博碩士論文 102350603 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:13 、訪客IP:54.156.58.187
姓名 羅傑林(Roger Rene Ortega Figueroa)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱 可行性研究應用的屠宰場在尼加拉瓜的廢物管理措施
(Feasibility Study on application of Waste Management practices in Slaughterhouses in Nicaragua.)
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 中文摘要
尼加拉瓜雖然是一個農業國家,但在過去的幾年,礦業、 漁業和生態旅遊產業也不斷發展;令人鼓舞的是,綠色技術專案計畫也日漸增長。屠宰產業仍是尼加拉瓜的經濟很大一部分,但環境污染的壓力促使這行業加速綠色技術的需求。本研究首先評估屠宰場對於環境的影響,然後針對較重要的環境影響衝擊項目,探討可降低污染的最佳可用技術 (BAT) ,並採用成本效益分析法探討所提出的BAT方案的可行性。
根據本研究的分析與調查,屠宰場廢水對環境衝擊的最大污染源主要為牲畜的糞便和血水。尼加拉瓜全國的屠宰場每年可以產生 667.54噸的糞便和 444.64噸的血水,雖然糞便重量方面較多,然而血水對於環境衝擊的貢獻高於糞便污染,因為血水有較高的生化需氧量。本研究所提出的最佳可行技術是將糞便及血水成份經共消化程序轉化成生質燃料以供發電。由成本效益分析計算得能源均化成本(LCOE) 每度電為3.96元尼加拉瓜幣。.
摘要(英) Nicaragua is primarily an agricultural country, but mining, fisheries, and eco-tourism industries also have been expanding during the last few years. It is encouraging that the green technology projects today are growing at a fast rate. Slaughterhouses are still a big part of Nicaragua’s economy, but the pressure of environmental pollution has prompted the industry to accelerate demand for green technologies. The object of this study is first to estimate the impact on the environment that the slaughterhouse industry have in this nation, then determine a Best Available Technology (BAT) for slaughterhouses to reduce significant environmental impacts of the business activity. The cost-benefit analysis approach is used to determine the financial feasibility of the resulting option of the proposed BAT.
From the investigation and analysis of this study, it found that manure and blood generated by the slaughterhouse into wastewater are the largest environmental concerns. The slaughterhouses in Nicaragua can generate manure with 667.54 tons per year and blood with 444.64 tons per year. However, blood actually has the biggest impact than manure on the environment because of its higher BOD production in the wastewater.
The proposed best available technology in this study is to recover the soluble and biodegradable composition of manure and blood in the slaughterhouse and produce biogas for electricity generation by co-digestion method. In the cost-benefit analysis, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of C$3.96 (Nicaraguan Cordoba currency) per kilowatt-hour was obtained.
關鍵字(中) ★ 屠宰場
★ 共消化
★ 成本效益分析
★ 能源均化成本
★ 生質氣體
關鍵字(英) ★ Slaughterhouse
★ Co-digestion
★ Benefit-cost analysis
★ Levelized cost of energy
★ Biogas
論文目次 Table of contents
中文摘要 .......................................................................................................................................... i
Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... ii Acknowledgment…………………………………………………………………………..…….iii
Table of contents ............................................................................................................................ iv
List of tables .................................................................................................................................. vi
List of figures ............................................................................................................................... vii
List of Acronyms ......................................................................................................................... viii
1 Chapter 1: Introduction .................................................................................................. 1
1.1.Study Background. ............................................................................................................... 1
1.1.1. Nicaragua: Electricity Sector in Nicaragua ..................................................... his 1
1.1.2. Biogas production in Nicaragua .............................................................................. 4
1.2. Slaughterhouse Waste Management ................................................................................. 5
1.2.1. Waste Generation ..................................................................................................... 5
1.2.2. Impact on the Environment ..................................................................................... 7
1.2.3. Slaughterhouse Waste Management in Nicaragua................................................ 8
1.2.4. Study Region: PROINCASA ................................................................................. 10
1.3. Study Motivation ............................................................................................................... 12
1.3.1. Problem Identification ........................................................................................... 12
1.4. Scope and Objectives of Study ......................................................................................... 14
1.4.1. Study Purpose and Scope. ...................................................................................... 14
1.4.2. Study Objectives ..................................................................................................... 15
1.5. Limitations ......................................................................................................................... 15
2 Chapter 2: Literature Review ....................................................................................... 17
2.1. Best Available Techniques for Slaughterhouses ............................................................ 17
2.1.1. Production Process of a Nicaraguan medium sized Slaughterhouse ...................... 20
2.2. Biogas production from Organic Wastes ........................................................................ 25
2.2.1. Biogas Production System on Slaughterhouses .......................................................... 26
2.3. Evaluation of Success cases of Biogas Production around the world........................... 30
2.4. Feasibility Study ................................................................................................................ 33
3 Chapter 3: Methodology................................................................................................ 36
3.1. Data Collection Method .................................................................................................... 36
3.1.2. Expected results ........................................................................................................... 38
3.2. Forecast Method Selection ............................................................................................... 38
3.3. Analysis of impact on Environment ................................................................................ 40
3.4. Best Available Technology Selection ............................................................................... 43
3.5 Analysis of Biogas Production .......................................................................................... 44
3.6. Determination of Biogas Digester Method and Sizing ................................................... 45
3.6.1. Biogas production method determination................................................................. 45
3.6.2. Sizing of the digester ................................................................................................... 46
3.7. Financial Feasibility Study ............................................................................................... 50
v
4 Chapter 4: Results.......................................................................................................... 60
4.1. Forecast Results ................................................................................................................. 60
4.2. Results on impact to the environment ............................................................................. 63
4.3. Best Available Technology Selection ............................................................................... 66
4.4 Biogas Production .............................................................................................................. 68
4.4.1. Production with manure ............................................................................................. 68
4.4.2. Production with a mixture of Manure and Blood .................................................... 69
4.5. Biogas Digester size ........................................................................................................... 70
4.6. Financial Feasibility study ................................................................................................ 71
Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations ........................................................................ 82
5.1. Conclusions ........................................................................................................................ 82
5.2. Recommendations ............................................................................................................. 83
5.3. Limitations ...................................................................................................................... 85
References ..................................................................................................................................... 87
Appendix....................................................................................................................................... 87
參考文獻 Acosta, L., & Obaya, M. C. (2005). La digestión anerobia. Aspectos Teóricos. Parte 1.
Adale. (2014, January). Weighted Mean: Formula: How to Find Weighted Mean. Retrieved from Statistics how to: http://www.statisticshowto.com/weighted-mean/
Afazelia, H., Jafaria, A., Rafieea, S., & Nosratib, M. (2014). An investigation of biogas production potential from livestock and slaughterhouse wastes. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 380-386.
Alvarez, R., Villca, S., & Lidén, G. (2006). Biogas production from llama and cow manure at high altitude. Biomass and Bioenergy, 66-75.
American Biogas Council. (2014). Biogas 101. Retrieved from American Biogas Council Web Site: https://www.americanbiogascouncil.org/pdf/biogas101.pdf
American Society of Agricultural Engineers. (1999). Manure Production and Characteristics Standard ASAE. St. Joseph, Michigan: American Society of Agricultural Engineers.
Ashekuzzaman, S., & Poulsen, T. G. (2011). Optimizing feed composition for improved methane yield during anaerobic digestion of cow manure based waste mixtures. Bioresource Technology, 102(3), 2213-2218.
Avant Garde. (2015). Recycling All Type of meat and Poultry Waste. Retrieved from Avant Garde middle east: http://www.avantgarde-me.com/doc/Recycling.pdf
Banco Central de Nicaragua. (2015). Informe de inflación . Managua: Banco Central de Nicaragua.
Banco Central de Nicaragua. (2015). Tasas Ponderadas Mensuales. Managua: Banco Central de Nicaragua.
Banco Central de Nicaragua BCN. (2007). Memoria Anual 2007. Managua: Banco Central de Nicaragua.
Banco Central de Nicaragua BCN. (2015). Nicaragua en cifras 2014. Retrieved from Banco Central de Nicaragua: http://www.bcn.gob.ni/publicaciones/periodicidad/anual/nicaragua_cifras/nicaragua_cifras.pdf
Barkocy-Gallagher, G., Arthur, T., Rivera-Betancourt, M., Nou, X., & Shackelford, S. (2003). Seasonal prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia Coli, including O157:H7 and non-O157 serotype, and Salmonella in commercial beef processing plants. Journal of Food Protection, 66.
Barnes, D., Forster, C., & Hrudey, S. (1984). Surveys in Industrial Wastewater Treatment: Food and Allied Industries. London: Pittman Publishing Limited.
Benniga, S. (2006). Principles of Finance with Excel. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Bhat, P., Chanakya, H., & Ravindranath, N. (2001). Biogas plant dissemination: success story of Sirsi, India. Energy for Sustainable Development, 39-46.
Biarnes, M. (2015). Biomass to Biogas Anaerobic Digestion. Retrieved from E instruments International: http://www.e-inst.com/biomass-to-biogas/
88
Biofuels Association of Australia BAA. (2014). Biofuels Association of Australia. Retrieved from What is Biogas?: http://www.biofuelsassociation.com.au/what-is-biogas
BORDA, B. O. (1990). Proceedings of International Conference on Biogas Technology and Implementation Strategies. Bremen: Bremen Overseas Research and Development Agency.
Brown, B. (2008). How much fertilizer do your animals produce?
Brown, B. (n.d.). How much fertilizer do your animals produce? Retrieved from University of Wisconsin - extension: The Learning store: http://learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/a3601.pdf
Brown, R. (2003). Biorenewable Resources: Engineering New Produces from Agriculture. Ames, Iowa: Blackwell Publishing.
Constable, P. D. (1999). Blood Lactate and Pyruvate Concentrations in Cattle with Abomasal Volvulus.
Deublein, D., & Steinhauser, A. (2008). Biogas from Waste and renewable resources.
DGE - INE. (2014). Precio Primedio de la Energía Eléctrica.
Diario la Prensa. (2012, November 21). La industria Cárnica ha marcado la Pauta. Diario la Prensa.
El-Shimy, M. (2009). Viability analysis of PV power plants in Egypt. Renewable Energy, 2187-2196.
Energypedia. (8 de April de 2015). Electricity Generation from Biogas. (Energypedia) Recuperado el June de 2015, de Energypedia Website: https://energypedia.info/wiki/Electricity_Generation_from_Biogas
European Commission. (2005). Reference Document on Best Available Techniques in the Slaughterhouses and Animal By-products Industries. European Commission.
European Commission. (2008). Guide to COST-BENEFIT ANALYSIS of investment projects. European Commission.
Ezilon. (2015). Ezilon. Retrieved 2015, from Ezilon Maps: http://www.ezilon.com/maps/north-america/nicaragua-maps.html
Fa, J. T. (2009). Utilization of Animal By-products.
Figueroa Aguilar, L. (2014, August 18). Entrevista a vice gerente de PROINCASA. (R. R. Ortega, Interviewer)
Fischer, D. B. (1998, August). Energy Aspects of Manure Management. Retrieved from Dairy Cattle Illinios Livestock Trail: http://livestocktrail.illinois.edu/dairynet/paperDisplay.cfm?ContentID=274
Fjørtofta, K., Morkena, J., & Hanssenb, J. F. (2014). Methane production and energy evaluation of a farm scaled biogas plant in cold climate area. Bioresource Technology, 72-79.
G.E., M. (2009). Market-based policy options to control U.S. greenhouse gas emissions. 23(5-27).
Gerhard Langhans, L.-K.-D. G. (2002). Manure and biowaste digestion in Germany: History, Trends and Practical Verification. Retrieved from Unido.org: http://www.unido.org/fileadmin/import/71505_8Anaerobic_digestion_in_Germany.pdf
89
González-González, A., Collares-Pereira, M., Cuadros, F., & Fartaria, T. (2014). Energy self-sufficiency through hybridization of biogas and photovoltaic solar energy: an application for an Iberian pig slaughterhouse. Journal of Cleaner Production, 318-323.
Google Maps, Digital Globe. (2015). Google Maps. Retrieved from Gooogle: https://www.google.com.tw/maps/place/Managua,+Nicaragua/@12.1540537,-86.1306587,2140m/data=!3m1!1e3!4m2!3m1!1s0x8f71560dd907880b:0x6c5ef4a2144f4c6a!6m1!1e1
Healthy Landscapes Education Program. (2002). How To Manage Manure. Retrieved from Healthy Landscapes: http://www.uri.edu/ce/healthylandscapes/livestock/how_manure_overall.htm
Himry, Y., Boudghene Stambouli, A., & Draoui, B. (2009). Prospects of wind farm development in Algeria.Desalination. Desalination, 130-138.
Holt, T. (1995). A Manual for the Economic Evaluation of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Technologies. NREL.
Houri, A. (2006). Solar water heating in Lebanon: Current status and future prospects. Renewable Energy, 663-675.
Investopedia. (2005). Simple Moving Average - SMA. Retrieved from Investopedia: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/s/sma.asp
Investopedia. (2015). Weighted Average. Retrieved from Investopedia: http://www.investopedia.com/terms/w/weightedaverage.asp
Johnson, B. (2001). Yields from rendering.
Jorgensen, P. J. (2009). Biogas - Green Energy (Vol. 2).
Kikuchi, E., Bristow, D., & Kennedy, C. A. (2009). Evaluation of region-specific residential energy systems for GHG reductions: Case studies in Canadian cities. Energy Policy, 1257-1266.
Kirch, K., Augenstein, D., Batmale, J., Benemann, J., Rutledge, B., & Salour, D. (2005). Biomethane from Dairy Waste: A Sourcebook for the Production and Use of Renewable Natural Gas in California. Retrieved from http://www.suscon.org/cowpower/biomethaneSourcebook/Chapter_2.pdf
Koslowski, D. (2002). Facilities explore new technologies, cost benefits and the maintenance impact of onsite power alternatives.
Lehtomäki, A., Huttunen, S., & Rintala, J. (2007). Laboratory investigations on co-digestion of energy crops and crop residues with cow manure for methane production: Effect of crop to manure ratio. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 591-609.
Local Government Engineering Department. (2015). Design of a Biogas Plant.
Meat Research Corporation, Australian Meat Technology. (1997). blood recovery.
Ministerio de Energía y Minas MEM. (2009). Plan Estratégico del sector Energético de Nicaragua 2007-2017. Managua: Ministerio de Energía y Minas.
90
Nappert, G., & Naylor, J. (2001). A comparison of pH determination methods in food animal practice.
National Aeronautics And Space Administration. (2015, May). Volume. (NASA) Retrieved Jun 2015, from NASA Glenn Research Center: https://www.grc.nasa.gov/www/k-12/airplane/volume.html
NGVA Europe. (2014). Markets & Statistics: European NGV Statistics. Retrieved from NGVA Europe Web site: http://www.ngvaeurope.eu/european-ngv-statistics
Nijaguna, B. (2002). Biogas Technology. New Delhi: New Age International (P) Ltd.
Normas Jurídicas de Nicaragua. (2000, August 15). Norma Técnica para el Control Ambiental en MAtaderos. La Gaceta.
Omar, R., Harun, R., Ghazi, T. M., Azlina, W. W., & R., A. I. (2008). Anaerobic Treatment of Cattle Manure for Biogas Production. Selangor, Malaysia: Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering.
Oxera. (2006). What is the cost of reducing ammonia, nitrates and BOD in sewage treatment works effluent? 2006: Oxera Consulting.
Oxford University. (2010). Oxford Dictionary of English (3rd ed.). (A. Stevenson, Ed.) Oxford University Press.
Ozturk, B. (2012). Evaluation of Biogas Production Yields of different Waste materials. Samsun, Turkey.
Peters, M. S., Timerhaus, K., & West, R. (2003). Plant design and economics for chemical engineers. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Platinum GMAT. (2015). Arithmetic Mean (Average) - GMAT Math Study Guide. Retrieved from Platinum GMAT: http://www.platinumgmat.com/gmat_study_guide/statistics_mean
Pomareda, C., Brenes, E., & Figueroa, L. (1997). La industria de la Ganadería de Carne Bovina en Nicaragua: Condiciones de Competitividad.
Proyecto Astec, CIEMA - UNI. (2004). Sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales para la planta de matanza de reses Promotora Industrial de Carnes S.A. Managua, Nicaragua.
Queensland Government. (2011, July). Manure production data. Retrieved from Queensland Government: https://www.daf.qld.gov.au/environment/intensive-livestock/cattle-feedlots/managing-environmental-impacts/manure-production-data
Rahman, U. u., Sahar, A., & Khan, M. A. (2014). Recovery and utilization of effluents from meat processing industries. Elsevier, 1 - 5.
Retscreen International. (2012). Retscreen Software. Retscreen 4. Varennes, QC.
RETScreen International. (2014, 10 10). RETScreen International. Retrieved from RETScreen Software Suite: http://www.retscreen.net/ang/home.php
RIVM. (1994). Slachterijen en vleeswarenindustrie [slaughterhouses and meat processing industry]. National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection.
Rodriguez, c. (2002). Residuos Ganaderos.
91
San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District . (2004). Best available control technology fairy operations.
Serafin, F., Milton, F., & Van, N. W. (2010). Estudio de Factibilidad para un Programa Nacional de Biogás en Nicaragua. Managua: SNV.
Stefula, D. M. (2007). NASA Collaboration Benefits International Priorities of Energy Managemen. Retrieved from NASA Web site: http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/news/researchernews/rn_RETscreen.html
Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland. (2010). The Process and Techniques of Anaerobic Digestion. Retrieved from Sustainable Energy Authority of Ireland Website: http://www.seai.ie/Renewables/Bioenergy/Bioenergy_Technologies/Anaerobic_Digestion/The_Process_and_Techniques_of_Anaerobic_Digestion/
The Engineering toolbox. (2015). Concrete mixtures. Retrieved June 2015, from Engineering toolbox: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/concrete-sand-cement-gravel-mixtures-d_1547.html
The World Factbook. (2013). The World Factbook. Retrieved 2015, from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/nu.html
Torres, A. L. (2015). Acuerdo Ministerial: Sobre la aplicación de los salarios minimos aprobados por el ministerio del trabajo. Managua.
Tritt, W. P., & Schuchardt, F. (1992). Materials flow and possibilities of treating liquid and solid wastes from slaughterhouses in Germany. 41.
U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Energy. (2014). Biogas Opportunities Roadmap.
U.S. Department of Energy . (2011). Biomass for Electricity Generation.
U.S. Department of Energy Alternative Fuels Data Center. (2015, 05 19). Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Natural Gas (Biomethane). Retrieved from U.S. Department of Energy: http://www.afdc.energy.gov/fuels/emerging_biogas.html
United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). (2013). United Nations Population Fund Nicaragua. Retrieved 2015, from UNFPA Nicaragua: http://www.unfpa.org.ni/poblacion-en-nicaragua-2/
United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2011). Animal Wast: What′s the Problem? (EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency) Retrieved may 2015, from EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency: http://www.epa.gov/region9/animalwaste/problem.html
Universidad Nacional de Ingenería UNI. (2004). Sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales industriales para la planta de matanza de reses PROINCASA. Managua.
University of Washington. (2011). Decision Matrix/ Selection Matrix . University of Washington.
USDA-NRCS. (2007). An analysis of energy production costs from anerobic digestion systems on U.S. livestock facilities. Washington.
92
Van Passel, S., Dubois, M., Eyckmans, J., de Gheldere, S., Ang, F., Tom Jones, P., & Van Acker, K. (2012). The economics of enhanced landfill mining: private and societal performance drivers. Journa of Cleaner Production.
Ver calendario. (2015). Calendario de festividades Nicaragüenses 2015. Retrieved Jun 2015, from Vercalendario.info: http://www.vercalendario.info/es/evento/feriados_nacionales-nicaragua-ano-calendario-2015.html
Verheijen, L., Weirsema, D., Hushoff Pol, L., & De Wit, J. (1996). Management of Waste from Animal Product Processing. Wageningen, The Netherlands. Retrieved from Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Wang, L. K.-T., H. Lo, H., & Yapijakis, C. (2006). Waste Treatment in the Food Processing Industry. Florida: CRC Press.
Watkins, T. (n.d.). San José State University. Retrieved from San José State University Department of Economics: An Introdution to Cost Benefit Analysis: http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/cba.htm
Yohaness, M. T. (2010). Biogas potential from cow manure.
指導教授 廖萬里(Wan-Li Liao) 審核日期 2015-7-21
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明