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姓名 劉煜彤(Yu-Tung Liu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 水文與海洋科學研究所
論文名稱 液體與沙粒特性對動態毛細壓力與入滲現象影響之觀測
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摘要(中) 入滲是水分自地表進入到土壤的過程,其重要性包括灌溉策略的制訂發展、
估計地下水補注的時間與數量,以及化學物質在土壤中的傳輸過程。在水文研究
的應用上,有很多估計入滲量的方法曾被提出,例如Green-Ampt model (GAM)
(Green and Ampt, 1911)、Richards方程(Richards, 1931)等。在傳統達西尺度中,毛
細壓力常常被假設為定值,稱為平衡毛細壓力,但相關研究顯示,流速較快時,
實際毛細壓力與平衡毛細壓力不相等。此非平衡的毛細壓力稱為動態毛細壓力。
本研究以沙柱實驗,觀測不同暫水深條件下,入滲過程中溼潤面的移動速度。並
搭配GAM與修正型GAM的模式比較,探討在不同材質與粒徑中,流速的變化與
動態毛細壓力的關係,沙粒特性對動態毛細壓力以及入滲現象的影響。
摘要(英) Infiltration happens when water on the ground surface enters the soil.
Understanding the infiltration process is important to draw up the irrigating strategies,
estimate the time and quantity of the groundwater recharge, and understand the
transport of the chemicals in the soil. Mathematical models had been presented to
simulate the infiltration process, such as Green-Ampt Model (GAM) (Green and
Ampt, 1911) and Richards’ equation (Richards, 1931). In the traditional Darcy-scale
model, the capillary pressure is usually assumed as a constant, that is equilibrium
capillary pressure. However, studies show that the difference between the capillary
pressure and the equilibrium capillary pressure is significant in high flow velocity.
This non-equilibrium capillary pressure is called dynamic capillary pressure. In this
study, we performed a series of infiltration experiments in sand columns with different
types of sands and under different boundary conditions. To show the effects of
dynamic capillary pressure, we compared the results of the experiments with the
simulations from the GAM and the modified GAM which takes the dynamic capillary
pressure into account. We found that the dynamic effects are more significant during
the infiltrations in sands with large grain size than the ones with small grain size.
關鍵字(中) ★ 動態毛細壓力
★ 入滲現象
關鍵字(英) ★ Green-Ampt Model
★ GAM
★ MGAM
論文目次 iv
目錄
摘要................................................................................................................................. i
Abstract .......................................................................................................................... ii
誌謝.............................................................................................................................. iii
目錄............................................................................................................................... iv
圖目錄........................................................................................................................... vi
表目錄........................................................................................................................ viii
第一章 緒論........................................................................................................... - 1 -
1.1. 前言及研究動機 ...................................................................................... - 1 -
1.2. 文獻回顧 .................................................................................................. - 2 -
1.2.1. 入滲模式................................................................................... - 2 -
1.2.2. 土壤水分特性曲線................................................................... - 5 -
1.2.3. 動態毛細壓力........................................................................... - 5 -
1.3. 本文架構 .................................................................................................. - 9 -
第二章 理論模式................................................................................................. - 10 -
2.1. 修正型Green-Ampt Model ................................................................... - 10 -
2.2. 土壤水分特性曲線與平衡吸力水頭推估 ............................................ - 10 -
第三章 實驗設置................................................................................................. - 13 -
3.1. 實驗設施 ................................................................................................ - 13 -
3.2. 實驗設定 ................................................................................................ - 14 -
3.3. 儀器率定 ................................................................................................ - 15 -
3.3.1 . 土壤張力計率定.................................................................. - 16 -
3.3.2 . 土壤水分感測計率定.......................................................... - 17 -
3.4. 定水頭入滲試驗 .................................................................................... - 19 -
3.5. 土壤水分特性曲線試驗 ........................................................................ - 24 -
第四章 實驗結果與討論..................................................................................... - 28 -
4.1. 入滲實驗結果 ........................................................................................ - 28 -
4.2. 土壤保水曲線試驗結果 ........................................................................ - 35 -
第五章 結論及建議............................................................................................. - 39 -
5.1. 結論…………………………………………………………………… - 39 -
5.2. 建議……………………………………………………………………. - 39 -
參考文獻................................................................................................................. - 40 -
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指導教授 許少瑜(Shao-Yiu Hsu) 審核日期 2015-7-29
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