博碩士論文 102326007 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:8 、訪客IP:100.26.179.196
姓名 詹凱博(Kai-Po Chan)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 氣相層析三段四極柱串聯質譜儀應用於多溴二苯醚環境樣品之分析
(Application of Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Tandem Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS-QqQ-MS) for the Analysis of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs))
相關論文
★ 埔心溪補助灌溉水水質與渠道底泥重金屬含量調查分析★ 桃園航空城三所國小周界大氣PAHs濃度探討
★ 無塵室揮發性有機氣體異味調查探討 -以某晶圓級封裝廠為例★ 利用土壤植栽與固相微萃取探討植作對非離子態有機污染物之吸收模式
★ 零價鐵與硫酸鹽的添加對於水田根圈環境汞 之生物有效性與菌相組成的影響★ 以紫外光/二氧化鈦光催化降解程序去除水溶液相內分泌干擾物質壬基苯酚之研究
★ 異化性鐵還原狀態下非生物性汞氧化還原 作用及其對地下水水質之影響★ 水溶液相中多壁奈米碳管分散懸浮與抑菌效果之相關性探討
★ 鄰近汞排放源之水稻田受現地地質化學與微生物影響之甲基汞生成與累積作用-以北投垃圾焚化爐為例★ 以淨水污泥灰及廢玻璃為矽鋁源合成MCM-41並應用於重鉻酸鹽吸附之研究
★ 鄰近汞排放源之水稻田受現地地質化學與微生物影響之甲基汞生成與累積作用 -以台中火力發電廠為例★ 細胞固定化影響厭氧氨氧化程序脫氮效能之研究
★ 藉由非抗性模式細菌對鎘之攝取機制探討量子點的生態毒性潛勢★ 利用生物性聚合物交聯所成穿透式網絡結構穩定污染土壤中之重金屬(鉛、鉻、鎘)
★ 蚯蚓處理加速堆肥廚餘去化可行性評估-以臺北市為例★ 吸附汞之三價鐵礦於生物還原溶解過程中元素汞的生成與移動潛勢
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 目前市面上微量濃度的多溴二苯醚(Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs)樣品檢測仍多依賴氣相層析/高解析質譜儀(Gas chromatography /High resolution mass spectrometer, GC/HRMS)系統,主要乃因其具有絕佳的精密度與偵測極限等優點。然而,此套設備不僅購置費用昂貴且體積龐大外,在操作維護的難度及成本也極高,因此國內能夠擁有HRMS且具備超微量PBDEs多種同源物定量能力的實驗室並不多見,形成技術推廣上的一大瓶頸。相較於GC/HRMS的這些限制,氣相層析/串聯式質譜儀(GC-MS/MS)由於近年來在感度上已大幅提升,加上具有相對低廉的價格、較小的佔用空間、較易維護及較低分析成本等優點,歐盟於2014年將此系統與GC/HRMS列為在戴奧辛檢測分析上具有同等級的確認方法,因此極有潛力在未來能成為檢測PBDEs的新方法。本研究即嘗試以新型氣相層析/串聯式質譜儀(Thermo TSQ 8000 Evo)建置PBDEs分析方法,建置規範參考歐盟Commission Regulation (EU)No 589/2014及環檢所公告方法NIEA M802.00B,使用的管柱為DB-5HT (Length:15m,I.D.:0.25mm,Film:0.1μm),分析時間為24分鐘,PBDEs建置的種類共27種(一至十溴),以5組標準品溶液建立檢量線,其感應因子(RRF)之相對標準偏差RSD (%)除BDE-156與BDE-196(分別21.1%與24.7%)外均於20%以下,同時其具有良好的線性關係(R2>0.998)、優異的偵測極限、精密度與準確度,在檢測不同環境基質樣品中多種PBDEs微量濃度(ppt及ppq等級)的表現上,GC-MS/MS檢測結果與HRMS僅呈現出20%系統性負偏差,因此未來具有廣泛的應用前景。
摘要(英) To date, trace levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in environmental samples have been primarily measured using the gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometer (GC/HRMS) system. While GC/HRMS systems have many advantages such as excellent precision and detection limits, they also have several major bottlenecks for technology promotion including expensive acquisition, costly operation and maintenance, as well as bulky volume, resulting in only few laboratories in Taiwan that have the capacity to perform PBDEs analysis with GC/HRMS systems. Nonetheless, due to its substantial sensitivity improvement, the gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) system has draw a great deal of attention lately and is considered potentially to be used as a confirmatory method for PBDEs in the future. In fact, the GC-MS/MS system has been included in the regulations of the European Union on analysis for the official control of dioxin levels in 2014. The major reasons for it are, in contrast to these restrictions of GC/HRMS systems, that they are cheaper to acquire and operate, easier to maintain, and have a relatively compact size. In this study, we aimed to develope an analytic method for PBDEs by the use of Thermo Scientific™ TSQ™ 8000 Evo system and its establishment specification is referencing European Commission Regulation (EU) No 589/2014 and NIEA M802.00B, which is announced by Environmental Analysis Laboratory, Taiwan. The total 27 congeners of PBDEs established convering one to ten bromine moieties that were tested by the following settings: DB-5HT column (Length: 15m, I.D.: 0.25mm and Film: 0.1μm), 24 minutes as analysis period, and the calibration curve was prepared using five groups of standard solution. The results show that most of their Relative Response Factor of the relative standard deviation were less than 20%, except BDE-156 and BDE-196 that were 21.1% and 24.7%, respectively. Moreover, these results were obtained in good linearity (R2> 0.998), excellent detection limits, precision and accuracy. Our results suggest that the GC-MS/MS system has broad application prospects for the detection of trace PBDEs among diverse environmental matrices due to that performance achieves merely 20% negative systemic deviation in comparison with GC/HRMS systems (at both ppt and ppq levels).
關鍵字(中) ★ 多溴二苯醚
★ 氣相層析/串聯式質譜儀
★ 氣相層析儀/高解析質譜儀
關鍵字(英) ★ PBDEs
★ GC-MS/MS
★ GC/HRMS
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 xi
第一章 前言 1
1.1 研究緣起 1
1.2 研究目的 2
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 持久性有機污染物 3
2.2 多溴二苯醚 4
2.2.1 多溴二苯醚之基本特性 6
2.2.2 多溴二苯醚於環境中之流布 8
2.2.3 多溴二苯之管制策略 12
2.3 傳統檢測技術儀器 14
2.3.1 質譜儀(Mass spectrometer,MS) 15
2.3.2 電子捕獲器(ECD、μECD) 21
2.4 近代檢測技術儀器 22
2.4.1 串聯式質譜儀(Tandem Mass Spectrometry, MS/MS) 24
2.5 氣相層析三段四極柱串聯質譜儀(GC/MS-QqQ-MS) 26
第三章 研究方法 29
3.1 研究流程設計 29
3.2 實驗藥品與試劑 29
3.2.1 實驗藥品 29
3.2.2 實驗溶劑 29
3.3 實驗材料與設備 30
3.3.1 實驗材料 30
3.3.2 實驗設備 31
3.4 檢量線建置 32
3.4.1 PBDEs標準品 32
3.4.2 相對感應因子(Relative Response Factor,RRF) 36
3.5 氣相層析三段四極柱串聯質譜儀(GC/MS-QqQ-MS)設定 37
3.5.1 氣相層析(GC) 37
3.5.2 三段四極柱(Triple Quadrupole,QqQ)質譜儀 37
3.5.3 母離子、子離子對測試 37
3.5.4 解析度測試 38
3.6 高解析度氣相層析/高解析度質譜儀設定 40
3.6.1 高解析度氣相層析(HRGC) 40
3.6.2 高解析度氣質譜儀(HRMS) 40
3.6.3 監測離子及質荷比設定 40
3.7 準確度與精密度評估 44
3.7.1 儀器之準確度與精密度 44
3.7.2 方法之準確度與精密度 45
3.8 方法之偵測極限評估 45
3.9 真實樣品分析 46
3.9.1 樣品萃取與淨化 46
3.10 品保品管 48
3.10.1 內標準品回收百分率 48
3.10.2 空白基質添加待測物標準品回收率 48
3.10.3 檢量線確認標準品回收率及相對標準偏差 48
第四章 結果與討論 49
4.1 串聯質譜儀之最適分析條件 49
4.1.1 母離子、子離子與碰撞能量 49
4.1.2 解析度之探討 62
4.2 方法之偵測極限評估 64
4.3 線性範圍之討論 68
4.4 準確度與精密度評估 70
4.4.1 儀器之準確度與精密度 70
4.4.2 方法之準確度與精密度 73
4.5 真實樣品分析 75
4.5.1 底泥樣品 75
4.5.2 生物體(魚體)樣品 80
4.5.1 水體樣品 85
4.6 品保品管 90
4.6.1 內標準品回收率 90
4.6.2 空白基質添加待測物標準品回收率 99
第五章 結論與建議 102
5.1 結論 102
5.2 建議 103
參考資料 104
參考文獻 1. Barco‐Bonilla, N., P. Plaza‐Bolaños, N. M. V. Tarifa, R. Romero‐González, J. L. Martínez Vidal, and A. G. Frenich, “Highly sensitive determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface water by GC coupled to high‐resolution MS according to the EU Water Directive 2008/105/EC”, Journal of separation science, vol. 37, pp. 69-76,(2014).
2. Binelli, A., C. Roscioli, and L. Guzzella, “Improvements in the analysis of decabromodiphenyl ether using on-column injection and electron-capture detection”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1136, pp. 243-247,(2006).
3. Binici, B., M. Bilsel, M. Karakas, I. Koyuncu, and A. C. Goren, “An efficient GC–IDMS method for determination of PBDEs and PBB in plastic materials”, Talanta, vol. 116, pp. 417-426,(2013).
4. Blanco, S. L., and J. M. Vieites, “Single-run determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) di- to deca-brominated in fish meal, fish oil and fish feed by isotope dilution: Application of automated sample purification and gas chromatography/ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC/ITMS)”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 672, pp. 137-146,(2010).
5. Butt, C. M., M. L. Diamond, J. Truong, M. G. Ikonomou, and A. F. Ter Schure, “Spatial distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in southern Ontario as measured in indoor and outdoor window organic films”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 38, pp. 724-731,(2004).
6. Camino-Sánchez, F. J., A. Zafra-Gómez, S. Cantarero-Malagón, and J. L. Vílchez, “Validation of a method for the analysis of 77 priority persistent organic pollutants in river water by stir bar sorptive extraction in compliance with the European Water Framework Directive”, Talanta, vol. 89, pp. 322-334,(2012).
7. Cetin, B., and M. Odabasi, “Particle-phase dry deposition and air-soil gas-exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in Izmir, Turkey”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 41, pp. 4986-4992,(2007).
8. Chen, S.-J., X.-J. Gao, B.-X. Mai, Z.-M. Chen, X.-J. Luo, G.-Y. Sheng, J.-M. Fu, and E. Y. Zeng, “Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in surface sediments of the Yangtze River Delta: Levels, distribution and potential hydrodynamic influence”, Environmental Pollution, vol. 144, pp. 951-957,(2006).
9. Chen, Y., Z. Li, Y. Tan, C. Zhang, J. Chen, F. He, Y. Yu, and D. Chen, “Prenatal exposure to decabrominated diphenyl ether impairs learning ability by altering neural stem cell viability, apoptosis, and differentiation in rat hippocampus”, Human & experimental toxicology,(2014).
10. Cincinelli, A., T. Martellini, L. Misuri, E. Lanciotti, A. Sweetman, S. Laschi, and I. Palchetti, “PBDEs in Italian sewage sludge and environmental risk of using sewage sludge for land application”, Environmental Pollution, vol. 161, pp. 229-234,(2012).
11. Cojocariu, C., P. Silcock, and A. Kotz, “Validation of GC-MS/MS for Detection and Confirmation of Low-Level Dioxins” ,(2014)
12. Cristale, J., A. García Vázquez, C. Barata, and S. Lacorte, “Priority and emerging flame retardants in rivers: Occurrence in water and sediment, Daphnia magna toxicity and risk assessment”, Environ Int, vol. 59, pp. 232-243,(2013).
13. Darnerud, P. O., “Toxic effects of brominated flame retardants in man and in wildlife”, Environ Int, vol. 29, pp. 841-853,(2003).
14. de Wit, C. A., “An overview of brominated flame retardants in the environment”, Chemosphere, vol. 46, pp. 583-624,(2002).
15. Dunnick, J., A. Brix, H. Cunny, M. Vallant, and K. Shockley, “Characterization of polybrominated diphenyl ether toxicity in Wistar Han rats and use of liver microarray data for predicting disease susceptibilities”, Toxicologic pathology, vol. 40, pp. 93-106,(2012).
16. Eljarrat, E., A. De La Cal, D. Larrazabal, B. Fabrellas, A. R. Fernandez-Alba, F. Borrull, R. M. Marce, and D. Barcelo, “Occurrence of polybrominated diphenylethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans and biphenyls in coastal sediments from Spain”, Environmental Pollution, vol. 136, pp. 493-501,(2005).
17. Eljarrat, E., A. Labandeira, G. Marsh, D. Raldúa, and D. Barceló, “Decabrominated diphenyl ether in river fish and sediment samples collected downstream an industrial park”, Chemosphere, vol. 69, pp. 1278-1286,(2007).
18. García-Bermejo, Á., M. Ábalos, J. Sauló, E. Abad, M. J. González, and B. Gómara, “Triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry: A real alternative to high resolution magnetic sector instrument for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 889, pp. 156-165,(2015).
19. Gevao, B., A. N. Ghadban, S. Uddin, F. M. Jaward, M. Bahloul, and J. Zafar, “Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soils along a rural-urban-rural transect: Sources, concentration gradients, and profiles”, Environmental Pollution, vol. 159, pp. 3666-3672,(2011).
20. Giandomenico, S., L. Spada, C. Annicchiarico, G. Assennato, N. Cardellicchio, N. Ungaro, and A. D. Leo, “Chlorinated compounds and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected from Apulia Region coasts”, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 73, pp. 243-251,(2013).
21. Gouin, T., and T. Harner, “Modelling the environmental fate of the polybrominated diphenyl ethers”, Environ Int, vol. 29, pp. 717-724,(2003).
22. Gouin, T., G. O. Thomas, C. Chaemfa, T. Harner, D. Mackay, and K. C. Jones, “Concentrations of decabromodiphenyl ether in air from Southern Ontario: Implications for particle-bound transport”, Chemosphere, vol. 64, pp. 256-261,(2006).
23. Guoguang, W., Z. Dahai, Y. Dandan, P. Jialin, and L. Xianguo, “Determination of eight polybrominated diphenyl ethers in marine sediments by ultrasonically assisted alkaline degradation extraction and gas chromatography-electron capture detection”, Se pu= Chinese journal of chromatography/Zhongguo hua xue hui, vol. 33, p. 885,(2015).
24. Hermanussen, S., V. Matthews, O. Päpke, C. J. Limpus, and C. Gaus, “Flame retardants (PBDEs) in marine turtles, dugongs and seafood from Queensland, Australia”, Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 57, pp. 409-418,(2008).
25. Ikonomou, M. G., S. Rayne, and R. F. Addison, “Exponential increases of the brominated flame retardants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, in the Canadian Arctic from 1981 to 2000”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 36, pp. 1886-1892,(2002).
26. IPCS, “Environmental Health Criteria no. 162. Brominated diphenyl ethers.”, International Program on Chemical Safety,(1994).
27. Jaward, F. M., N. J. Farrar, T. Harner, A. J. Sweetman, and K. C. Jones, “Passive air sampling of PCBs, PBDEs, and organochlorine pesticides across Europe”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 38, pp. 34-41,(2004).
28. Jhong, Y. J., and W. H. Ding, “Method optimization for quantitation of decabromodiphenyl ether in sediments and earthworms using liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry”, Rapid communications in mass spectrometry, vol. 21, pp. 4158-4161,(2007).
29. Jiang, Y., X. Wang, K. Zhu, M. Wu, G. Sheng, and J. Fu, “Occurrence, compositional profiles and possible sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban soils of Shanghai, China”, Chemosphere, vol. 80, pp. 131-136,(2010).
30. Kajiwara, N., S. Kamikawa, K. Ramu, D. Ueno, T. K. Yamada, A. Subramanian, P. K. S. Lam, T. A. Jefferson, M. Prudente, K.-H. Chung, and S. Tanabe, “Geographical distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in small cetaceans from Asian waters”, Chemosphere, vol. 64, pp. 287-295,(2006).
31. Kalachova, K., T. Cajka, C. Sandy, J. Hajslova, and J. Pulkrabova, “High throughput sample preparation in combination with gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS): A smart procedure for (ultra)trace analysis of brominated flame retardants in fish”, Talanta, vol. 105, pp. 109-116,(2013).
32. Król, S., B. Zabiegała, and J. Namieśnik, “PBDEs in environmental samples: sampling and analysis”, Talanta, vol. 93, pp. 1-17,(2012).
33. L’Homme, B., G. Scholl, G. Eppe, and J. F. Focant, “Validation of a gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for confirmatory analysis of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls in feed following new EU Regulation 709/2014”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1376, pp. 149-158,(2015).
34. Lema, S. C., I. R. Schultz, N. L. Scholz, J. P. Incardona, and P. Swanson, “Neural defects and cardiac arrhythmia in fish larvae following embryonic exposure to 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (PBDE 47)”, Aquatic Toxicology, vol. 82, pp. 296-307,(2007).
35. Li, Y., D. Geng, F. Liu, T. Wang, P. Wang, Q. Zhang, and G. Jiang, “Study of PCBs and PBDEs in King George Island, Antarctica, using PUF passive air sampling”, Atmospheric Environment, vol. 51, pp. 140-145,(2012a).
36. Li, Y., G. Wei, and X. Wang, “Determination of decabromodiphenyl ether in water samples by single‐drop microextraction and RP‐HPLC”, Journal of separation science, vol. 30, pp. 2698-2702,(2007).
37. Li, Z.-H., X.-Y. Liu, N. Wang, J.-S. Chen, Y.-H. Chen, J.-T. Huang, C.-H. Su, F. Xie, B. Yu, and D.-J. Chen, “Effects of decabrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE-209) in regulation of growth and apoptosis of breast, ovarian, and cervical cancer cells”, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 120, p. 541,(2012b).
38. Liang, X., S. Zhu, P. Chen, and L. Zhu, “Bioaccumulation and bioavailability of polybrominated diphynel ethers (PBDEs) in soil”, Environmental Pollution, vol. 158, pp. 2387-2392,(2010).
39. Lin, S.-M., F.-A. Chen, Y.-F. Huang, L.-L. Hsing, L.-L. Chen, L.-S. Wu, T.-S. Liu, G.-P. Chang-Chien, K.-C. Chen, and H.-R. Chao, “Negative associations between PBDE levels and thyroid hormones in cord blood”, International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 214, pp. 115-120,(2011).
40. Liu, X., J. Li, Z. Zhao, W. Zhang, K. Lin, C. Huang, and X. Wang, “Solid-phase extraction combined with dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction for the determination for polybrominated diphenyl ethers in different environmental matrices”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1216, pp. 2220-2226,(2009).
41. Liu, X., A. Zhao, A. Zhang, H. Liu, W. Xiao, C. Wang, and X. Wang, “Dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry determination of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in milk”, Journal of separation science, vol. 34, pp. 1084-1090,(2011).
42. Losada, S., J. Parera, M. Abalos, E. Abad, F. J. Santos, and M. T. Galceran, “Suitability of selective pressurized liquid extraction combined with gas chromatography–ion-trap tandem mass spectrometry for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 678, pp. 73-81,(2010a).
43. Losada, S., F. J. Santos, A. Covaci, and M. T. Galceran, “Gas chromatography–ion trap tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1217, pp. 5253-5260,(2010b).
44. Luo, Q., Z. W. Cai, and M. H. Wong, “Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish and sediment from river polluted by electronic waste”, Science of The Total Environment, vol. 383, pp. 115-127,(2007a).
45. Luo, Q., M. Wong, and Z. Cai, “Determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in freshwater fishes from a river polluted by e-wastes”, Talanta, vol. 72, pp. 1644-1649,(2007b).
46. Mackintosh, S. A., A. Pérez-Fuentetaja, L. R. Zimmerman, G. Pacepavicius, M. Clapsadl, M. Alaee, and D. S. Aga, “Analytical performance of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer compared to a high resolution mass spectrometer for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 747, pp. 67-75,(2012).
47. Malavia, J., F. J. Santos, and M. T. Galceran, “Simultaneous pressurized liquid extraction and clean-up for the analysis of polybrominated biphenyls by gas chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry”, Talanta, vol. 84, pp. 1155-1162,(2011).
48. Mandalakis, M., V. Atsarou, and E. G. Stephanou, “Airborne PBDEs in specialized occupational settings, houses and outdoor urban areas in Greece”, Environmental Pollution, vol. 155, pp. 375-382,(2008a).
49. Mandalakis, M., E. G. Stephanou, Y. Horii, and K. Kannan, “Emerging contaminants in car interiors: evaluating the impact of airborne PBDEs and PBDD/Fs”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 42, pp. 6431-6436,(2008b).
50. McLuckey, S. A., and J. M. Wells, “Mass analysis at the advent of the 21st century”, Chemical reviews, vol. 101, pp. 571-606,(2001).
51. Medina, C., E. Pitarch, F. López, C. Vázquez, and F. Hernández, “Determination of PBDEs in human breast adipose tissues by gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry”, Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry, vol. 390, pp. 1343-1354,(2008).
52. Meerts, I., R. J. Letcher, S. Hoving, G. Marsh, A. Bergman, J. G. Lemmen, B. van der Burg, and A. Brouwer, “In vitro estrogenicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, hydroxylated PDBEs, and polybrominated bisphenol A compounds”, Environmental Health Perspectives, vol. 109, p. 399,(2001).
53. Miller, M. F., S. M. Chernyak, S. E. Domino, S. A. Batterman, and R. Loch-Caruso, “Concentrations and speciation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in human amniotic fluid”, Science of The Total Environment, vol. 417–418, pp. 294-298,(2012).
54. Moliner-Martinez, Y., P. Campíns-Falcó, C. Molins-Legua, L. Segovia-Martínez, and A. Seco-Torrecillas, “Miniaturized matrix solid phase dispersion procedure and solid phase microextraction for the analysis of organochlorinated pesticides and polybrominated diphenylethers in biota samples by gas chromatography electron capture detection”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1216, pp. 6741-6745,(2009).
55. Moon, H.-B., M. Choi, J. Yu, R.-H. Jung, and H.-G. Choi, “Contamination and potential sources of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in water and sediment from the artificial Lake Shihwa, Korea”, Chemosphere, vol. 88, pp. 837-843,(2012).
56. Moon, H.-B., S.-P. Yoon, R.-H. Jung, and M. Choi, “Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as a source of sediment contamination by toxic organic pollutants and fecal sterols in a semi-enclosed bay in Korea”, Chemosphere, vol. 73, pp. 880-889,(2008).
57. Nouira, T., C. Risso, L. Chouba, H. Budzinski, and H. Boussetta, “Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in surface sediments from Monastir Bay (Tunisia, Central Mediterranean): Occurrence, distribution and seasonal variations”, Chemosphere, vol. 93, pp. 487-493,(2013).
58. Olukunle, O., J. Okonkwo, K. Kefeni, and M. Lupankwa, “Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sediments from Jukskei River, Gauteng, South Africa”, Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, vol. 88, pp. 461-466,(2012).
59. Organtini, K. L., L. Haimovici, K. J. Jobst, E. J. Reiner, A. Ladak, D. Stevens, J. W. Cochran, and F. L. Dorman, “Comparison of Atmospheric Pressure Ionization Gas Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry to Traditional High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry for the Identification and Quantification of Halogenated Dioxins and Furans”, Analytical chemistry, vol. 87, pp. 7902-7908,(2015).
60. Oros, D. R., D. Hoover, F. Rodigari, D. Crane, and J. Sericano, “Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water, surface sediments, and bivalves from the San Francisco Estuary”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 39, pp. 33-41,(2005).
61. Pérez-Fuentetaja, A., S. Lupton, M. Clapsadl, F. Samara, L. Gatto, R. Biniakewitz, and D. S. Aga, “PCB and PBDE levels in wild common carp (Cyprinus carpio) from eastern Lake Erie”, Chemosphere, vol. 81, pp. 541-547,(2010).
62. Riva, C., A. Binelli, D. Cogni, and A. Provini, “Evaluation of DNA damage induced by decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE‐209) in hemocytes of Dreissena polymorpha using the comet and micronucleus assays”, Environmental and molecular mutagenesis, vol. 48, pp. 735-743,(2007).
63. Sacks, V. P., and R. Lohmann, “Freely dissolved PBDEs in water and porewater of an urban estuary”, Environmental Pollution, vol. 162, pp. 287-293,(2012).
64. Samara, F., C. W. Tsai, and D. S. Aga, “Determination of potential sources of PCBs and PBDEs in sediments of the Niagara River”, Environmental Pollution, vol. 139, pp. 489-497,(2006).
65. Sanchez-Prado, L., M. Llompart, M. Lores, C. Garcia-Jares, and R. Cela, “Investigation of photodegradation products generated after UV-irradiation of five polybrominated diphenyl ethers using photo solid-phase microextraction”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1071, pp. 85-92,(2005).
66. Schriemer, D. C., and L. Li, “Detection of high molecular weight narrow polydisperse polymers up to 1.5 million daltons by MALDI mass spectrometry”, Analytical chemistry, vol. 68, pp. 2721-2725,(1996).
67. Strandberg, B., N. G. Dodder, I. Basu, and R. A. Hites, “Concentrations and spatial variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other organohalogen compounds in Great Lakes air”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 35, pp. 1078-1083,(2001).
68. Streets, S. S., S. A. Henderson, A. D. Stoner, D. L. Carlson, M. F. Simcik, and D. L. Swackhamer, “Partitioning and bioaccumulation of PBDEs and PCBs in Lake Michigan”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 40, pp. 7263-7269,(2006).
69. Ueno, D., T. Isobe, K. Ramu, S. Tanabe, M. Alaee, C. Marvin, K. Inoue, T. Someya, T. Miyajima, H. Kodama, and H. Nakata, “Spatial distribution of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorines in bivalves from Japanese coastal waters”, Chemosphere, vol. 78, pp. 1213-1219,(2010).
70. van Bavel, B., D. Geng, L. Cherta, J. Nácher-Mestre, T. Portolés, M. Ábalos, J. Sauló, E. Abad, J. Dunstan, and R. Jones, “Atmospheric-Pressure Chemical Ionization Tandem Mass Spectrometry (APGC/MS/MS) an Alternative to High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) for the Determination of Dioxins”, Analytical chemistry, vol. 87, pp. 9047-9053,(2015).
71. Vigano, L., C. Roscioli, C. Erratico, and L. Guzzella, “Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 0+ juvenile cyprinids and sediments of the Po River”, Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol. 55, pp. 282-294,(2008).
72. Wan, Y., S. Wiseman, H. Chang, X. Zhang, P. D. Jones, M. Hecker, K. Kannan, S. Tanabe, J. Hu, and M. H. Lam, “Origin of hydroxylated brominated diphenyl ethers: natural compounds or man-made flame retardants?”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 43, pp. 7536-7542,(2009).
73. WANG, D.-d., W.-h. HUANG, T.-t. HUANG, W.-z. XU, L.-q. YANG, and W. ZHOU, “Dispersive liquid. liquid microextraction coupled with GC-ECD for determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water samples”, Journal of Central South University (Science and Technology), vol. 10, p. 063,(2012).
74. WANG, D.-d., W.-h. HUANG, and L.-q. YANG, “Determination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Soil by Ultrasound/Microwave Assisted Extraction and GC/ECD [J]”, Journal of Instrumental Analysis, vol. 8, p. 017,(2011a).
75. Wang, I. T. I., S.-F. Cheng, and S.-W. Tsai, “Determinations of airborne synthetic musks by polyurethane foam coupled with triple quadrupole gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometer”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1330, pp. 61-68,(2014).
76. Wang, J.-X., D.-Q. Jiang, Z.-Y. Gu, and X.-P. Yan, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes coated fibers for solid-phase microextraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water and milk samples before gas chromatography with electron-capture detection”, Journal of Chromatography A, vol. 1137, pp. 8-14,(2006).
77. Wang, J., Z. Lin, K. Lin, C. Wang, W. Zhang, C. Cui, J. Lin, Q. Dong, and C. Huang, “Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in water, sediment, soil, and biological samples from different industrial areas in Zhejiang, China”, Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 197, pp. 211-219,(2011b).
78. Wang, M.-S., S.-J. Chen, K.-L. Huang, Y.-C. Lai, G.-P. Chang-Chien, J.-H. Tsai, W.-Y. Lin, K.-C. Chang, and J.-T. Lee, “Determination of levels of persistent organic pollutants (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, PBDEs, PCBs, and PBBs) in atmosphere near a municipal solid waste incinerator”, Chemosphere, vol. 80, pp. 1220-1226,(2010).
79. Wei, H., P. S. Dassanayake, and A. Li, “Parametric evaluation for programmable temperature vaporisation large volume injection in gas chromatographic determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers”, International Journal of Environmental and Analytical Chemistry, vol. 90, pp. 535-547,(2010).
80. Wen, S., F. Yang, J. G. Li, Y. Gong, X. L. Zhang, Y. Hui, Y. N. Wu, Y. F. Zhao, and Y. Xu, “Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) monitored by tree bark in an E-waste recycling area”, Chemosphere, vol. 74, pp. 981-987,(2009).
81. Wilford, B. H., T. Harner, J. Zhu, M. Shoeib, and K. C. Jones, “Passive sampling survey of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in indoor and outdoor air in Ottawa, Canada: implications for sources and exposure”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 38, pp. 5312-5318,(2004).
82. Wu, N., T. Herrmann, O. Paepke, J. Tickner, R. Hale, E. Harvey, M. La Guardia, M. D. McClean, and T. F. Webster, “Human exposure to PBDEs: associations of PBDE body burdens with food consumption and house dust concentrations”, Environmental science & technology, vol. 41, pp. 1584-1589,(2007).
83. Xu, T., I. K. Cho, D. Wang, F. M. Rubio, W. L. Shelver, A. M. E. Gasc, J. Li, and Q. X. Li, “Suitability of a magnetic particle immunoassay for the analysis of PBDEs in Hawaiian euryhaline fish and crabs in comparison with gas chromatography/electron capture detection-ion trap mass spectrometry”, Environmental Pollution, vol. 157, pp. 417-422,(2009).
84. Yang, C., S. Harrad, M. A.-E. Abdallah, J. Desborough, N. L. Rose, S. D. Turner, T. A. Davidson, and B. Goldsmith, “Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in English freshwater lakes, 2008–2012”, Chemosphere, vol. 110, pp. 41-47,(2014).
85. Yogui, G. T., and J. L. Sericano, “Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in lichens and mosses from King George Island, maritime Antarctica”, Chemosphere, vol. 73, pp. 1589-1593,(2008).
86. Yun, S. H., R. Addink, J. M. McCabe, A. Ostaszewski, D. Mackenzie-Taylor, A. B. Taylor, and K. Kannan, “Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated biphenyls in sediment and floodplain soils of the Saginaw River watershed, Michigan, USA”, Archives of environmental contamination and toxicology, vol. 55, pp. 1-10,(2008).
87. Zhang, Z. L., C. Leith, S. M. Rhind, C. Kerr, M. Osprey, C. Kyle, M. Coull, C. Thomson, G. Green, L. Maderova, and C. McKenzie, “Long term temporal and spatial changes in the distribution of polychlorinated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Scottish soils”, Science of The Total Environment, vol. 468–469, pp. 158-164,(2014).
88. Zhao, R.-S., Y.-L. Liu, X.-F. Chen, J.-P. Yuan, A.-Y. Bai, and J.-B. Zhou, “Preconcentration and determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental water samples by solid-phase microextraction with Fe3O4-coated bamboo charcoal fibers prior to gas chromatography–mass spectrometry”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 769, pp. 65-71,(2013).
89. Zhou, Y.-Y., C.-Y. Zhang, Z.-G. Yan, K.-J. Li, L. Wang, Y.-B. Xie, F.-S. Li, Z. Liu, and J. Yang, “The use of copper(II) isonicotinate-based micro-solid-phase extraction for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils”, Analytica Chimica Acta, vol. 747, pp. 36-41,(2012).
90. Zhu, L., B. Ma, and X. Liang, “Quantitative analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in earthworms and soil by gas chromatography coupled to ion‐trap tandem mass spectrometry”, Rapid communications in mass spectrometry, vol. 22, pp. 394-400,(2008).
91. 李大勝、林元杰、馮超、熊麗蓓、金穎、汪國權,「GC-MS/MS同時測定油樣中39種多溴聯苯醚」,食品安全質量檢測學報,(2013).
92. 台灣質譜學會,「質譜分析技術原理與應用」,(2015) 。
93. 劉雨凱、唐建輝、潘曉輝、田崇國、陳穎軍,「環境中多溴聯苯醚分析方法的研究進展」,(2012) 。
94. 李俊璋、廖寶琦、洪崇峰、林家慶、楊淑瑤、陳泓翰,「食品中多溴二苯醚類 (PBDEs) 之監測及風險評估」,(2011) 。
95. 李慈毅,「戴奧辛類化合物及多溴二苯醚在國內湖泊底泥的歷史變動趨勢研究---以翡翠水庫及日月潭水庫為例」,碩士論文,國立中央大學環境工程研究所(2010)。
96. 陳玉如,「質譜技術與蛋白質體學 Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics 」,338-376,中央研究院 化學研究所/基因體研究中心 (2007) 。
97. 彭瑞華,「台灣河川底泥及魚體中持久性有機污染物的鑑定及檢測」,博士論文,中原大學化學研究所(2011)。
98. 彭瑞華、李慈毅、許元正、林燕玉、吳仲平、陳元武、翁英明,「環境基質中溴化阻燃劑(多溴二苯醚PBDEs)之調查研究」,環境調查研究年報,17期,行政院環境保護署環境檢驗所(2010) 。
99. 劉志仁、李維豐,「持久性有機污染物斯德哥爾摩公約記事」,工安環保報導,10-13,(2006) 。
指導教授 林居慶(Chu-Ching Lin) 審核日期 2016-7-20
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明