博碩士論文 101350607 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:28 、訪客IP:54.224.230.51
姓名 米斯比(SIBUSISO CYPRIAN MSIBI)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱
(A FEASIBILITY STUDY ON COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT DEVELOPMENT PLAN IN SWAZILAND)
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 史瓦濟蘭一直從南非電力池享有低價的電價。不幸的是,近來發生的事件而破壞一個應被視為警訊。其中例子包括因政治因素導致與南非共和國連結的1360km高壓直流電源輸出被破壞,這與已持續17年在莫三比克發生的內戰有關,因而長期影響電力的供應。對於基本的能 源安全,電力供應的替代方案應是個急迫的選項。近來已開始可輸出300萬瓦的煤炭火力發電廠作為替代方案。
本文藉由剖析科技、經濟和外部的層面來呈現方案可行性的評估。國際能源機構對於鄰近南非共和國的電源成本已經做了校正並且使用於估計史瓦濟蘭電源成本。史瓦濟蘭的通貨膨脹速率、國內生產毛額、人類發展指數、消費者物價指數和勞工平均薪資接考慮在校正上。
本文結果顯示若史瓦濟蘭可考慮煤炭火力發電廠作為可行的替代方案。從經濟上的可行性研究指出若忽略額外支出,史瓦濟蘭在運行火力發電廠後則可省下美金 56, 961, 900元。此文亦指出若無火力發電廠,史瓦濟蘭可能將在五年內面臨電力短缺,而因電力短缺而造成的能源不確定性可能帶來更大的損失。
本文提出兩種有效建議,分別為使用煤礦作為短程電力產生以及遠程而言更多的選項尤其是對於環境保護的能源方案,例如生物質能。 經由政策的考量,相關提案集中於整合可持續發展的能源產生、需求考量管理、價格導向與系統的改進,和反映實際消耗的電費等有協調性的計畫以及開發。額外的提案與未來研究工作有關,包含認為由敏感度分析而來的研究因素,這些可視為追求增加國內發電計畫的發展。
摘要(英) Swaziland is enjoying low import prices from the Southern African Power Pool, unfortunately, recent events took place that should act as warning. An example of these events include the politically motivated sabotage of a 1,360 km HVDC power link to South Africa which took place during the civil war in Mozambique that interrupted supply for about 17 years. Alternatives identification for supply of electricity is an urgent route to pursue if energy security is regarded fundamental. Plans to find alternatives have been initiated through a proposed domestic 300 MW coal fired power plant.
This paper performs a feasibility assessment by evaluating technical, economic and external aspects of the alternative plans. Neighboring South Africa’s projected LCOE by the International Energy Agency were adjusted and then used to estimate Swaziland’s LCOE. Adjustments used Swaziland’s inflation rate, interest rate, gross domestic product per capita, human development index, consumer price index, labor average wage and external cost.
Findings from the study demonstrate that Swaziland may have potential regarding the technical feasibility of establishing the coal-fired power plant. The economic feasibility results reveal savings of about US$56,961,900 if the country pursues the plans ignoring external costs. The study also demonstrated that in an estimated 5 year period of electricity shortage from not building the plant, energy insecurity in the form of electricity shortage costs outweigh the estimated benefits.
Using the results from this study, two kinds of working recommendations include short term goal of using coal for electricity generation and a long term goal of searching for more alternatives, especially those that are environmentally friendly like biomass. In line with policy measures, recommendations focus is on coordinated planning and development, integrated sustainable energy generation, demand-side management, price-oriented and systems improvement, and cost-reflective tariffs. Additional suggestions are related to future research work, towards studying factors that were appeared as important. This could be pursued in order to further develop the plans of increased domestic electricity generation.
關鍵字(中) ★ 能源安全
★ 煤炭
★ 電源成本
★ 永續發展
★ 外部成本
關鍵字(英) ★ Energy security
★ Coal
★ LCOE
★ Sustainable
★ External costs
論文目次 Abstract v
Chapter 1: INTRODUCTION 1
1.1 Introduction 1
1.2 Plans for Increased Domestic Generation 2
1.3 Current Ongoing Developments 2
1.4 Current Electricity Trade Arrangements 2
1.5 Supply and Demand 3
1.6 Thermal Power Potential 3
1.7 Problem Statement 4
1.8 Aim and Objectives 4
1.9 Limitations 5
Chapter 2: BACKGROUND AND LITERATURE REVIEW 6
2.1 Introduction 6
2.2 Background Information and Setting 6
2.3 Swaziland energy consumption patterns 8
2.4 Potential for increased self-reliance in electricity power 9
2.4.1 Hydropower 9
2.4.2 Traditional Biomass 10
2.4.3 Industrial biomass 10
2.4.4 Coal 11
2.4.5 Wind 12
2.4.6 Solar 12
2.5 Electricity Needs of Swaziland 12
2.6 Domestic Energy Tariffs 14
2.7 Electricity trade arrangements 16
2.8 Southern African Power Pool (SAPP) 16
2.9 Electricity Trade in the Pool 17
2.10 Energy security 17
2.11 Importance of supply reliability of electricity 20
2.12 Electricity impacts on economic growth 21
2.13 Recent events threating energy security 23
2.14 Dealing with power shortages 23
2.14.1 Portfolio approach to power shortage mitigation 24
2.14.2 Sensible rationing 24
2.14.3 Diversify energy supply 24
2.14.4 Improve energy efficiency 25
2.14.5 Reflect electricity costs through tariffs 25
2.15 Addressing power shortages 26
2.15.1 Coordinate planning and overall development 26
2.15.2 Optimize investments and structural adjustments to ensure power supply 26
2.15.3 Implement demand-side management 27
2.15.4 Price-oriented and system improvement 27
2.16 Environmental concerns 27
Chapter 3: MATERIALS AND METHODS 28
3.1 Introduction 28
3.2 Estimating Generation Costs 29
3.3 Adoption of LCOE Concept into Current Study 29
3.4 Estimating External Costs 30
3.5 Presentation of calculations 31
Chapter 4: TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY ASSESSMENT 32
4.1 Technical Assessment of Generation Options 32
4.2 Technology Selection 32
4.3 The Planned Coal Plant Location and Land Requirements 33
4.4 Water Requirements 37
Chapter 5: ANALYSIS, RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 39
5.1 Introduction 39
5.2 Inflation Consideration 39
5.3 Gross Domestic Product per Capita 40
5.4 Human Development Index 40
5.5 Interest Rate Consideration 41
5.6 Levelized Cost of Electricity 42
5.7 Investment Costs 43
5.8 Operation and Maintenance Costs 44
5.9 Fuel Costs 45
5.10 External Costs 47
5.11 Final Performance of Swaziland’s LCOE 48
5.12 Energy Security 50
5.13 Sensitivity Analysis 50
Chapter 6: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS 52
6.1 Conclusion 52
6.2 Recommendations 52
6.2.1 Policy 52
6.2.2 Future Work 53
Bibliography 54
Appendix I: Plant Capacity and Technical Specifications 64
Appendix II: Baseline Data as Projected LCOE 65
Appendix III: Investment Costs Estimation 66
Appendix IV: Energy Security 69
Appendix V: Sensitivity Analysis 73
參考文獻 [ 1 ] 25 degrees in Africa. 2011. “Energy in Swaziland.” Retrieved December 20, 2013, from http://www.25degrees.net/articles/country-profile/item/1186-energy-in-swaziland.html.
[ 2 ] Abdalla, K. L. 1994. “Energy policies for sustainable development in developing countries,” Energy Policy, 22(1): 29-36.
[ 3 ] Antal, M., and Van den Bergh. 2014. “Evaluating alternatives to GDP as measures of social welfare/progress,” Working Paper, No 56.
[ 4 ] Asafu-Adjaye, J. 2000. “The relationship between energy consumption, energy prices and economic growth: time series evidence from Asian developing countries,” Energy economics 22(6): 615-625.
[ 5 ] Asia Pacific Energy Research Centre (APERC). 2007. A quest for energy security in the 21st century: resources and constraints, Tokyo: APEC.
[ 6 ] Bang, G. 2010. “Energy security and climate change concerns: triggers for energy policy change in the United States?” Energy Policy 38(4): 1645-1653.
[ 7 ] Barnes, R. 2014. “Economic indicators: Gross Domestic Product (GDP).” Retrieved April 20, 2014, from http://www.investopedia.com/university/releases/gdp.asp.
[ 8 ] Belgrave, R., C. K. Ebinger, and H. Okino. 1988. “Energy security to 2000”.
[ 9 ] Bickel, P., and R. Friedrich, eds. 2004. “ExternE: Externalities of Energy: Methodology 2005 Update.” EUR-OP.
[ 10 ] Pletka, R. 2011. “Black and Veatch’s (RETI’S) Cost of Generation Calculator,” California Energy Commission Cost of Generation Workshop. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.energy.ca.gov/2011_energypolicy/documents/2011-05-16_workshop/presentations/Ryan_Pletka_B&V.pdf
[ 11 ] Brian, H., F. T. Bowen, and Y. Zuwei. 1999. “Modeling Electricity Trade Policy for the Twelve Nations of the Southern African Power Pool (SAPP),” Utilities Policy, 8(3): 183-197.
[ 12 ] Brown, M. A., and B. K. Sovacool. 2010. “Climate Change and Global Energy Security: Technology and Policy Options,” Energy Conversion and Management, 49(2): 212-220.
[ 13 ] Burtraw, D., A., et al. 2012. “The True Cost of Electric Power,” RFF Report, Resources for the Future, Washington, DC.
[ 14 ] Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). 2014. “The World Factbook: Swaziland.” Retrieved March 28, 2014, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/wz.html.
[ 15 ] Cheng, Y. S., Wong, W. K., and Woo, C. K. 2013. “How Much Have Electricity Shortages Hampered China’s GDP Growth?” Energy Policy 55: 369-373.
[ 16 ] Chester, L. 2010. “Conceptualising Energy Security and Making Explicit its Polysemic Nature,” Energy policy 38(2): 887-895.
[ 17 ] Chevalier, J. 2006. “Security of Energy Supply for the European Union,” European Review of Energy Markets 1(3): 1-20.
[ 18 ] Chuang, M. C., and Ma, H. W. 2013. “An Assessment of Taiwan’s Energy Policy Using Multi-Dimensional Energy Security Indicators,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 17: 301-311.
[ 19 ] Competition Tribunal of South Africa. 2009. “In the Matter Between: Shanduka Coal (Pty) Ltd and Springlake Holdings (Pty) Ltd.” Retrieved April 4, 2014, from http://www.comptrib.co.za/assets/Uploads/Case-Documents/121LMNov08.pdf.
[ 20 ] De Nooij, M., Koopmans, C., and Bijvoet, C. 2007. “The Value of Supply Security: The Costs of Power Interruptions: Economic Input for Damage Reduction and Investment in Networks,” Energy Economics 29(2): 277-295.
[ 21 ] Desse D. A., and Nye J. S. 1981. “Energy and security. Ballinger Publishing Company.”
[ 22 ] Du, Y., and J. E. Parsons. 2009. “Update on the Cost of Nuclear Power.”
[ 23 ] Dube, E. 2014. “Times of Swaziland: Democratic Alliance Wants Electricity Supply to Swaziland Stopped.” Retrieved March 24, 2014, from http://www.times.co.sz/news/96194-da-wants-electricity-supply-to-sd-stopped.html.
[ 24 ] Dziegielewski, B. T., et al. 2006. “Water Use Benchmarks for Thermoelectric Power Generation,” Prepared for the United States Geological Survey, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.
[ 25 ] Eberhard, A. 2011. “The Future of South African Coal: Market, Investment, and Policy Challenges,” PESD Working Paper 100, Stanford.
[ 26 ] Economic Consulting Associates. 2009. “The Potential of Regional Power Sector Integration: Southern African Power Pool (SAPP); Transmission & Trading Case Study.” Retrieved December 11, 2013, from http://www.esmap.org/sites/esmap.org/files/BN004-10_REISP-CD_South%20African%20Power%20Pool- Transmission%20&%20Trading.pdf.
[ 27 ] Energy Information Administration (EIA). 2013. “Updated Capital Cost Estimates for Utility Scale Electricity Generating Plants.” Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.eia.gov/forecasts/capitalcost/pdf/updated_capcost.pdf.
[ 28 ] Engineering News. 2014. “Swaziland, South Africa Rail Link Feasibility Under Way.” Retrieved April 10, 2014, from http://www.engineeringnews.co.za/article/swaziland-south-africa-rail-link-feasibility-under-way-2014-05-28.
[ 29 ] Esi-Africa. 2012. “Swaziland Electricity the Most Expensive in Southern Africa.” Retrieved April 25, 2014, from http://www.esi-africa.com/swaziland-electricity-the-most-expensive-in-southern-africa/.
[ 30 ] European Union. 2008. “Guide to Cost-Benefit Analysis of Investment Projects: Structural Funds, Cohesion Fund and Instrument for Preaccession.”
[ 31 ] Faith Shongwe. 2009. “Swaziland News: Thermal Power Station Tender Out.” Retrieved October 29, 2013, from http://www.swazilive.com/.
[ 32 ] Fan, J., Y., et al. 2010. “Energy Policies for Sustainable Livelihoods and Sustainable Development of Poor Areas in China,” Energy Policy, 39(3): 1200-1212.
[ 33 ] Field, B. C., and Martha K. Field. 2009. Environmental Economics. 5th Edition. McGraw Hill Series.
[ 34 ] Ghali, K. H., and El-Sakka, M. 2004. “Energy Use and Output Growth in Canada: A Multivariate Cointegration Analysis,” Energy Economics 26(2): 225-238.
[ 35 ] Gleick, P. H. 1993. “Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World’s Fresh Water Resources,” Oxford University Press, Inc.
[ 36 ] Godement, F. 2004. Asia and Europe Cooperating for Energy Security. Paris: Institute Francais des Relations Intenationales.
[ 37 ] Grausz, S. 2011. “The Social Cost of Coal: Implications for the World Bank,” Washington, D.C.: The Climate Advisers. Retrieved February 25, 2014, from http://www.climateadvisers.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/2011-10-The-Social-Cost-of-Coal.pdf
[ 38 ] Groot, R. A., Van der Veen, V. G., and Sebitosi, A. B. 2013. “Comparing Solar PV (Photovoltaic) with Coal-Fired Electricity Production in the Centralized Network of South Africa,” Energy, 55: 823-837.
[ 39 ] Google. 2014. “Universal Currency Converter.” Retrieved April 3, 2014, from https://www.google.com/webhp?sourceid=chrome-instant&ion=1&espv=2&ie=UTF-8#q=universal%20currency%20converter.
[ 40 ] Heffner, G., L., et al. 2010. “Minding the Gap: World Bank’s Assistance to Power Shortage Mitigation in the Developing World,” Energy 35(4): 1584-1591.
[ 41 ] Hinrichs, R. A., and M. Kleinbach. 2013. Energy, its Use and the Environment. International 5th Edition, Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
[ 42 ] Ho, C., and Siu, K. W. 2007. “A Dynamic Equilibrium of Electricity Consumption and GDP in Hong Kong: An Empirical Investigation,” Energy Policy 35(4): 2507-2513.
[ 43 ] Hoffmann, J., S. Forbes, and T. Feeley. 2004. “Estimating Freshwater Needs to Meet 2025 Electricity Generating Capacity Forecasts,” US Department of Energy/NETL, June.
[ 44 ] Huang, H., and Yan, Z. 2009. “Present Situation and Future Prospect of Hydropower in China,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 13(6): 1652-1656.
[ 45 ] Index Mundi. 2014. “Swaziland Location.” Retrieved March 24, 2014, from www.indexmundi.com/swaziland/location.html.
[ 46 ] Inglesi, R. 2010. “Aggregate Electricity Demand in South Africa: Conditional Forecasts to 2030,” Applied Energy 87(1): 197-204.
[ 47 ] Inhaber, H. 2004. “Water use in Renewable and Conventional Electricity Production,” Energy Sources, 26(3): 309-322.
[ 48 ] International Energy Agency. 2010. “Projected Costs of Generating Electricity.” Retrieved March 25, 2014, from http://www.worldenergyoutlook.org/media/weowebsite/energymodel/ProjectedCostsofGeneratingElectricity2010.pdf.
[ 49 ] International Monetary Fund (IMF). 2008. “Kingdom of Swaziland: Selected Issues and Statistical Appendix.” IMF Country Report No. 08/86.
[ 50 ] Jamil, F. and Ahmad, E. 2010. “The relationship between electricity consumption, electricity prices and GDP in Pakistan.” Energy Policy 38, no. 10: 6016-6025.
[ 51 ] Jamil, F. 2013. “On the electricity shortage, price and electricity theft nexus.” Energy Policy 54: 267-272.
[ 52 ] Jiang, B., Sun, Z., and Liu, M. 2010. “China′s energy development strategy under the low-carbon economy.” Energy 35(11): 4257-4264.
[ 53 ] Johansson, B. 2013. “Security aspects of future renewable energy systems–A short overview.” Energy 61: 598-605.
[ 54 ] Kalicki, J. H., and Goldwyn, D. L. 2005. Goldwyn. Energy and security: toward a new foreign policy strategy. Johns Hopkins Univ Pr.
[ 55 ] Katotoka, M. H. 2011. “Energy Security in South Africa: A Case Study of Photovoltaic Electrification Programme,” MSc degree Dissertation: University of Sussex.
[ 56 ] Keppler, J. H. 2007. "International relations and security of energy supply: Risks to continuity and geopolitical risks."
[ 57 ] Kernaghan, S. 2012. “Technical Feasibility Assessments.” Retrieved April 7, 2014, from http://www.i-s-e-t.org/training/wp-content/uploads/modulesContent/pdfs/ISET_ModuleCRFSet3_7_0.pdf.
[ 58 ] Khumalo, S. 2014. “Times of Swaziland: SEC to rotate electricity use.” Retrieved: April 25, 2014 from: http://www.times.co.sz/news/95904-sec-to-rotate-electricity-use.html
[ 59 ] Kuntz, L., and F. Müsgens. 2007. “Modelling Start-up Costs of Multiple Technologies in Electricity Markets,” Mathematical Methods of Operations Research, 66(1): 21-32.
[ 60 ] Lacchini, C., and J. C. V. Dos Santos. 2013. “Photovoltaic Energy Generation in Brazil: Cost Analysis Using Coal-Fired Power Plants as Comparison,” Renewable Energy 52: 183-189.
[ 61 ] LaCommare, K. H., and Eto, J. E. 2006. “Cost of power interruptions to electricity consumers in the United States (US),” Energy 31(12): 1845-1855.
[ 62 ] Linares, P., and L. Rey. 2013. “The costs of electricity interruptions in Spain. Are we sending the right signals?” Energy Policy 61: 751-760.
[ 63 ] Loschel, A., Moslener, U., Rubbelke, D. T. G. 2010. Indicators of energy security in industrialized countries, Energy Policy 38:1665–71.
[ 64 ] Lund, H. F. Hvelplund, and S. Nunthavorakarn. 2003. “Feasibility of a 1400 MW Coal-Fired Power-Plant in Thailand,” Applied Energy, 76(1): 55-64.
[ 65 ] Macknick, J., R., et al. 2011. “A Review of Operational Water Consumption and Withdrawal Factors for Electricity Generating Technologies.” Contract, 303: 275-3000.
[ 66 ] Magagula, M. 2013. Times of Swaziland: Mozambicans return to Swaziland. Retrieved: November 03, 2013 from: http://www.times.co.sz/news/92893-mozambicans-return-to-swaziland.html.
[ 67 ] Manzano, B., and Luis, R. 2012. “The welfare cost of energy insecurity.” Economics for Energy, Working Paper fa07-2012.
[ 68 ] Maurer, L., Mario, P., and Rosenblatt, J. 2005. “Implementing Power Rationing in a sensible way: Lessons learned and international best practices.”
[ 69 ] Meyer, P. 2012. “How Much Potential Lies Within Swaziland’s Coal Sector? Coaltrans Southern Africa Conference.” Retrieved December 29, 2013, from http://www.slideshare.net/Coaltrans/how-much-potential-lies- within- swazilands-coal-sector-20185965.
[ 70 ] Ming, Z., et al. 2013. “China’s large-scale power shortages of 2004 and 2011 after the electricity market reforms of 2002: Explanations and differences,” Energy Policy 61: 610-618.
[ 71 ] Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy (MNRE). 2013. “Regional Roll Out of the Renewables Readiness Assessment in the Southern African Development Community: Renewables Readiness Assessment for Swaziland.” Information Document.
[ 72 ] Mswane, L. M. 2005. “Swaziland Proposed 1000 – 2000 MW Thermal Power Station Development: SADC Regional Electricity Investment Conference; 19 – 20 September 2005, Windhoek, Namibia. Southern African Power Pool.” Retrieved December 20, 2013, from http://www.sapp.co.zw/documents/Development%20of%201000-2000MW%20Power%20station.pdf.
[ 73 ] Munasinghe, M., and Sanghvi, A. 1988. “Reliability of electricity supply, outage costs and value of service: an overview.” The Energy Journal 9(2): 1-18.
[ 74 ] National Energy Policy (NEP). 2003. “Government of the Swaziland Kingdom of Swaziland.” Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy.
[ 75 ] Noël, P. 2008. “Is energy security a political, military or market problem?” An online Q & A in The Financial Times 10.
[ 76 ] Organisation for Economic Co operation and Development (OECD). 2011. “National Accounts at a Glance: GDP per Capita.” Retrieved April 20, 2014, from http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/docserver/download/3011051ec005.pdf?expires=1401653931&id=id&accname=guest&checksum=6F6223CE3F83A24BA4185888CDAC4592
[ 77 ] Ölz, S., Sims, R., and Kirchner, N. 2007. “Contribution of renewables to energy security,” IEA Information Paper.
[ 78 ] Ozturk, I., Aslan, A., and Huseyin K. 2010. “Energy consumption and economic growth relationship: Evidence from panel data for low and middle income countries.” Energy Policy 38(8): 4422-4428.
[ 79 ] Ozturk, I. 2010. “A literature survey on energy–growth nexus.” Energy policy 38(1): 340-349.
[ 80 ] Pauschert, D. 2009. “Study of Equipment Prices in the Power Sector.”
[ 81 ] Payne, T. 2012. Mail & Guardian. “Wages Up as Unemployed Queues Grow.” Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://mg.co.za/article/2012-06-22-s-unemployed-queues-grow.
[ 82 ] Pedersen, K., Behrens, A., and Egenhofer, C. 2008. “Energy Policy for Europe: Identifying the European Added-value: CEPS Task Force Report.” CEPS.
[ 83 ] Pouris, Anastassios. 2008. “Energy and fuels research in South African universities: a comparative assessment.”
[ 84 ] Reichl, J., Schmidthaler, M., and Schneider, F. 2013. “The value of supply security: The costs of power outages to Austrian households, firms and the public sector.” Energy Economics 36: 256-261.
[ 85 ] Renewable Energy World Magazine (REWM). 2014. Market outlook and global company and product directory. Volume 17, Issue 1.
[ 86 ] Southern African Power Pool (SAPP). 2013. “SAPP Day Ahead Market (DAM) Monthly Performance Report: September.” Retrieved March 10, 2014, from http://www.sapp.co.zw/docs/DAM%20Market%20Monthly%20Performance%20Report-September%202013.pdf.
[ 87 ] Schaeffer, R., et al. 2012. “Energy sector vulnerability to climate change: a review. Energy 38(1): 1-12.
[ 88 ] Schmidt, S. 2008. “Coal deposits of South Africa-the future of coal mining in South Africa,” Freiburg, Germany: Unpublished.
[ 89 ] Shaalan, H. E. 2003. “Generation of Electric Power: Section 8.” Retrieved February 30, 2014, from http://energysystems.princeton.edu/EnergyResources/GenerElectPower__Shalaan.pdf.
[ 90 ] Muhammad, S., and Lean, H. H. 2012. “The dynamics of electricity consumption and economic growth: A revisit study of their causality in Pakistan.” Energy 39(1): 146-153.
[ 91 ] Shiu, A., and Lam, P. L. 2004. “Electricity consumption and economic growth in China.” Energy policy 32(1): 47-54.
[ 92 ] Siddiqui, R. 2004. “Energy and economic growth in Pakistan.” The Pakistan Development Review: 175-200.
[ 93 ] Simelane, M. 2012. “Times of Swaziland: SEC Tariffs Highest in SADC.” Retrieved from http://www.times.co.sz/News/77139.html.
[ 94 ] Skyscrapercity. 2009. “Projects and Construction Developments in Africa: Swaziland – Thermal Power Stations Tender Out.” Retrieved October 29, 2013, from http://www.skyscrapercity.com/.
[ 95 ] Stanlib. 2013. “South Africa: South African Unemployment Rate Rose to 25.2% in Q1 2013. Employment is Still 406 000 Below the Previous Peak.” Retrieved April 5, 2014, from http://www.stanlib.com/EconomicFocus/Pages/SAunemploymentrateroseto252inQ12013.aspx.
[ 96 ] Stringer, L. C. 2009. “Testing the orthodoxies of land degradation policy in Swaziland.” Land Use Policy 26(2): 157-168.
[ 97 ] Sun, T., Wang, X., and Ma, X. 2009. “Relationship between the economic cost and the reliability of the electric power supply system in city: A case in Shanghai of China.” Applied Energy 86(10): 2262-2267.
[ 98 ] Swaziland Electricity Board (SEB). 2007. “Feasibility Study for a Proposed Coal Fired Power Station: Information Document.”
[ 99 ] Swaziland Electricity Company (SEC). “Annual Report.” 2012.
[ 100 ] Swaziland Electricity Company (SEC). “Transmission Map. Personal communication; sent through electronic mail.”
[ 101 ] Swaziland Railway. 2013a. “Railway network.” Retrieved April 5, 2014, from http://www.swazirail.co.sz/.
[ 102 ] Swaziland Railway. 2013b. “Swaziland Railway TRF/Press release.” Retrieved April 10, 2014, from http://www.swazirail.co.sz/index.php/media1/news
[ 103 ] Swaziland Review. 2012. “An Overview of the Kingdom of Swaziland’s Economy: Energy.” Retrieved October 29, 2013, from http://www.swazilandreview.com/.
[ 104 ] Global Economy. 2014. “Country Indicators: Swaziland and South Africa.” Retrieved March 1, 2014, from http://www.theglobaleconomy.com/.
[ 105 ] Tidball, R., J. Bluestein, N. R., and Knoke, S. 2010. “Cost and Performance Assumptions for Modeling Electricity Generation Technologies,” Contract 303: 275-3000.
[ 106 ] TRALAC. Undated. “Annex 5: Kingdom of Swaziland.” Retrieved April 3, 2014, from http://www.tralac.org/wp-content/blogs.dir/12/files/2011/uploads/TPR2009_Annex_5_Swaziland_201003.pdf.
[ 107 ] Ujam, A. J., and Diyoke, C. 2013. “Economic Viability of Coal based Power Generation for Nigeria.”
[ 108 ] Ulandssekretariatet. 2013. “Swaziland: Labour Market Profile.” Retrieved April 2, 2014, from http://www.ulandssekretariatet.dk/sites/default/files/uploads/public/PDF/LMP/swaziland_2013_final_web.pdf.
[ 109 ] United Nations. 2014. Gross domestic product per capita. Retrieved April 20, 2014, from the World Wide Web: http://www.un.org/esa/sustdev/natlinfo/indicators/methodology_sheets/econ_development/gdp_percapita.pdf
[ 110 ] United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Undated. A pigovian tax is a tax levied to correct the negative externalities of a market activity. Retrieved April 20, 2014, from http://www.undp.org.ar/docs/taller_ecosistemico/2_7.pdf
[ 111 ] United Nations Development Program (UNDP) and World Health Organization (WHO). 2009. “The Energy Access Situation in Developing Countries: A Review Focusing on the Least Developed Countries and Sub-Saharan Africa.” Retrieved December 20, 2013, from http://large.stanford.edu/courses/2011/ph240/machala1/docs/who.pdf.
[ 112 ] Van der Welle, A., and Van der Zwaan, B. 2007. “An overview of selected studies on the value of lost load (VOLL).” Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands (ECN).
[ 113 ] Van Doren, P. 2006. “Energy & security: toward a new foreign policy strategy. In: Kalicki, Jan H., Goldwyn, David L. (Eds.).” Book review. The Energy Journal; 27(1):182–7.
[ 114 ] Weisser, D. 2003. “Power Sector Reform in Small Island Developing States: What Role for Renewable Energy Technologies?” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 8(2): 101-127.
[ 115 ] Wheldon, A. E. 1990. “Energy in Swaziland: Options for increased self-reliance at individual and national level.” Solar & Wind Technology 7(1): 83-88.
[ 116 ] Wines, M. 2007. “Toiling in the Dark: Africa’s Power Crisis.” New York Times, 29. See also:http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/29/world/africa/29power.html?ex=1343448000&en=3091a716b2e58631&ei=5124&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink&_r=0.
[ 117 ] Woo, C. K., and Pupp, R. L. 1992. “Costs of service disruptions to electricity consumers,” Energy 17(2): 109-126.
[ 118 ] Woods, M. C., et al. 2007. “Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants,” National Energy Technology Laboratory.
[ 119 ] World Economic Forum. 2012. “Energy for Economic Growth: Energy Vision Update 2012,” Geneva, Switzerland:World Economic Forum and IHS CERA. Retrieved April 28, 2013, from http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_EN_EnergyEconomicGrowth_IndustryAgenda_2012.pdf.
[ 120 ] World Trade Organization (WTO). 2009. “Trade Policy Review reports by the Members of the Southern African Customs Union. Annex 5: Kingdom of Swaziland. Trade Policy Review Body.”
[ 121 ] Wright, P. 2005. “Liberalisation and the security of gas supply in the UK,” Energy policy 33(17): 2272-2290.
[ 122 ] Tanzania-Online. Undated. “Chapter 8: Economic and Financial Assessment.” Retrieved April 7, 2014, from http://www.tzonline.org/pdf/agricultureprojectplanning3.pdf.
[ 123 ] Yuan, J. H., et al. 2008. “Energy consumption and economic growth: evidence from China at both aggregated and disaggregated levels,” Energy Economics 30(6): 3077-3094.
[ 124 ] Zhang, X., et al. 2010. “A study of the role played by renewable energies in China′s sustainable energy supply,” Energy 35(11): 4392-4399. 
指導教授 梁啟源(Chi-Yuan Liang) 審核日期 2014-7-1
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明