博碩士論文 102326025 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳薏安(Yi-An Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 低揮發性有機化合物競爭揮發之研究
(Competition volatilization of low volatility organic compound)
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摘要(中) 本研究根據文獻,選用低亨利常數有機化合物作為研究標的,主要探討內容為,觀察此類化合物之揮發速率、比較有機化合物間質傳係數( KOL )於不同環境條件下之差異,及同類型之有機化合物同時存於水中時是否會發生揮發競爭的現象,另外也加以探討化合物特性及官能基於不同環境條件下,質傳係數( KOL )之變化。本研究以半密閉系統之模廠,在不同氣、液擾流下,測量低亨利常數有機化合物之質傳係數(KOL),再將所得之結果,比較化合物間揮發速率的差異。
  根據研究結果顯示,所選擇之低亨利常數有機化合物均能符合一階反應,並利用所得到的揮發速率常數值(k),以質量平衡反應式求得質傳係數(KOL)。由所求得之結果可以發現,這些低亨利常數有機化合物,其質傳係數(KOL)與亨利常數成正比關係,且會隨著擾流強度增加而上升,其中以風速影響最為顯著,而當亨利常數值相仿時,化合物的揮發速率也會因物化特性的不同而有所差異,最後,將同類型有機物混合,同時存於水中時,化合物彼此間會互相干擾,產生揮發競爭的現象。
摘要(英) In this study, we discussed about low Henry’s constant of organic compounds. The goal of this research is to determine the volatilization rate of such compounds and to campare the mass transfer coefficient (KOL) between organic compounds in different environmental conditions.In this study we also explored the KOL of a characteristic compared at same condition both in water and organic madia . In this research, we measured the KOL value of low Henry’s constant of organic compounds with a semi-closed system of the model factory concept under different gas and liquid turbulence, and the results obtained are used to compare the rate of volatilization of organic compounds.
The results showed that low Henry’s constant of organic compounds which we selected can meet the first-order kinetic, and the resulting volatilization rate constants (k) are used to calculate the KOL value by mass balance reaction. The obtained results can be found, the low Henry’s constant of organic compounds and KOL are positive relationship, and it will increase with increasing the intensity of turbulence. When Henry’s constant value are similar, the volatilization rate of organic compounds was vaired depending on different physical and chemical properties. Finally, we put the same type of organic chemical in the water and found that the compounds interfere with each other, then the phenomenon of competition is generated.

關鍵字(中) ★ 亨利常數
★ 揮發速率
★ 質傳係數
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 目錄………………………………..…………………………………............. I
圖目錄…………………………………………………………………............. IV
表目錄…………………………………………………………………............. VI

第一章 前言……………………………………………………...................... 1

1-1 研究緣起……………………………………………………...... 1
1-2 研究目的……………………………………………………...... 2

第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………...... 4

2-1 有機農藥……………………………………………….……..... 4
2-2 基本理論介紹…………………………………………………… 5
2-2-1 勞特定律( Raoult’s Law )………………………........... 5
2-2-2 亨利定律( Henry’s Law )..…………………………...... 5
2-2-3 二層膜理論( Two-film Theory )…..………………….. 7
2-2-4 氣體動力學……………………………..…………….. 10
2-2-5 表面損失揮發模式(Surface Depletion Rate-limiting , SDRL) ……………………………..…………………… 11
2-3 揮發性有機物( VOCs )之揮發特性…………………………… 12
2-3-1 揮發性有機物(VOCs)之定義及其特性………………. 12
2-3-2 揮發性有機物自自然水體中揮發之行為…………….. 14
2-3-3 揮發性有機物自廢水中揮發之行為…………………. 16
2-4 揮發速率及亨利常數之影響因子………………………......... 17
2-4-1 液相體積……………………………………………….. 18
2-4-2 有機物本身之物化特性………………………………... 19
2-4-3 大分子有機物與界面活性劑………………………….. 19
2-4-4 環境條件……………………………………………….. 21
2-5 有機物揮發特性之先期研究………………………………….. 23
2-5-1 一階動力反應式………………………………………... 23
2-5-2 共同溶質效應………………………………………….. 23
2-5-3 有機物在液相擾動下之揮發特性…………………….. 25
2-5-4 有機物在氣相擾動下之揮發特性……………………. 28

第三章 研究方法與內容…………………………………………………….. 32

3-1 實驗架構流程………………………………………………….. 32
3-2 實驗藥品……………………………………………………….. 33
3-2-1 有機化合物之基本理化性質………………………….. 33
3-2-2 有機化合物之理化性質與毒理特性………………….. 34
3-3 實驗材料與設備…………………………………….…………. 47
3-3-1 實驗模廠………………………………………………... 47
3-3-2 其他實驗設備………………………………………….. 49
3-4 實驗方法………………………………………………………… 51
3-4-1 單一揮發實驗……………………………………….…. 51
3-4-2 混合揮發實驗……………………………………….…. 52
3-4-3 實驗數據分析………………………………………….. 52

第四章 結果與討論…………………………………………………….......... 53

4-1 實驗條件之選擇與化合物揮發性之探討……………………… 53
4-1-1 化合物的取樣時間與動力學模式…………………….. 53
4-1-2 靜置環境下有機化合物的揮發反應…………….……. 56
4-1-3 有機化合物揮發速率與擾動之關係…………………... 59
4-2 不同液相擾動條件下有機物在水中之KOL…………….......... 66
4-2-1 不同種類的有機物在液相擾動下KOL值之變化…….. 66
4-2-2 同一種類的有機化合物間KOL值之變化…………….. 69
4-2-3 液相擾動下化合物之初始濃度對揮發速率的影響….. 75
4-3 不同氣相擾動條件下有機物在水中之KOL…………………… 76
4-3-1 不同種類的有機物在氣相擾動下KOL值之變化……… 76
4-3-2 同一種類的有機物在氣相擾動下KOL值之變化……… 78
4-3-3 氣相擾動下化合物之初始濃度對揮發速率的影響….. 82
4-4 氣液相同時擾動時有機物在水中之KOL…………………….. 83
4-5 單一有機物與混合有機物在擾動條件下之KOL………………. 88
4-5-1 單一與混合有機物在液相擾動下KOL之變化………… 88
4-5-2 單一與混合有機物在氣相擾動下KOL之變化………. 93
4-5-3 單一與混合有機物在氣液相擾動同時存在的情況下KOL之變化……………………………………………... 97

第五章 結論與建議.……………………………………………………......... 100

5-1 結論…………………………………………………………..... 100
5-2 建議…………………………………………………………..... 101

參考文獻……………………………………………………………............... 103
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指導教授 李俊福(Jiunn-Fwu Lee) 審核日期 2015-7-20
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