博碩士論文 101350604 詳細資訊

以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:20 、訪客IP:
姓名 尹蕙雅(Fithriani Iznita)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱 在印尼亞齊省以稻稈應用於發電之可行性研究
(Feasibility Study of Rice Straw Utilization for Power Generation in Aceh Province, Indonesia)
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 中文摘要
假設稻草的產量從2013年至2020年呈線性成長,預估2020年將可生產2,769 kt,產量明顯大於2012年的1,968 kt。
利用假設案例粗略估算稻草作為燃料所需的產量,並依比例分配發電量,2012年的電廠建議容量約20 MW,占稻草的能源分配量不到10%;而2020年稻草作為燃料的分配量預估可上升至10%-30%,這些原本會浪費的資源可提供30 MW至90 MW的電廠容量。
預測結果顯示,亞齊省至2020年可將10%至30%的稻草應用於發電,發電量約294,56 GWh至883.67 GWh,可作為那些偏遠村莊的電力資源。在水稻的收穫季節中,適當的處理方式也顯示出稻田損失可降低至5.9%,而傳統的處理系統造成的損失約18.9%。進一步的評估是該稻草應用可避免的廢氣排放量,估計出的範圍約222,391 tCO2/year至667,174 tCO2/year;同時,亦測量出本項研究每年減少的碳排放量可達221,878 tCO2/year至 666,661 tCO2/year。
摘要(英) Abstract
The feasibility assessment for rice straw-based power plant project of different capacities and the environmental impact from the emission reduction are performed for agricultural residue conditions in Aceh province, Indonesia. Rice straw usually treated as the burnt-away residue after the harvesting crop by the farmer. The enormous amount of paddy losses by the traditional handling system also represents the improper treatment in agriculture yield and waste of residue resource in rice straw in Aceh. Moreover, about 210 villages in Aceh, which located in the remote area, lack of grid-connected service yet due to the geographical location. Conforming to the aforementioned, this research evaluates the availability of rice straw for power generation and the environmental impact based on the application of rice straw.
There are several assessments being considered in this study, such as the variation of rice residue collection percentage in three different scenario cases to provide a projection in electricity generation, followed by the avoided carbon emission reduction.
Projection assumes a linear increase of rice straw from the period of 2013 to 2020 and showed that there will be 2,769 kt of rice straw generation in 2020 which is much larger the amount of rice straw 1,968 kt in 2012.
The proposal case of electricity generation is made by scenario cases with the projection for the following years with the assumption of rice straw allocation amount for fuel. According to those allocation percentage, the rough estimation of the rice straw production resulted in 2012, the proposal capacity of power plant is about 20 MW. This amount is based the less than 10% of rice straw allocation for energy purpose in 2012. In 2020 with the assumption of rice straw allocated amount for fuel varies from 10% to 30%, then these waste resources can supply for the projected capacity of rice straw-based power plant from 30 MW to 90 MW.
The electricity generation will range from 180 to 539 GWh by utilizing from 10% to 30% of the total rice straw yield in 2020. The power generation amount is a quiet promising value to be utilized as the electricity resources for those remote villages. The proposing of the proper treatment of rice yield in the pre-harvesting season also indicated the decreasing in paddy losses, which can be reduced to 5.9% from the traditional handling of hand-collection system with the paddy losses, is about 18.9%. Further estimation also gave the range of avoided emission from this type of rice straw application, which estimated in the range of 222,391 tCO2/year to 667,174 tCO2/year.
Keywords: Rice straw, Power generation, Emission reduction, Collection efficiency of rice, Aceh province, Indonesia.
關鍵字(中) ★ 稻草
★ 發電量
★ 收集效率
★ 降低排放量
★ 印尼亞齊省
關鍵字(英) ★ Rice straw
★ Power generation
★ Collection efficiency of rice
★ Emission reduction
★ Indonesia
★ Aceh province
論文目次 Table of Content

Abstract i
中文摘要 iii
Acknowledgements iv
Table of Content vi
List of Figures viii
List of Tables ix
Acronyms x

1.1. Research Motivation 1
1.2. Objective of the Study 5
1.3. Thesis Outline 8
1.4. Thesis Limitations 9

2.1. Biomass Resource 10
2.2. Current Development of Biomass Technology 13
2.3. Literature Review 14
2.3.1. Rice Straw to Power Generation 14
2.3.2. Technology of biomass conversion 18 Fluidized Bed Technology (FBC) 18 Co-Firing Technology 18 Grate Fuel Firing Technology 19
2.4. Energy Issues in Aceh province 21
2.5. Emission Rate in Indonesia 26
2.6. Rice Straw Availability in Aceh Province 27
2.6.1. Rice Straw Amount in Aceh Province 28
2.6.2. Benefit of Rice Straw Utilization 29
2.6.3. Rice Straw Opportunities in Energy Generation 30

3.1. Thesis Framework 31
3.2. Data Collection 34
3.3. Collection Efficiency Estimation 34
3.4. Agricultural Machineries Analysis 36
3.5. Availability of Rice Straw for Energy Use Based on Scenario Case 39
3.6. Emissions Reduction of Rice Straw Utilization Based on Three Scenario Cases 40

4.1. Annual Rice Straw Production 41
4.2. Collection Efficiency Estimation 42
4.3. Agricultural Machineries Analysis 46
4.4. Availability of Rice Straw for Energy Use Based on Scenario Case 48
4.5. Electricity Generation Based on Three Scenarios 52
4.6. Emission Reduction of Rice Straw Utilization Based on Three Scenario Cases 55

5.1. Conclusions 58
5.2. Recommendations 59

Ardiansyah F., 2011, Indonesia is rich in renewable energy but government policies foster reliance on fossil fuels, Inside Indonesia, http://www.insideindonesia.org/feature-editions/the-energy-challenge, accessed on April 25th, 2014.
Bakos G.C., Tsioliaridou E., Potolias C., 2008, Technoeconomic assessment and strategic analysis of heat and power co-generation (CHP) from biomass in Greece, Biomass and Bioenergy 32, 558–67.
Bakker R.R., Jenkins B.M., Williams R.B., 2002, Fluidized bed combustion of leached rice straw, Energy and Fuels, 16, 356–65.
Bhattacharya S.C., Salam A.P., Runqing H., Somashekar H.I, Racelis D.A., Rathnasiri P.G., Yingyuad R., 2005, An assessment of the potential for non-plantation biomass resources in selected Asian countries for 2010, Biomass and Bioenergy, 29, 153–166.
Binod P., Sindhu R., Singhania R. R., Vikram S., Devi L., Nagalakshmi S., Kurien N., Sukumaran S. K., and Pandey A., 2010, Bioethanol production from rice straw: an overview, Bioresource Technology, 101, 4767–4774.
Biomass Waste Recycle Research Group (BWRRG), 1999, status quo and problems for recycling biomass wastes (in Japanese).
BPPI - Indonesia Rice Knowledge Center, 2008, Threshing grain by gebot way (in Indonesian), retrieved from: http://www.pustaka-deptan.go.id, accessed on January 1st, 2014.
BPS - Statistics of Aceh Province collaboration with BAPPEDA Aceh, 2013, Aceh in Figures 2013, BPS Aceh, Indonesia.
Buckland H., 2007, The oil for ape scandals how palm oil threatening the Orangutan, Friends of The Earth Trust, Foundation Graphic Design, London.
Butler R.A, 2007, NGOs should use palm oil to drive conservation, Mongabay, http://news.mongabay.com/2007/0829-palm_oil.html, accessed on March 3rd, 2014.
Butler R.A, Laurance W.F, 2009, Is oil palm the next emerging threat to the Amazon? Tropical Conservation Science 2 (1), 1–10.
Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), 2005, Cruel oil how palm oil harms health, rainforest and wildlife, Washington DC.
Center for Understanding Sustainable Practice (CUSP), 2012, Aceh sustainable energy off-grid action plan, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen.
Cheewaphongphan P., Garivait S., Pongpullponsak A., and Patumsawad S., 2011, Influencing of Rice Residue Management Method on GHG Emission from Rice Cultivation, World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 5, 35 – 42.
Colchester M., Pang W. A., Chuo W. M., and Jalong T., 2007, Land is life, land rights and oil palm development in Sarawak, Forest Peoples Programme and Perkumpulan Sawit Watch.
Delivand M.K, Barz M., Garivait S., 2011, Overall analyses of using rice straw residues for power generation in Thailand- Project feasibility and environmental GHG impacts assessment, J. Sustainable Energy & Environment, Special Issue, 39–46.
Delivand M.K., Barz M., Gheewala S.H, 2011, Logistics cost analysis of rice straw for biomass power generation in Thailand, Energy 36, 1435–1441.
Delivand M.K., Barz M., Gheewala S.H., Sajjakulnukit B., 2011, Economic feasibility assessment of rice straw utilization for electricity generating through combustion in Thailand, Applied Energy 88, 3651–3658.
Delivand M.K., Barz M., Gheewala S.H., Sajjakulnukit B., 2012, Environmental and socio-economic feasibility assessment of rice straw conversion to power and ethanol in Thailand, J. Cleaner Production, 37, 29–41.
Demirbas A., 2002, Biodiesel from vegetable oils via transesterification in supercritical methanol, Energy Conversion Management, 43, 2349–2356.
Demirbas A., 2007, Combustion systems for biomass fuels, Energy Sources Part A, 29, 303–312.
Demirbas M. F., Balat M., Balat H., 2009, Potential contribution of biomass to the sustainable energy development, Energy Conversion and Management, 50, 1746–1760.
DESDM (Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of Indonesia), 2005, Blueprint pengelolaan energi nasional 2006-2025, Departemen Energi dan Sumber Daya Mineral, Jakarta (available in Indonesia).
Diaz-Ramirez M., Sebastian F., Royo J., Rezeau A., 2012, Combustion requirements for conversion of ash-rich novel energy crops in a 250 kWth multifuel grate fired system, Energy 46, 636–643.
Domac J., Richards K., Risovic S., 2005, Socio-economic drivers in implementing bioenergy projects, Biomass and Bioenergy 28 (2), 97–106.
Doom J., Deforestation emissions may be a third of prior estimates, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-06-21/deforestation-emissions-may-be-a-third-of-prior-estimates.html, accessed on: March 2nd, 2014.
EIA, 2009, International Energy Outlook. Office of Integrated Analysis and Forecasting ed. Washington, DC: Energy Information Administration (EIA).
EIA, 2013, CO2 emission from fuel combustion highlights, EIA, retrieved from: http://www.iea.org/publications/freepublications/publication/name,43840,en.html, accessed on : April 23th, 2014.
EIA, 2014, International Energy Statistics: Total Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Consumption of Energy (Million Metric Tons), U.S. Energy Information Administration, retrieved from: http://www.eia.gov/cfapps/ipdbproject/iedindex3.cfm?tid=90&pid=44& id=8&cid=ID,MY,TH,&syid=2007&eyid=2011&unit=MMTCD, accessed on: June, 4th, 2014.
Embang D., 2005, Electricity generation planning by Regional State Electricity Cooperation Years 2006-2015, Proceeding of the Conference of Energy and Management, Banda Aceh.
Faaij A., Meuleman B., Turkenburg W., Van Wijk A., Ausilio B., Rosillo-Calle F., et al., 1998, Externalities of biomass based electricity production compared with power generation from coal in the Netherlands, Biomass and Bioenergy, 14 (2), 125–147.
Faisal M., Mahidin, 2013, Biomass Residue from palm oil mills in Aceh Province: A potential usage for sustainable energy, Inter. J. on Advanced Science Engineering Information Technology, 3(3), 32–38.
FAO, 2013, Production, retrieved from: http://faostat.fao.org, accessed on: May 04th, 2014.
Fock F., Nygaard I., Maiga A., Kone B., Kamissoko F., Coulibaly N., Ouattara O., 2012, Pre-feasibility study for an electric power plant based on rice straw, DANIDA Contract 1711, Department of Management Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark.
Glarborg P., Jensen A. D., Johnsson J. E., 2003, Fuel nitrogen conversion in solid fuel fired systems, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 29 (2), 89–113.
Haikibutsu S., Genjo R., Kadai, 1999, Status quo and problems for recycling biomass wastes, Biomass Waste Recycle Research Group (BWRRG), Japan, (in Japanese).
Hanafi E.M., Khadrawy H.H.E., Ahmed W.M., Zaabal M.M., 2012, Some observations on rice straw with emphasis on updates of its management, World Applied Sciences J., 16(3), 354–61.
Hein K.R.G., Bemtgen J.M., 1998, EU clean coal technology—co-combustion of coal and biomass, Fuel Processing Technology, 54, 159–169.
Hinrichs R. A., and Kleinbach M., 2006, Energy its use and the environment 4th ed., Belmont, CA: Thomson Brooks Cole.
IEA, 2012, IEA Statistics. Energy balances of non-OECD countries, International Energy Agency, France.
IPCC (The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Changes), 2006, IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories, Vol. 4, Agriculture, Forestry and Other Land Use, IGES, Japan.
Japan Institute of Energy (JIE), 2001, Report of fundamental research on promotion of new energy introduction FY2001 (Investigation on bioenergy conversion technology with high efficiency) Hokokusho, 19–31 (in Japanese).
Jenkins B. M., Bakker R. R., Williams R. B., Dhaliwal R. B., Summers M. D., Lee H., Bernheim L. G., Huisman W., Yan L.L., Sanchez P. A., and Yore M., 2000, Commercial feasibility of utilizing rice straw in power generation, Proceedings Bioenergy, Buffalo, New York.
Jenkins B. M., Baxter L. L., Miles Jr. T. R., Miles T. R., 1998, Combustion properties of biomass, Fuel Processing Technology, 54, 17 – 46.
Jinming B., Overend R., 1998, Assessment of biomass resource availability in China, Environmental Science Press, Beijing, China.
Kadam K. L., Forrest L. H., Jacobson W. A., 2000, Rice straw as lignocellulosic resource: collection, processing, transportation, and environmental aspects, Biomass and Bioenergy, 18, 369 – 389.
Khairil, Mahidin, Taufiqurrahman, Safwan, 2006, Energy profile of Province of Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam 1995-2004, Report of regional university capacity building in regional energy sector development, EU-Indonesia Small Project Facility in Economic Co-operation, Indonesia.
Koopmans A., and Koppejan J., 1997, Agricultural and forest residues generation, utilization and availability. The regional consultation on modern applications of biomass energy, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
Krajnc N., Domac J., 2007, How to model different socio-economic and environmental aspects of biomass utilization: case study in selected regions in Slovenia and Croatia, Energy Policy, 35 (12), 6010–6020.
Lim S.J., Manan Z.A., Alwi S.R.W., Hashim H., 2012, A review on utilisation of biomass from rice industry as a source of renewable, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 3084–3094.
Liptan, 2000, Thresher machine TH-6 as a multi commodity machine, Lembar informasi pertanian, Ministry of Agricultural Indonesia (in Indonesia).
Liu Z., Xu A., Zhao T., 2011, Energy from Combustion of Rice Straw: Status and Challenges to China, Energy and Power Engineering, 3, 325 – 331.
Lunnan A., 2002, Contribution from bioenergy to local economic development: a Norwegian case study, From IEA bioenergy task 29 workshop in Cavtat, Croatia http://www.task29.net/assets/files/streatley_papers/Lunnan_2003.pdf, accessed on March 21th, 2014.
Madlener R., Vogtli S., 2008, Diffusion of bioenergy in urban areas: a socioeconomic analysis of the Swiss wood-fired cogeneration plant in Basel, Biomass Bioenergy, 32, 815–828.
Maiorella B., 1983, Ethanol industrial chemicals, Biochemical Fuels, 86, 1–914.
Mahidin, Khairil, Martin C., Villamanan M.A., Segovia J.J., Chamorro C.R., 2010, A comparison of energy profile between Castilla Leon, Spain and Aceh, Indonesia, J. . Chemical and Environmental Engineering, 7, 184-189.
Mahidin, Machdar I., Faisal M., Nizar M., 2012, Clean develop mechanism (CDM) potential in palm solid waste cogeneration as an alternative energy in Aceh province, Makara Teknologi, 16, 192-200.
Makarim A.K, Sumarno, Suryamto, 2007, Rice straw: The utilization and management, Research and development centre of food crops, Departement of research and agricultural development, Indonesia (in Indonesia).
Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of Government of Indonesia, 2012, Handbook of Energy and Economics Statistics of Indonesia, Pusdatin ESDM, Indonesia.
Morales A., 2010, Malaysia has little room for palm oil expansion plantations, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2010-11-18/malaysia-has-little-room-for-palm-oil-expansion-plantation-minister-says.html, accessed on March 3rd, 2014.
Mudjisihono and Rob, 2000, Technology of paddy, corn and soy bean thresing systems using threser machine, BPTP Unggaran, Jawa Tengah, (in Indonesia).
Nellemann C., Miles L., Kaltenborn B.P., Virtue M., Ahlenius H., 2007, Rapid response assessment: The last stand of the orangutan, state of emerging: illegal logging, fire and palm oil in Indonesia’s parks, United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), 6 February 2007.
Ni M., Leung D.Y.C., Leung M.K.H., Sumathy K., 2006, An overview of hydrogen production from biomass, Fuel Process Technology, 87, 461–472.
Patel S., 2013, Indonesia: Energy Rich and Electricity Poor, Electric Power, http://www.powermag.com/indonesia-energy-rich-and-electricity-poor/, accessed on April 25th, 2014.
PBL, 2013, Trends in global CO2 emissions – 2013 report, PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency.
Peura P., Hyttinen T., 2011, The potential and economics of bioenergy in Finland, J. Cleaner Production, 19 (9–10), 927 – 945.
Purohit P., 2009, Economic potential of biomass gasification projects under clean development mechanism in India, J. Cleaner Production,17 (2), 181–193.
PT PLN Persero (State Electricity Enterprise), 2014, Indonesia electrification ratio by the end of 2013, http://www.energitoday.com/2014/03/14/2020-rasio-elektrifikasi-indonesia-capai-99/, accessed on March 22, 2014.
Sami M., Annamalai K., Wooldridge M., 2001, Co-firing of coal and biomass fuel blends. Progress Energy Combustion Science, 27, 171–214.
Samuel V., 2013, Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of rice straw conversion to ethanol in Indonesia: the case of Bali, Master Thesis, KTH School of Industrial Engineering and Management Energy Technology Stockholm, Sweden.
Shafie S.M., Mahlia T.M.I., Masjuki H.H, 2013, Life cycle assessment of rice straw co-firing with coal power generation in Malaysia, Energy, 57, 284–294.
Shafie S.M., Mahlia T.M.I., Masjuki H.H., Yazid A.A., 2012, A review on electricity generation based on biomass residue in Malaysia, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 5879–5889.
Singh V., 2001, The work that goes into renewable energy, From Renewable Energy Policy Project (REPP): http://www.repp.org/articles/static/1/binaries/LABOR_FINAL_REV.pdf, accessed on March 21th, 2014.
Slayton T., Timmer C.P., 2008, Japan, China and Thailand can solve the rice crisis—but US Leadership is needed, CGD Notes. Washington, DC: Center for Global Development, 2008, 1–6.
Sokhansanj S., and Turhollow A. F., 2002, Baseline cost for corn stover collection, Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 18 (5), 525-530.
Spliethoff H., Hein K.R.G., 1998, Effect of co-combustion of biomass on emissions in pulverized fuel furnaces, Fuel Processing Technology, 54, 189–205.
Subramanian A.K., Marwaha Y., 2006, Use of bagasse and other biomass fuels in high pressure travelling grate boilers, Inter. Sugar J., 108, 6–9.
Sun S., Zhao Y., Ling F., Su F., 2009, Experimental research on air staged cyclone gasification of rice husk, Fuel Process Technol, 90, 465–71.
Suramaythangkoor T., Gheewala S.H., 2010, Potential alternatives of heat and power technology application using rice straw in Thailand, Applied Energy, 87, 128–33.
State Environmental Conservation Department (ECD), 2000, Sabah Malaysia, Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Guidelines for oil palm plantation development, Third Ed., November 2000, Malaysia.
The Development Team of Renewable Energy and Energy Conservation, the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Sources (ESDM), Republic Of Indonesia, 2010, Blue print design: The development of renewable energy and energy conservation, “More green energy, less carbon emission”, August 2010.
Thy P., Jenkins B.M., Williams R.B., Lesher C.E., Bakker R.R., 2010, Bed agglomeration in fluidized combustor fueled by wood and rice straw blends, Fuel Processing Technology 91(11), 1464–85.
Trossero M.A., 2002, Socio-economic aspects of wood energy systems in developing countries: a focus on employment, From IEA bioenergy task 29 workshop in Cavtat, Croatia: http://www.task29.net/assets/files/cavtat_papers/Trossero 2002.pdf, accessed on: March 21th, 2014.
UNDP, 2008, Human development report 2007 – 2008, fighting climate change: human solidarity in a divided world, United Nations Development Programme, New York, USA.
UNEP, 2007, Technical study report on biomass fired: fluidized bed combustion boiler technology for cogeneration, UNEP-DTIE Energy Branch, retrieved from: http://www.uneptie.org/energy, accessed on: July 20th, 2014.
UNEP, 2009, Converting waste agricultural biomass into energy source, Compendium of Technologies, United Nations Environmental Programme, Japan.
Urosevic D. M., and Gvozdenac – Urosevic B.D., 2012, Comprehensive analysis of a straw-fired power plant in the province of Vojvodina, Thermal science, 16, S97 – S106.
US Environmental Protection Agency, 2007, Biomass combined heat and power catalog of technologies, /http://www.epa.gov/chp/documents/biomass_chp_catalog.pdfS., accessed on: April 13th, 2014.
Valente C., Spinelli R., Hillring B.G., 2011, LCA of environmental and socioeconomic impacts related to wood energy production in alpine conditions: Valle di Fiemme (Italy), J. Cleaner Production, 19, 1931–1938.
Van Dam J., Faaij A.P.C., Hilbert J., Petruzzi H., Turkenburg W.C., 2009, Large-scale bioenergy production from soybeans and switchgrass in Argentina: Part B. Environmental and socio-economic impacts on a regional level, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 13 (8), 1679–1709.
Varela M., Lechon Y., Saez R., 1999, Environmental and socioeconomic aspects in the strategic analysis of a biomass power plant integration, Biomass and Bioenergy, 17 (5), 405–413.
VGB (the European technical association for power and heat generation), 2008, Advantages and limitations of biomass co-combustion in fossil fired power plants, VGB power technology publications.
Wei M., Patadia S., Kammen D.M., 2010, Putting renewable and energy efficiency to work: how many jobs can the clean energy industry generate in the US?, Energy Policy 38 (2), 919–931.
Yin C., Rosendahl L.A., Kær S.K., 2008, Grate-firing of biomass for heat and power production, Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 34, 725–754.
Yin C., Rosendahl L., Kær S.K., Clausen S., Hvid S.L., Hille T., 2008, Mathematical modelling and experimental study of biomass combustion in a thermal 108 MW grate-fired boiler, Energy Fuels, 22, 1380–1390.

指導教授 吳俊諆(Dr. Jiunn Chi Wu) 審核日期 2014-7-25
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明