★ Layer Silicate
★ Intercalation
★ Modify
★ NOCs
★ Partition Media
論文目次 目次 頁次
目錄 I
圖目錄 V
表目錄 VII
第一章 前 言 1
1-1研究緣起 1
1-2研究目的與內容 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2-1土壤基本組成與性質 3
2-1-1 土壤無機質 3
2-1-2 土壤有機質 5
2-1-3 土壤表面電荷 6
2-2土壤對污染物之吸持作用 6
2-2-1吸附理論(Adsorption) 7
2-2-2土壤陽離子交換容量及其對重金屬之吸附 10
2-2-3 兩相分佈 12
2-2-4 等溫吸附模式 16
2-2-5 等溫吸附曲線 19
2-2-6 遲滯現象 21
2-3層狀矽酸鹽有機化合物之嵌入 24
2-3-1嵌入理論與方法概述 24
2-3-2改質基質之選擇 29
2-3-3層狀矽酸鹽之改質 30
第三章研究內容、設備、材料及方法 32
3-1 研究內容 32
3-2實驗設備 34
3-2-1 真空冷凍乾燥機 34
3-2-2 水平震盪機 34
3-2-3 高速離心機 34
3-2-4 原子吸收光譜儀 34
3-2-5氣相層析儀 34
3-2-6 氮氣吸附孔隙儀 35
3-2-7 電子天平 35
3-2-8 pH 計 35
3-2-9 傅利葉轉換紅外線光譜儀(FTIR) 35
3-2-10 X光繞射分析儀 36
3-3 實驗材料 36
3-3-1 不含有機質土壤 36
3-3-2 有機改質劑 37
3-3-3 非離子性有機污染物 37
3-3-4 重金屬標準品 38
3-3-5 溶劑 38
3-4 實驗方法 39
3-4-1 改質土壤之製備 39
3-4-2 改質土壤X光繞射儀分析實驗 39
3-4-3 改質土壤對氮氣吸附實驗 40
3-4-4 改質土壤傅利葉轉換紅外線光譜儀分析實驗 41
3-4-5 改質土壤對重金屬之吸附實驗 41
3-4-6 改質土壤對NOCs 之吸持實驗 42
第四章 結果與討論 43
4-1 改質土壤物化性質之分析 43
4-1-1 X光繞射分析儀 43
4-1-2 比表面積、平均孔徑與孔隙體積 51
4-1-3 傅利葉轉換紅外線光譜儀 57
4-2 重金屬之吸附實驗 60
4-3 有機污染物之分佈作用 64
4-3-1 不同改質劑對NOCs 吸持之影響 65
4-3-2 不同吸附質之吸持行為 69
4-3-3 改質土壤特性對NOCs 分佈常數之影響 72
第五章 結論與建議 75
5-1 結論 75
5-2 建議 77
參考文獻 78

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指導教授 李俊福 審核日期 2015-1-23
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