博碩士論文 102223020 詳細資訊




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姓名 周玠儒(Chieh-ju Chou)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 化學學系
論文名稱 中孔洞碳材於高效能鋰離子電池之應用
(Electrochemical Performance of Lithium Ion Batteries Based on Ordered Mesoporous Carbons)
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摘要(中) 本論文主要探討規則中孔洞碳材CMK-8應用在鋰離子電極複合材料的相關研究,首先利用三嵌段共聚高分子型界面活性劑P123與矽源TEOS (Tetraethyl orthosilicate) 合成出Ia3 ̅d對稱性的Cubic KIT-6矽材,接著利用奈米膜鑄法合成出相同對稱性的CMK-8碳材,經過XRD、BET及TEM等鑑定後確認是高表面積且結構規則的中孔洞碳材。
本論文第一部份將磷酸鋰鐵 (LiFePO4) 前驅物:醋酸鋰、硝酸鐵、85 %磷酸,用含浸水熱法含浸至規則中孔洞CMK-8碳材內 (分別使用了水和乙醇兩種溶劑),不但抑制了LiFePO4晶體大小和雜相的生成,奈米尺寸晶體縮短了離子跟電子傳導路徑、CMK-8提供規則3維孔道,增加了擴散速率及整體材料在大電流充放電的結構穩定性,透過檸檬酸的添加,在0.05C充放速率下保有近100 %的效率及提升至166 mAh/g 高電容量,更能承受10C甚至更大電流的挑戰,此奈米複合材料極具應用的潛力!
第二部份將SnO2前驅物含浸至高規則CMK-8碳材孔洞中做負極應用,此複合材料有近40 %的高含浸量,電性結果顯示電容量比原來CMK-8高出許多,在0.05C第一圈放電有超過5000 mAh/g的電容量,之後的可逆電容量依舊非常高,庫倫效率幾乎維持在100%,循環次數多且耐大電流,非常適合用在大電容量產品上!!
摘要(英) Rechargeable lithium-ion battery (LIB) is one of the most promising batteries, which is currently used in many portable electronic devices and electric vehicles. In recent years, there are some applications of mesoporous carbon materials as cathode for LIB. Olivine-structured LiFePO4 (LFP) has been the focus of research in developing low cost, high performance, environmental friendliness and high thermal stability. However, LFP is insulating in nature with a low electric conductivity of around 10−11 Scm−1 (compared with 10−3 Scm–1 for LiCoO2 and 10−5 Scm−1 for LiMn2O4), inducing low rate capacity. Therefore many efforts have been made to improve the electrochemical performance.
In this work, ordered mesoporous CMK-8 was introduced into the electrode active materials to achieve high electrochemical performance. The first part, different solvent and different ratio impregnation strategies are used to prepare high rate LFP with ordered mesoporous to contact the embedded LFP nanocrystal. CMK-8 ordered mesoporous carbon material (OMCs) is assembly of cubic ordered 3D structure, which has high surface area and suitable for facile impregnation. Mesopore is good for Li+ intercalation and deintercalation due to the short Li+ diffusion distance and a high lithium-ion flux across the electrolyte/solid interface. Base on half-cell testing, mesoporous nanocomposite LFP/C-CMK8-EtOH-05 achieved a high capacity of 166 mAh/g at 0.05C rate, and 121 mAh/g at 5C rate with good cycle life.
The second part, a hybrid material consisting of SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) was embedded in the hard template CMK-8 as high capacity anode materials. It is observed that near 40 wt% of SnO2 particles with size between 3-5 nm are highly dispersed and homogeneously incorporated in the mesoporous channels and no bulky aggregates were found. The nanocomposite exhibits improved kinetics of lithiation–delithiation and high reversible capacity, and excellent cyclic stability without capacity loss over 200 cycles at 1C rate (780 mA/g) with a coulombic efficiency close to 100% after the initial cycle. This can be ascribed to the 3D-connected porosity and the confinement effect of the OMCs on the volume change of SnO2 NPs.
These results provide appropriate insight for improving the lithium storage performance of CMK-8 by accelerating the reaction kinetics and indicate that these composites have great potential to be applied in high-capacity and durable lithium ion batteries.
關鍵字(中) ★ 中孔洞碳材
★ 磷酸鋰鐵
★ 二氧化錫
★ 鋰離子電池
關鍵字(英) ★ mesoporous carbon materials
★ lithuum iron phosphate
★ tin oxide
★ Lithium ion batteries
論文目次 中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
謝誌 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xv
第一章 緒論 - 1 -
1-1前言 - 1 -
1-2研究目的及架構 - 6 -
第二章 文獻回顧 - 8 -
2-1中孔洞碳材 (Mesoporous carbon materials) - 8 -
2-1-1奈米模鑄法 (Nanocasting) - 11 -
2-1-2以奈米模鑄法合成規則有序之中孔洞碳材 - 17 -
2-1-3以界面活性劑模造法 (Surfactant templating) 合成規則有序之中孔洞碳材 - 28 -
2-2陰極材料 - 33 -
2-2-1 LiCoO2陰極材料 - 33 -
2-2-2 LiNiO2陰極材料 - 34 -
2-2-3 LiMn2O4陰極材料 - 35 -
2-2-4 LiNi1-x-yCoxMnyO2陰極材料 - 36 -
2-2-5 LiFePO4陰極材料 - 37 -
2-2-6 LiFePO4陰極藉由中孔洞材料改質方法 - 39 -
2-3陽極材料 - 53 -
2-3-1碳材 - 53 -
2-3-2非碳材 - 56 -
2-3-2-1含錫氧化物 - 56 -
2-3-2-2 鋰合金 - 57 -
2-3-3 SnO2陽極藉由中孔洞材料改質方法 - 58 -
第三章 實驗方法 - 70 -
3-1藥品 - 70 -
3-2奈米模鑄法合成三維孔道結構 (Ia3d) 中孔洞碳材 - 72 -
3-2-1三維立方體Ia3d中孔洞矽材模板KIT-6合成 - 72 -
3-2-2三維立方體 Ia3d 中孔洞碳材 CMK-8合成 - 73 -
3-3水熱法合成LFP/CMK8陰極複合材料 - 74 -
3-3-1 LiFePO4前驅物合成 - 74 -
3-3-2初濕含浸法 + 低溫水熱法 - 74 -
3-3-3燒結條件 - 74 -
3-3-4包覆導電碳 - 75 -
3-4含浸法合成SnO2@CMK8陽極複合物 - 75 -
3-5材料電化學性能測試 - 76 -
3-5-1陰極極片製作 - 76 -
3-5-2陽極極片製作 - 76 -
3-5-3硬幣型電池組裝 - 77 -
3-5-4電池性能測試方法 - 78 -
3-5-4-1定(變)電流充放電循環測試 - 78 -
3-5-4-2電化學阻抗分析 (EIS) - 78 -
3-5-4-3循環伏安法 (CV) - 78 -
3-6實驗鑑定儀器 - 79 -
3-7鑑定儀器之原理 - 80 -
3-7-1同步輻射光束線 - 80 -
3-7-2 X射線粉末繞射 (Powder X-Ray Diffractometer, XRD) - 83 -
3-7-3氮氣等溫吸脫附曲線、表面積與孔洞特性鑑定 - 84 -
3-7-3熱種分析儀 (Thermogravimetric Analyzer, TGA)83 - 88 -
3-7-4穿透式電子顯微鏡 (Transmission Electron Microscope, TEM)85 - 89-
3-7-5掃描式電子顯微鏡 (Scanning Electron Microscope, SEM)86 - 91 -
第四章 結果與討論 - 92 -
4-1奈米模鑄法合成Ia3d 規則中孔洞碳材及LFP/CMK8 陰極奈米複合物 - 92 -
4-1-1低角度XRD結果分析 - 92 -
4-1-2高角度XRD 結果分析 - 96 -
4-1-3氮氣等溫吸附/脫附結果分析 - 99 -
4-1-4熱重分析 - 104 -
4-1-5 TEM結果分析 - 106 -
4-1-6 SEM結果分析 - 108 -
4-1-7導電碳包覆前之電性表現 - 110 -
4-1-8導電碳包覆後之電性表現 - 114 -
4-1-9循環伏安法分析 - 121 -
4-1-10交流阻抗分析 - 123 -
4-1-11感應耦合電漿/原子放射光譜分析 - 125 -
4-2含浸法合成SnO2@CMK8陽極奈米複合物 - 126 -
4-2-1 XRD 結果分析 - 126 -
4-2-2氮氣等溫吸附/脫附結果分析 - 128 -
4-2-3熱重分析 - 130 -
4-2-4 TEM結果分析 - 131 -
4-2-5電性表現 - 133 -
4-2-6循環伏安法分析 - 137 -
4-2-7交流阻抗分析 - 139 -
4-2-8充放電前後SEM結果分析 - 140 -
第五章 結論 - 142 -
參考文獻 - 144 -
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指導教授 高憲明(Hsien-Ming Kao) 審核日期 2015-7-29
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