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論文名稱 聖克里斯多福康納利掩埋場整治效益之研究
(Landfill Mining and Reclamation of the Conaree Landfill Site in Saint Christopher)
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摘要(中) 座落於聖克里斯多福島 (又名聖克島) 的康納利掩埋場迄今已經操作了50年。2002年之前,該掩埋場是不合衛生要求之廢棄物棄置場,之後政府將其整修成衛生掩埋場。本掩埋場目前由公營之廢棄物管理公司 (SWMC) 經營,並收受全島所收集每週約700 ~ 800公噸之廢棄物。康納利掩埋場佔地12.8公頃,其中4.2公頃為掩埋區,掩埋量可達15萬3000立方公尺,但是於2012年即已達到設計之掩埋量。
本研究目的是探討康納利掩埋場廢棄物重行挖出及回收於增加掩埋體積、環境利益及廢棄物回收方面之效益。研究結果顯示,本掩埋場估計有約364,270公噸之廢棄物,可回收再利用廢棄物包括金屬類與塑膠類廢棄物。於成本分析方面,開挖之工程費估計為美金$1,010,000元,回收廢棄物之費用為$177,801元,而回收之金屬類出售所得,按本國之市場行情為美金$177,801元;至於塑膠類廢棄物因尚無市場出售價值,但可送往擬興建中之焚化爐處理而增加熱值,此外,本既有掩埋場因而可增加9,866立方公尺之掩埋空間。
通常情況,掩埋場重新整治亦有減少溫室氣體甲烷 (CH4)與二氧化碳之環境利益,可是本掩埋場之操作年限已超過50年,加上挖出之有機廢棄物仍需填埋回本掩埋場,因此,本研究並未將此項環境利益納入。本掩埋場經重新整治後之環境效益應可達到有害廢棄物之掘出後予以妥適處理、減少廢氣自掩埋區之逸散及防止滲出水污染等。受限於所需之研究時間及條件,本研究未有環境利益方面之量化結果,無論如何,就長期而言,康納利掩埋場整治後所獲得之環境效益必會超過工程方面之成本。
摘要(英) The Conaree Landfill site located in the island of Saint Christopher (St. Kitts or Saint Kitts) has been operating for over 50 years. Before 2002, the burial site was a garbage dump site until it was renovated into a sanitary landfill by the government. The site now is managed by the Solid Waste Management Corporation (SWMC) which is a government owned entity, and receives approximately 700-800 tonnes of solid waste weekly which are all of the collected amount of the island’s solid waste. Conaree landfill site has 12.8 hectares with 4.2 hectares dedicated to solid waste disposal. Total disposal capacity of the landfill is 153,000 cubic metres. In 2012, it had reached full capacity in solid waste burial.
The purposes of this study for Conaree Landfill in site mining and reclamation are to recover the landfill space, obtain the environmental benefits, and recover the valuable materials in the buried solid waste. In the results of this study for above purposes, it found that the site for waste bury can increase as much as 9,866 m3. About the recovery of valuable materials, in an attempt to quantify the cost and benefits while performing the landfill mining and reclamation (LFMR) project in St. Kitts. This study applied a method to estimate the amount of solid waste in the landfill. According to the estimation, it showed that the total waste in the landfill was 364,270 tonnes. Plastics were deemed to be not economic to be recovered for sale in the market, but that instead used as fuel in a waste to energy facility could have a considerable value. Furthermore, the total recycling cost (metals only) amounted to $177,801, while the revenue from the sale of metals amounted to $108,970. The mining cost amounted to $1,010,000. About the recycled plastic waste, because there is no market value in the nation, the waste may be sent to the incinerator which is planning to be built to increase the calorific value.
One of the possible benefit in the environment is to reduce the amount of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) gases from the landfill. However, since the organic waste excavated will still be buried back to the landfill site after mining, the methane and CO2 gas emissions cannot be avoided. Therefore, this study did not involve the mentioned emissions avoided benefit. In an environmental perspective, the performance of this landfill mining and reclamation programme can provide lots of environmental benefits including the removal of hazardous solid wastes from the landfill site for proper treatment, retrofit of qualified liners and gas-emission collection system to control release of leachate, gases, and odors, etc. Due to various constraints, this study is now to estimate these benefits with difficulty, but in the long-term it sure can exceed the measurable amount of monetary terms.
關鍵字(中) ★ 康納利掩埋場
★ 掩埋場整治
★ 都市廢棄物
關鍵字(英) ★ Conaree
★ Landfill Mining
★ Landfill Reclamation
★ Municipal Solid Waste
論文目次 中文摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
Acknowledgment iv
CHAPTER 1: Introduction 1
1.1 Study Background 1
1.1.1 Saint Christopher and Nevis 1
1.1.2 Solid Waste Management in St. Kitts 2
1.1.3 Status Quo Of Conaree Landfill 3
1.2 Scope And Objectives 5
1.2.1 Study Purpose And Scope 5
1.2.2 Study Objectives 5
1.3 Motivation 6
1.3.1 Problem Identification of the Conaree Landfill 6
1.3.2 Study Motivation 8
1.4 Study Area 15
1.5 Implications to Saint Kitts 19
CHAPTER 2: Methodology 21
2.1 Data Collection Method 21
2.2 Limitations to Study 27
CHAPTER 3: Literature Review 30
3.1 Past Experiences 31
3.1.1 Landfill Mining in Europe 32
3.1.2 Landfill Mining Projects In North America 37
3.4 Landfill Mining and Reclamation: Risk and Concerns 46
3.4.1 Hazardous and special Waste 46
3.4.2 Emissions and Odour 49
3.4.3 Dust 50
3.4.4 Leachate Management 50
3.4.5 Equipment Failure 51
3.5 Landfill Mining and Reclamation 51
3.5.1 Process and Technology Used 51
3.5.2 Excavation 56
3.5.3 Size Reduction 56
3.5.4 Screening 58
3.5.5 Air Technologies 60
3.5.6 Metal Separation 61
3.5.7 Waste Separation 64
3.6 Cost-Benefit Analysis 65
3.6.1 Assessing the Economic Benefits 67
CHAPTER 4: Saint Kitts Landfill Mining Case study 74
4.1 Potential Cost of Mining the Conaree Landfill 75
4.1.1 Mining Cost 75
4.1.2 Recycling Cost 77
4.2 Potential Revenue of Mining a Landfill 80
4.2.1 Recycling Revenue of Metals 81
4.3 Environmental Benefit of Mining the Conaree Landfill 81
4.4 Economic Benefit of Increasing Void for Landfill 83
CHAPTER 5: Results and Discussion 90
5.1 Estimating the Life of the Landfill 115
5.2 Expected Outcomes 120
CHAPTER 6: Conclusions And Recommendations 127
6.1 Recommendations 127
6.2 Conclusions 128
REFERENCES 131
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指導教授 廖萬里(Wan-li Liao) 審核日期 2014-7-25
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