博碩士論文 102521043 詳細資訊




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姓名 許毅軒(Yi-Xuan Hsu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 電機工程學系
論文名稱 應變量子井和波長偏移量對超高速(>40Gbit/sec) 850nm光波段的垂直共振腔面射型雷射之高溫和動態 特性的影響
(The Influence of Strained Multiple Quantum Wells and Wavelength Detuning on the Dynamic Performances of Ultra-High Speed (>40 Gbit/sec) 850 nm Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers (VCSELs))
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摘要(中) 下一個世代的光連結(optical interconnect,OI)技術的數據速率(data rate)將會是50Gb/s,為了達到這個目標垂直共振腔面射型雷射 (VCSELs)的3dB頻寬必須達到30GHz以上,而且此元件除了在常溫特性要好之外,且在85℃時的3dB頻寬也不能劣化太多。在論文裡會探討垂直共振腔面射型雷射主動層(active layer)的設計,藉由探討不同的應力量子井設計和波長偏移量對850nm VCSEL的靜態和動態特性有什麼影響。
首先,我們比較GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As 和Al0.1In0.15Ga0.75As/Al0.3Ga0.7As兩種不同量子井結構的元件特性,而且此兩種元件都在相同水氧孔徑(5µm)以及相同波長偏移量(17nm)條件下做比較,結果顯示Al0.1In0.15Ga0.75As/Al0.3Ga0.7As量子井的元件3dB頻寬在室溫可以達到24GHz而85℃為 17GHz,另一方面GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As量子井的元件3dB頻寬在室溫只能達到20GHz而85℃為10 GHz,所以利用應力量子井可以增加垂直共振腔面射型雷射的3dB頻寬並且改善高溫特性。
為了更進一步增加3dB頻寬,我們利用較多的增益峰值(gain peak wavelength)和共振腔共振波長( etalon wavelength)的波長偏移量(~20nm)。起初這個方法是用在分佈反饋半導體雷射(DFB Laser),但分佈反饋半導體雷射需要藍移的偏移量(blue-shift detuning),藍移的偏移量的定義為共振腔波長<增益峰值波長。
然而VCSEL需要紅移的偏移量(red-shift detuning),這是因為VCSEL有比較大的熱阻,所以當電流增加時,元件熱效應會造成VCSEL有能隙窄化(bandgap narrowing)這個現象。
利用較多的波長偏移量(~20nm)以及不同銦含量的應力量子井,我們發現In0.1Ga0.9As/Al0.3Ga0.7As和Al0.1In0.15Ga0.75As/Al0.3Ga0.7As兩種應力量子井的元件在水氧孔徑較小(3µm)時,3dB頻寬都接近30GHz。但當我們把元件的水氧孔徑做大(8µm)時,我們發現In0.1Ga0.9As/Al0.3Ga0.7As量子井的元件3dB頻寬只能到達20GHz並且需要較大的驅動電流(~17 kA/cm2),而Al0.1In0.15Ga0.75As/Al0.3Ga0.7As量子井的元件只需要較小的驅動電流(~8 kA/cm2)3dB頻寬就可以到達26GHz,而且因為我們把水氧孔徑做大,可以使元件電流密度降低,也因此我們元件的可靠度會提升,這也是目前高可靠度及超高速(>40Gb/s)VCSEL所需要的特性。
摘要(英) To meet the application of next generation optical interconnect (OI) with data rate as high as 50 Gbit/sec, a high-speed vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with a 3-dB electrical-to-optical (E-O) bandwidth over 30 GHz and can be operated from room-temperature (RT) to 85℃ is highly desired. In this thesis, the influence of active layer design, which includes wavelength detuning and strained multiple quantum wells (MQWs), on the static/dynamic performances of high-speed 850 nm VCSEL have been investigated in detail. Compared with the reference device with the lattice-matched GaAs/Al0.3Ga0.7As MQWs design, the studied device with a highly strained Al0.1In0.15Ga0.75As/Al0.3Ga0.7As MQWs design exhibits a faster speed performance (23 vs. 20 GHz) and an improved high-temperature performances under the case of same oxide-aperture (~5 µm) and the same wavelength detuning (+15 nm). Furthermore, in order further boost the speed performance of these VCSELs with highly strained active layers design, a strong wavelength detuning (> +20 nm; etalon wavelength > material gain peak wavelength) was adopted in our studied devices. Such positive wavelength detuning design for VCSEL bandwidth enhancement is conflict with that of the typical reported distributed-feedback (DFB) laser, which usually needs a blue-shift detuning for speed enhancement. This is because that the VCESL devices usually have a larger thermal resistance and suffered from more serious device-heating induced bandgap narrowing during operation than those of DFB lasers.
With such a strong detuning design, it is found that both In0.1Ga0.9As/Al0.3Ga0.7As and Al0.1In0.15Ga0.75As/Al0.3Ga0.7As MQWs design can attain nearly 30 GHz O-E bandwidth and (quasi-) single-mode performances with a diameter of oxide-relief apertures less than 5µm. On the other hand, when the oxide-relief aperture reaches ~8µm, the devices with Al0.1In0.15Ga0.75As/Al0.3Ga0.7As well exhibits a much better speed performance (>24 vs. 20 GHz) than that of In0.1Ga0.9As one due to its larger compressive strain in active layers. This thus results in a much lower driving-current density (~8 vs. ~17 kA/cm2) of devices with Al0.1In0.15Ga0.75As well for the same desired high-speed performance (~27 GHz).
By use of these newly demonstrated low-driving current density VCSELs with strong positive wavelength detuning (+ 20 nm), high-speed performance, excellent transmission performance, which includes an extremely low energy-to-data rate ratio (EDR: 228 fJ/bit) and record-low driving-current density (8 kA/cm2; 3.5mA) have been successfully achieved for 41Gbit/sec error-free transmission over 100 meter OM4 multi-mode fiber.
關鍵字(中) ★ 垂直共振腔面射型雷設
★ 光連接
★ 應力量子井
★ 波長偏移量
關鍵字(英) ★ VCSELs
★ Optical interconnect
★ Strained quantum well
★ Detuning wavelength
論文目次 摘 要 i
Abstract iii
致謝 iv
目 錄 v
第一章 序論 1
1-1簡介 1
1-2光連結應用 1
1-3 面射型雷射簡介 6
第二章 理 論 8
2-1 VCSEL的磊晶結構 8
2-2 鋅擴散於DBR 8
2-3 VCSEL的選擇性水氧化理論 16
2-4 水氧層掀離製作 18
2-5 水氧化系統 19
2-6 IR系統 20
2-7 發散角 21
第三章如何提升VCSEL調製速度 24
3-1應力(strained)量子井 24
3-1-1量子井加入應力(strained)原理 24
3-1-2應力量子井可靠度(Reliability)的問題 26
3-1-3量井子需要加入多少應力(strained)? 28
3-1-4如何實現量子井摻雜15%銦(Indium)? 29
3-2波長偏移量(detuning wavelength) 30
3-2-1藍移偏移量(blue-shift detuning) 30
3-2-2紅移偏移量(red-shift detuning) 31
第四章 實 驗 33
4-1 鋅擴散製程 33
4-2 水氣氧化 35
4-3 製作電極(P-metal 和N-metal) 39
4-4 金屬回火(Annealing)和平坦化 40
4-5 把每個元件絕緣(Isolation) 40
4-6 開洞(Via) 41
第五章 量測結果與討論 43
5-1量測系統 43
5-1-1.電流對電壓(I-V)的量測 43
5-1-2.光功率對電流(L-I)之量測 43
5-1-3.遠場(Far field)之量測系統 44
5-1-4.近場(Near field)投影之量測系統 44
5-1-5.頻譜(Spectrum) 之量測系統 45
5-1-6.頻寬(Bandwidth)之量測系統 45
5-1-7.眼圖(Eye pattern)之量測系統 46
5-2所有元件實驗條件 48
5-3比較有應力和沒應力量子井的元件特性 49
5-3-1元件結構圖 49
5-3-2 L-I-V特性曲線圖 50
5-3-4光頻譜(Optical spectra)比較 52
5-3-5頻寬(bandwidth) 53
5-3-6大訊號眼圖(eye pattern) 54
5-4銦(Indium)含量(15% 和10%)對VCSEL特性影響 56
5-4-1元件設計及實驗條件 56
5-4-2L-I-V特性曲線圖 56
5-4-3光頻譜(Optical spectra)的比較 58
5-4-4頻寬(bandwidth)的比較 58
5-4-5大訊號眼圖(eye pattern) 61
5-5波長偏移量對VCSEL特性影響 64
5-5-1元件設計的條件 64
5-5-2光頻譜(Optical spectra) 64
5-5-3頻寬(bandwidth)的比較 65
5-6共振腔共振波長(etalon wavelength)在~850nm的元件 66
5-6-1元件設計及實驗條件 66
5-6-2 L-I-V特性曲線圖 66
5-6-3光頻譜(Optical spectra) 67
5-6-4頻寬(bandwidth) 67
5-6-5大訊號眼圖(eye pattern) 68
5-7 臨界電流(threshold current,Ith)和溫度變化曲線 69
第六章 量測結果與討論 71
Reference 72
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指導教授 許晉瑋(Jin-Wei Hsu) 審核日期 2015-7-28
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