博碩士論文 102424029 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳俊文(Chun-Wen Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 產業經濟研究所
論文名稱 美國軟體專利適格性之研究 —談審查之趨勢與我國企業的因應之道
(A Study of Software Patent Eligibility Recent Developments and Suggestions for Taiwanese Corporations)
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摘要(中) 美國軟體專利適格性自Benson案起,經歷一連串判決的作出,到Bilski案之前呈現逐步放寬的趨勢。然而隨著軟體專利獲證數量的大幅度成長,專利濫發與濫訴的現象也日益嚴重。這樣的現象使得最高法院不得不一改以往鮮少介入專利相關判決的態度,開始透過判決的作成影響過去過於鬆散的專利審查作業。最高法院自Bilksi案開始,陸續作出一系列以專利法第101條適格性要件核駁系爭專利的判決,使得專利適格性的審查,走向越趨嚴格的方向。由於專利適格性要件在專利審查實務作業當中長期被忽略,近幾年最高法院對這項似乎被人遺忘的專利檢驗要件,透過判決的不斷強調也引起各界廣大的討論。
我國於美國的專利獲證數量排名全球第四,對於軟體專利適格性審查之發展潛勢自然相當重視。由是,本論文將蒐集歷年之重要軟體專利判決、專利適格性審查指南且將之進行整理。在參考相關國內外文獻後,提出本論文對軟體專利適格性審查趨勢之觀察,並為我國企業在面臨專利適格性審查趨於嚴格的情況下,提出幾個專利申請,或面臨專利侵權訴訟時可行的因應之道。
摘要(英) In America, software related product or process was once an unpatentable subject matter. While with the advancement of technology, this kind of rule has started to change. From Benson to Bilski, the total granted number of software patents has increased dramatically. And this also make existing problems like vexatious litigation become even worse. In view of that, the U.S. Supreme Court has made a series of software related cases to adjust the loose patent eligibility examination toward a relatively strict way. The importance of patent eligibility has long been overlooked in patent examining procedure or in patent litigations before Bilski. With recent supreme court cases, this patent threshold test has aroused the concern of the whole nation.
According to the statistics from the USPTO, about the performance of the total number of patents granted in America (breakout by country of origin), Taiwan is on top 5. As a consequence, recent changes of patent examination may cause a great impact to Taiwanese companies. As a result, this thesis tries to give a point of view about the trend and development of patent eligibility after studying related cases, series of software patent examination guidelines and literatures. Moreover, this thesis will provide several suggestions for Taiwanese companies, hoping to support them as a reference when confronting strict software patent examining trend nowadays.
關鍵字(中) ★ 電腦
★ 軟體專利
★ 商業方法專利
★ 專利適格性
★ 可專利性
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 目錄
中文摘要 ii
英文摘要…..………………………………………………………………………….iii
誌謝…………………………………………………………………………………....iv
目錄…………………………………………………………………………………....v
圖目錄………………………………………………………………………………..vii
表目錄……………………………………………………………………………….viii
1. 緒論 1
1.1. 研究動機 1
1.2. 研究方法及限制 2
1.3. 研究架構 2
2. 軟體專利概論暨適格性議題的探討 5
2.1. 前言 5
2.1.1. 軟體的定義 7
2.1.2. 軟體專利的定義 8
2.2. 軟體之保護 8
2.2.1. 軟體之營業秘密保護 8
2.2.2. 軟體之著作權保護 10
2.2.3. 軟體之專利權保護 12
3. 美國軟體專利適格性之判決動向─2010前 21
3.1. 前言 21
3.2. Gottschalk v. Benson (1972) 21
3.3. Parker v. Flook (1978) 22
3.4. Freeman-Walter-Abele Test 24
3.4.1. Application of Freeman (1978) 24
3.4.2. Application of Walter (1980) 26
3.4.3. In re Abele (1982) 29
3.5. Diamond v. Diehr (1981) 31
3.6. Arrhythmia Research Technology, Inc. v. Corazonix Corp. (Federal Circuit, 1992) 33
3.7. In re Alappat (1994) 34
3.8. State Street Bank & Trust v. Signature Financial Group (1998) 36
3.9. 綜合討論 38
4. 美國軟體專利適格性之判決動向─2010後 45
4.1. 前言 45
4.2. Bilski v. Kappos (2010) 45
4.3. Mayo Collaborative v. Prometheus Labs., (2012) 48
4.4. Algorithm Cases 52
4.4.1. Ergo Licensing, LLC v. CareFusion 303, Inc. (2012) 53
4.4.2. Noah Systems, Inc. v. Intuit Inc. (2012) 54
4.5. Alice Corp. Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank Intern. (2014) 58
4.6. Ultramercial, Inc. v. Hulu, LLC (2014) 60
4.7. 綜合討論 62
5. 美國專利適格性審查指南沿革 65
5.1. 前言 65
5.2. Bilski案後USPTO之立場 66
5.2.1. 2009臨時審查指示 66
5.2.2. 2010臨時審查指南 72
5.2.3. Interim Procedure for Subject Matter Eligibility Analysis of Process Claims Involving Laws of Nature 77
5.2.4. Guidance for Determining Subject Matter Eligibility of Claims Reciting or Involving Laws of Nature, Natural Phenomena, and Natural Products 80
5.2.5. Preliminary Examination Instructions in view of the Supreme Court Decision in Alice Corporation Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank International, et al. 84
5.2.6. Interim Guidance on Patent Subject Matter Eligibility 86
5.2.7. July 2015 Update: Subject Matter Eligibility 92
5.2.8. May 2016 Subject Matter Eligibility Update 99
5.3. 小結 103
6. 美國專利審查調整之觀察及對我國企業之建議 105
6.1. 法院對適格性檢驗門檻重要性的強調 105
6.2. USPTO對法院意見的摸索 108
6.3. 我國企業面臨適格性審查趨於嚴格之建議 111
6.3.1. 挑戰侵權專利的有效性 112
6.3.2. 精確地表達請求項的文字說明 113
6.3.3. 合理強調發明與裝置間的特殊性 114
6.3.4. 將有關適格性的意見具體反映給USPTO 115
7. 結論 117
參考文獻 121
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指導教授 王明禮 審核日期 2016-7-26
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