博碩士論文 101350603 詳細資訊




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姓名 费瑞娜(Reza Fitria Muhammad Amin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱
(The Policy of PES (Payment for Environmental Services) in Indonesia. An Application Study for the Watershed Area Krueng Peusangan of Bireuen District in Aceh Province, Indonesia)
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摘要(中) 研擬在印尼亞齊省畢魯恩區的克倫布衫甘流域 (Krueng Peusangan watershed) 進行綜合性的流域保護系統以改善水資源品質,本論文探討應用經濟手段「環境服務收費 (Payment for Environmental Services,PES)」制度的可行性,及影響PES制度推行的因素,研究方法主要採用面對面式的訪問及調查流域附近之居民的意見收集與分析。
研究結果顯示,99.4%的接受訪問調查者同意進行克倫布衫甘流域的水資源改善計畫,但這些同意者中僅57.2%有支付PES費用之意願,多達近42.8%者無支付意願。有趣的是,調查訪問結果顯示,薪資收入與教育程度竟然影響PES支付意願不明顯,經採用多項式邏輯迴歸分析顯示:家庭成員人數、流域水質劣化程度,及執行PES制度後的水質改善程度等因素與費用支付意願呈明顯之正相關。抽樣調查居民有意願支付每加侖用水的費用,統計分析結果的平均額度為4,753印尼盾。
本研究以改善河岸沖失及清除河床沉積物的工程方法來提升克倫布衫甘流域的水質,工程費用每年需 IDR 3,328,758,500;為回收該工程費用,當採用使用者付費之PES制度時,即每人每月收取2,086印尼盾,每月可收入總額是24,737,364印尼盾或 每年296,848,368印尼盾。如果只考慮回收工程開發的支出,本項工程投資的回收年為 11 年多。另一方面,採用成本效益法評估結果,進行比較 ”有” 和 ”無” 此改善工程,發現其益本比 (BCR) 為 1.05。從 BCR 的結果顯示本流域採用 PES制度仍然是一項值得的投資與做法。
摘要(英) This research sought to improve the quality of water by means of carrying out the integrated watershed protection system in Krueng Peusangan watershed of Bireuen district in Aceh of Indonesia. For studying the factors that will affect the taxation policy to the community with an economic instrument named Payment for Environmental Services (PES), an investigation of using a face-to-face interview was made to enquire residents of the community, which are living nearby Krueng Peusangan watershed, about their willingness-to-pay for the improvement of water quality in the watershed. This study also used the method of cost benefit ratio to evaluate existing program of PES.
Results showed that 99.4% of respondents agreed to the improvement program of Krueng Peusangan watershed, but only 57.2% of above assentors having WTP for the watershed improvement and the remains, i.e., 42.8% did not have. The results of binary logistic regression indicated that the degree of respondents’ agreement is not statistically significance and not positively related the factors, including the quality of water, the number of family members, purpose of water, degree of watershed degradation, level of education and salary. Interestingly, by using while multinomial logistic regression showed that WTP is significantly and positively related to level of education, number of family member, the degree of watershed degradation, and quality of water. The result of referendum choices showed the mean WTP is IDR (Indonesian Rupiah currency) 4,753 per gallon of used water.
This study estimated the engineering cost to improve water quality of Krueng Peusangan watershed by erosion control of river embankment and removal of sediments from river bed. The results of estimation was that the total engineering investment by a “flat tax” approach, the approximation that that can be charged for the water users is IDR 2, 086 per month/user and total revenue that can be earned a month is IDR 24,737,364, or IDR 296.848,363 per year. If only consider the recovery of capital expenditure, the investment return would take 11 years more. Furthermore, if comparing to cost and benefit with/without this improvement program, it found that the benefit-cost-ratio (BCR) was 1.05. From the BCR result, it indicated that the PES in Krueng Peusangan watershed is still a worthwile investment.
關鍵字(中) ★ 克倫布衫甘流域
★ 付費意願
★ 環境服務收費制度
★ 本益比
關鍵字(英) ★ Krueng Peusangan watershed
★ Willingness To Pay
★ Payment for Environmental Services,
★ Cost Benefit Ratio
論文目次 Abstract i
中文摘要 ii
Acknowledgements iii
Table of Contents iv
List of Tables vii
List of Figures viii
List of Acronyms x

Chapter 1. Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Problem identification 2
1.3 Study Motivation 4
1.4 Objectives 5
1.5 Research Limitations 6
Chapter 2. Literature Review 7
2.1 The Economic Value of Ecosystem Services 7
2.1.1 Economic Instruments 9
2.2 The Importance of Watershed 10
2.3 The concept of Payment for Environmental/Ecosystem Services 13
2.3.1 The PES as a global environmental issue 17
2.4 Ecosystem Services Targetted by PES 19
2.4.1 Watershed Protection 20
2.5 Payment Mechanism 22
2.5.1 Willingness to Pay (WTP) 23
2.5.1.1 WTP’s Regression Analysis 25
2.6 Cost Benefit Analysis 33
2.6.1 Introduction of CBA 33
2.6.2 CBA and Environmental impact Assesment 34
2.7 Success PES story 35
Chapter III. Methodology 38
3.1 Research Objective and Framework 38
3.1.1 Types of data source and research procedures 39
3.1.2 Problem Survey 39
3.1.3 Face - to Face Interview 40
3.1.4 Prepare and Conduct the survey through a questionnaire 41
3.1.5 Conclude the questionnaire 44
3.1.6 Analyze the information 44
3.2 Environmental Policy Approach 50
3.2.1 Improvement Requirement 52
3.2.2 Estimate cost of improvement 53
3.2.3 Set Tax Policy 53
3.2.4 Scenarios 53
3.2.5 Estimate of water tax 53
3.3 Study Region 54
3.3.1 General Information of Indonesia 54
3.3.2 General Information of Aceh Province 57
3.3.3 The Location of Study 59
3.3.4 Status of Krueng Peusangan Watershed 61
3.3.5 Climate of Krueng Peusangan Watershed 61
3.3.6 Topography and Soil Conditions 63
3.3.7 Land Use Condition 65
3.3.8. Water Quality Index 66
3.3.9 Community Characteristics 67
3.3.10 Highlight of PES Implementing in Krueng Peusangan Watershed 68
Chapter 4. Results and Discussion 70
4.1 Results 70
4.2 Contingent Valuation Survey 70
4.2.1 Descriptive Statistics from WTP Survey 70
4.2.2 Communities perspectives’ to the Krueng Peusangan watershed 71
4.2.3 The WTP of Respondents for the Compensation of Upstream Area 73
4.2.3.1 Estimating Mean of WTP (EWTP) 75
4.2.4 Regression Estimation 76
4.2.4.1 Regression For Agree or Disagree 76
4.2.4.2 WTP Function Analysis 81
4.2.4.3 Factors Influencing Respondents’ WTP 85
4.3 Economic Valuating Analysis 88
4.3.1 Estimating Mean WTP (EMWTP) 89
4.3.2 Estimating the tax in term of money ($) that the government can expect 89
4.3.3. Potential Benefits of PES 90
4.3.3.1 Estimate the environmental benefit from PES program in Krueng Peusangan watershed. 93
4.3.3.2 Flooding Frequncies of Krueng Peusangan River 93
4.3.3.3 Estimate the environmental damage with/without PES Program 94
4.4 Environmental Policy Approach 95
4.4.1 Existing Condition (Erosion and Sedimintation) 96
4.4.2 Estimate cost of improvement 99
4.4.3 Set a tax policy 102
4.4.4 Scenarios 103
4.4.4.1 Fixed tax level 103
4.4.4.2 Tax level depend on how much amount of water used 104
4.4.4.3 Recommended a method of tax 105
4.4.5 Estimating of water tax 105
4.4.6 Estimating tax that can be charged to water users (under the scenario) 107
4.4.6.1 Estimating the revenue from tax 107
4.4.7 Calculation Cost and Benefit Ratio 108
4.5 Discussion 110
4.5.1 Challenge / constrain to the implementation of PES schemes 110
4.5.2 Society Awareness of Environmental Services 112
4.5.3 Potential revenues for watershed protection 113
4.5.4 PES as an alternative approach in enviromental policy 116
4.5.5 Institutional Analysis 119
Chapter 5 Conclusion and Recommendations 122
5.1 Conclusion 122
5.2 Recommendations: 125
References 127
Appendixes 134
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指導教授 廖萬里(Wan-li Liao) 審核日期 2014-8-21
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