博碩士論文 102124601 詳細資訊




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姓名 許文鳳(KOUY BUNRONG)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 哲學研究所
論文名稱
(The Ethics of Transnational Commercial Surrogacy)
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摘要(中) 長時間以來,商業代理孕母受到廣泛的辯論。大多數的爭論仍圍繞在國內案例的討論,而這些案例通常是採用單一的法律系統來分析和應用。當代理孕母進入國際間的層面,剝削議題也日益嚴重,因為大部分的委託夫婦通常是來自已開發國家,而代孕者則是生活在貧困的發展中國家,例如泰國和印度。本文將採用正義、人權、法律和文化差異等議題作為此篇論文的背景介紹,以便讀者能夠深入代理孕母之核心倫理議題。

由於不同類型的代理孕母會涉及不同的問題和結果,本文主要聚焦於具有競爭性之國際市場的商業化代理孕母,而代理孕母與小孩間並無血緣關係。本文透過最近發生在泰國的跨國商業代孕的案例 – Baby Gammy – 來進一步分析。而關於倫理上的討論,本文採用西方Beauchamp and Childress之生命倫理學四大原則- 仁愛、不傷害、公義和自律原則,以及東方的儒家生命倫理學來分析。

經過倫理探討,本文認為商業代理孕母是有利於代孕者和委託夫婦。本文主張嚴厲控管與執行代孕契約及法律,把可能發生的傷害與剝削降低至最低點。代孕法制需要積極地改善以保護所有當事者,並提高懲罰與罰款。至於受委託辦理代孕程序的仲介則需要專業,依法辦事,調查清楚委託夫婦的背景,溝通且尊重代理孕母的自律與自願,且需要全程監察整個代孕過程。
摘要(英) Commercial surrogacy is a phenomenon that has been widely debated for a long time. Arguments surrounding the merits of this practice have notwithstanding focused on domestic cases of surrogacy, where the laws and courts of a particular legal system could be applied and analyzed with regard to specific cases.

Majority of the studies on commercial surrogacy chiefly oversees several critical issues when the transaction gets into an international level. Exploitation happens to be more serious when most of the commercial surrogacy transactions are carried out between the wealthy commissioning parents who come from developed countries and the poor surrogates who live in poverty in developing countries like Thailand and India. Other problems like the problem of justice, human rights, legal and cultural difference are sought for a careful discussion.

Since different types of surrogacy implicate a differing set of questions and consequences, this thesis focuses on the type of surrogacy that places women and children at the heart of a competitive market--international, commercial, gestational surrogacy wherein foreign women bear non-genetic children for a fee. I aim to explore the ethical controversies of this type of transnational commercial surrogacy. Next, I present a current transnational commercial surrogacy case of Baby Gammy, which posts controversies between Australian couples and Thai surrogate. For the ethical analysis, Beauchamp and Childress’s four-principled theory – beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and autonomy is applied in the hope to offer a more rich and nuanced look on transnational commercial surrogacy. Finally, a Confucian approach is proposed for a foundation towards acceptable surrogacy and its bioethical ramification is noted.

After the examination of the transnational commercial surrogacy application and cases, it appears that the practice is beneficial both to the woman who acts as a surrogate and the infertile commissioning couples who hires her. Nonetheless, to minimize harms and exploitation, this thesis proposed for a strict implementation of surrogacy arrangement and act. There is an urgent need to reconsider about how the agencies involved are well protected. This can be done through revising fine and punishment, commissioning parents’ background check, and establishing a professional surrogacy agency and committee to monitor and safeguard the whole surrogacy process.
關鍵字(中) ★ 跨國商業代孕
★ 生殖旅遊
★ Baby Gammy case
★ 四大原則
★ 儒家生命倫理學
關鍵字(英) ★ transnational commercial surrogacy
★ reproductive tourism
★ Baby Gammy case
★ four-principled theory
★ Confucian bioethics
論文目次 Table of Contents

Chinese Abstract.......................................i
English Abstract.......................................ii
Acknowledgement....................................... iv
Table of Contents......................................vi
List of Figures........................................iix
Acronyms...............................................ix

Chapter One Introduction ........................1
1.1.The Age of Assisted Reproductive Technology........2
1.2.The Infertility Context............................2
1.3.The Rise of Reproductive Tourism...................5
1.4.Surrogacy: Definition, Types and Terms............6
1.5.Historical Commercial Surrogacy Cases..............8
1.6.Research Rationale and Objective...................9
1.7.Chapter Outline....................................11

Chapter Two Debates................................13
2.1.Faith-based Objection..............................13
2.2.Mother-child Relationship and Responsibility Objection..............................................14
2.3.Commodification Argument...........................15

Chapter Three Baby Gammy: A Transnational Cas........21
3.1.Baby Gammy: A Transnational Case...................21
3.2.The Legal Landscape in Thailand....................23
3.3.The Legal Landscape in Australia…..................26

Chapter Four The Problems of Transnational Commercial Surrogacy..............................................31
4.1.Surrogates in Developing Countries.................31
4.2.Exploitation Across the Nations....................34
4.3.Legal Differences..................................37
4.4.Human Trafficking and Transnational Commercial Surrogacy..............................................39

Chapter Five Moral Analysis.........................43
5.1.The Four Bioethical Principles.....................43
5.2.Beneficence: Does TCS promote well-being?..........44
5.3.Nonmaleficence: Does TCS cause harm?...............45
5.4.Autonomy in TCS....................................51
5.5.Justice: Does TCS promote Justice?.................54

Chapter Six Confucian Bioethics as a Foundation.....56
6.1.Confucianism, Bioethics and TCS....................56
6.2.Genetic Link: Is that Matter?......................59
6.3.Womb-renting as an Exploitation....................61
6.4.Baby Selling?......................................62
6.5.Moral Conclusion...................................64
Recommendations........................................64
Limitation.............................................66

Bibliography...........................................67
Appendix A.............................................76
Appendix B.............................................86
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Theses

Tracey, Jacqueline, 2010, An Exploration of the Psychological Experiences of Commissioning Gestational Surrogate Couples (Doctoral Dissertation), Swinburne University of Technology

李淑鈴(研撰),李瑞全(指導),2006/7,《代理孕母之倫理分析:代理契約可行性 探討》,(中壢:國立中央大學哲學研究所碩士論文)

Others

A. v C. (1985). F.L.R. 445.

Cotton & Winn. (1985) F.L.R. 846.

Re Baby M. (1988). [537 A.2d 1227; 109 N.J. 396]

Re C (A Minor). (1985). Wardship: Surrogacy, F.L.R. 846.

Human Fertilization and Embryology Act 2008 (c.22)

Surrogacy Arrangements Act 1985 (c.49) (1985).

Thailand Penal Code and Thai Medical Councils Regulation On Criteria for Performing Therapeutic Termination of Pregnancy (10 November 2006)
指導教授 李瑞全(Lee Shui-Chuen) 審核日期 2015-6-26
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