博碩士論文 101521069 詳細資訊




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姓名 許勝彥(Sheng-Yen Hsu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 電機工程學系
論文名稱 六足機器人仿生CPG自適應步態產生器
(CPG-inspired Control Strategies for Adaptive Locomotion of Hexapod Robot)
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摘要(中) 本研究主要精神是仿效生物對規律性動作的控制機制,其運作是由一群低階神經細胞經互相傳遞及影響,產生規律的周期訊號,再藉由外界刺激與大腦刺激修正該訊號,共同合成為最後運動的型式,此即為中樞型態產生器 (Central Pattern Generator)。本系統將以 Matsuoka′s 神經振盪器作為控制六足機器人動作的 CPG(Central Pattern Generator) 基本組成單元,並搭配三軸加速度計與三軸陀螺儀即時獲取機器人姿態,利用此姿態資訊當作CPG 的回授訊號,使其在中度不規則地形能夠回復水平姿態。仿 CPG 模型控制器為一種分散式控制方法,每個足部的控制器由一群神經振盪器與感受單元所組成,每個足部的控制器彼此互相耦合,藉由不同的耦合方式產生出不同的運動步態。整體控制架構經由個別足部方向的傾角作為回授訊號輸入到神經振盪器改變其振幅大小,再與固定振幅的參考振盪器做比較產生出能平衡身軀的足部高度參考訊號,隨後將此控制訊號經由軌跡產生器轉換為機器人足部動作之軌跡,此軌跡再經由逆運動學得到實際的伺服馬達轉動角度以控制馬達轉動角度,進而達到行進時同時恢復平衡的效果。
摘要(英) In this thesis, we built a controller that can produce rhythmic locomotion inspired by biology concepts of CPG(Central Pattern Generator). CPG, a group of lower-level neural oscillators coupled each other in the creature’s central system, can produce coordinated oscillatory signals for rhythmic locomotion. The oscillatory signals can be modulated by sensory stimulator or higher-level input. We used the Matsuoka′s neural oscillator to construct CPG-based controller of the Hexapod walking robot for generating feet control signals. The body attitude, used for feedback pathway, can be captured by fusing IMU’s data from 3-axis accelerometer and 3-axis gyroscope. Hexapod robot can be up to horizontal when walking on terrains of medium degrees of irregularity by using the CPG as a controller and body attitude as feedback. The CPG is a distributed control method. Each foot has their own CPG controller construct by a group of neurons and sensory feedback. The different output pattern can be produced by different topology of the CPG. The tilt of each foot’s direction is used as feedback for the external neural oscillator to change oscillation amplitude. Then produce the control signal by comparing the external neural oscillator and reference neural oscillator. Inverse kinematics is used for converting the control signal to produced motor angle command. The cooperation of each part of this system achieved to make hexapod robot walking with tilt recoverability.
關鍵字(中) ★ 六足機器人
★ 神經振盪器
★ 中樞型態產生器
★ 步態設計
★ 加速度計
★ 陀螺儀
關鍵字(英) ★ Hexapod Robot
★ Neural Oscillator
★ Walking Pattern Design
★ Central Pattern Generator
★ Accelerometer
★ Gyroscope
論文目次 摘要.......................................i
ABSTRACT......................................ii
誌謝.............................................iii
目錄................................................iv
圖目錄................................vi
表目錄.....................................ix
第一章 緒論................................................1
1.1 研究背景與動機....................................1
1.2 研究成果與貢獻...................................3
1.3 論文架構...............................................4
第二章 相關研究與知識背景....................5
2.1 非線性振盪器.......................................5
2.2 神經振盪器...........................................6
2.3 CPG使用在機器人................................9
2.4 歸納.......................................................14
第三章 硬體架構設計................................16
3.1 硬體架構概觀.......................................16
3.2 足部機構...............................................16
3.3 主控制板...............................................17
3.3.1 PIC32MX440微控制器........................18
3.3.2 MPU6050姿態感測器.........................19
3.4 電源板.......................................19
3.4.1 TL494交換式變壓控制器...................20
3.4.2 LM7805&LM1117線性變壓器.............21
第四章 系統架構設計................................22
4.1 系統架構概觀........................................22
4.2 Matsuoka′s神經振盪器...........................23
4.2.1 振幅可調特性.....................................26
4.2.2 頻率可調特性.....................................27
4.2.3 週期訊號耦合特性.............................28
4.2.4 步態參考產生器設計.........................29
4.3 逆運動學..................................30
4.4 訊號融合濾波器....................................31
4.4.1 低通濾波器.........................................33
4.4.2 高通濾波器.........................................34
4.4.3 互補濾波器.........................................36
4.5 回授設計....................................37
4.6 步態設計..............................39
第五章 實驗結果與討論.............................46
5.1 平坦地形前進........................................46
5.2 原地踏步單足踩踏障礙物....................47
5.3 障礙地形前進........................................48
5.4 討論..........................................48
第六章 結論與未來發展.............................51
6.1 結論.........................................51
6.2 未來發展..........................52
參考文獻...............................53
附錄.........................................55
文章發表...............................................57
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指導教授 鍾鴻源(Hung-Yuan Chung) 審核日期 2014-8-15
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