博碩士論文 102522090 詳細資訊




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姓名 洪培鈞(Pei-chun Hung)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 資訊工程學系
論文名稱 從認知風格角度比較教師評量與同儕互評之差異:從英語寫作到遊戲製作
(The Effects of Cognitive Styles on Differences between Teacher Assessment and Peer Assessment: From English Writing to Game Development)
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摘要(中) 近年來,許多研究者發現到以利用同儕互相給予回饋的方式進行相關能力培養的同儕互評活動,對於學生能力以及作品之品質有不錯的提升效果。其中,它對於英文寫作能力的訓練更有不錯的成效;另一方面,遊戲式學習也被視為是一個有效提升學生學習的方法,因此對於開發遊戲式學習系統人才的需求也逐漸增長;為此,似乎可利用同儕互評的機制來培養學生開發遊戲式學習的能力,以解決設計人才需求的問題。

然而,儘管同儕互評有許多優點,但還是發現學生因為自身能力與經驗的不足,導致所給予的回饋似乎無法如同老師所給予的評論一樣有幫助;此外,學生的個體差異似乎對於同儕評論有相當的影響,像是學生可能因為自身特質的關係,而影響其給予評論的樣式以及策略。而在眾多造成個體差異的因素中,認知風格似乎對於人們處理及組織資訊有相當的影響,因此似乎是有必要在進行同儕互評時,考慮學生認知風格的差異。

因此,本研究進行了兩個實驗。在實驗一中,本研究以認知風格的角度,探究了學生與老師在進行英文寫作同儕互評活動中,雙方評估的差異。其結果指出學生似乎缺乏相關的專業能力去理解同儕英文文章中多樣的字彙,因此他們無法準確的指出同儕作品中的進步之處;再者,整體型學生在給予Task Achievement的建議時,似乎多專注在較為淺層文章架構,而序列型學生則是專注於文章主題與細節內容的連結,另外,他們似乎也在活動中無法清楚地分辨字彙與文法的錯誤。

另一方面,實驗二則是以認知風格的角度,探討在培養遊戲式學習系統設計人才為目的同儕互評活動中,學生與老師評估上的差異。其結果顯示學生因為無法完整的詮釋Gameplay方面的建議,導致對於自身作品的修改可能無法達到老師的要求;另外,也因為學生與同儕的觀點較為相似,導致他們對於作品的期許並沒有像老師的高,而序列型學生則是因為自身較容易以局部方式進行學習的關係,導致他們似乎無法完整地掌握Gameplay面向上多樣的評估內容,以及在Artistic/Graphics面向上,必須評估完整的遊戲圖像與物件有相對的困難。

透過以上兩次的實驗,使我們對於學生與老師的評估差異有更深的了解,而以上的結果更可以幫助學生、教學者以及研究者,架構可因應學生因不同認知風格而有不同偏好的同儕互評活動。
摘要(英) Peer assessment is a process through which students give feedbacks for their peers’ works. In recent years, it was found that peer assessment could improve students’ works and abilities. In particular, it was useful to improve English writing. On the other hand, peer assessment can also be applied to train students to design game-based learning systems, which have been recognized as an effective instructional strategy so there is a great demand for designers who can develop game-based learning systems.

In spite of such significance, it was found that the quality of feedback from peers might not be as helpful as that from teachers because students might lack sufficient knowledge and experience. In addition, students might have their distinctive characteristics. In other words, individual differences might be a factor that affect the process of the peer assessment. Among various individual differences, cognitive styles affect how people process and organize information. Thus, there is a need to consider cognitive styles in the peer assessment.

Hence, the research presented in this dissertation conducted two empirical studies. Study One is to identify assessment differences between the students and the teachers in the context of English writing from a cognitive style perspective. The results of Study One demonstrate that the students did not have sufficient competence to identify various vocabularies so they were not able to identify the improvement that authors made. Moreover, Holists usually paid more attention to the superficial structure of the work in the Task Achievement aspect while Serialists focused on the connection between the topic and the details presented in the content, and cannot determine the mistakes of vocabulary and grammar.

On the other hand, Study Two emphasizes on the incorporation of peer assessment into the training for the designers of game-based learning systems and to examine assessment differences between teachers and students from a cognitive style perspective. The results from Study Two suggest that the students could not completely understand the comments in the Gameplay aspect so the revision might not satisfy the teachers’ expectations. Furthermore, the students could stand on the same status to evaluate their peers’ revised game-based learning systems in the Gameplay aspect so their expectations were not as high as teachers’. Furthermore, Serialists, who usually used a local approach to learning, could not grasp all of the design features in the Gameplay aspect and had difficulties to evaluate the entire pictures and objects in Artistic/Graphic aspect.

The results from the aforementioned two studies provide a deep understanding of assessment differences between the students and the teachers during the process of peer assessment. Such understandings can help students, instructors, and researchers to implement peer assessment that can accommodate the preferences and needs of different cognitive style groups.
關鍵字(中) ★ 同儕互評
★ 遊戲式學習
★ 認知風格
關鍵字(英) ★ peer assessment
★ game-based learning
★ cognitive styles
論文目次 摘要 i
ABSTRACT iii
Table of Contents v
List of Figures viii
List of Tables ix
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background 1
1.2 Research Objectives 4
1.3 Chapter Outline 5
1.4 Summary 6
Chapter 2 Literature Review 8
2.1 Peer Assessment 8
2.2 Cognitive Styles 11
2.3 English wrting 15
2.4 Game-based learning 17
2.5 Summary 20
Chapter 3 Research Design 22
3.1 Introduction 22
3.2 Methodological Approaches 23
3.3 Conceptual Framework 23
3.4 Research Instruments 26
3.4.1 Study Preferences Questionnaire (SPQ) 26
3.4.2 Other Instruments 26
3.5 Summary 26
Chapter 4 Study One: The Context of English Writing 27
4.1 Overview 27
4.1.1 Peer Assessment of Writing System (PAWS) 27
4.1.2 Participants 31
4.1.3 Research Instruments 32
4.1.4 Experimental Procedures 33
4.1.5 Data Analyses 35
4.2 Results & Discussion 36
4.2.1 Overall Assessment 36
4.2.2 Detailed Assessment 39
4.3 Summary 53
Chapter 5: Study Two: The training of Game-based learning 54
5.1 Overview 54
5.1.1 GameMaker 54
5.1.2 Participants 56
5.1.3 Research Instruments 57
5.1.4 Experimental Procedures 65
5.1.5 Data Analyses 67
5.2 Results & Discussion 68
5.2.1 Overall Assessment 69
5.2.2 Detailed Assessment 72
5.3 Summary 95
Chapter 6 Conclusions 96
6.1 Main conclusions 96
6.2 Development of a Framework 99
6.4 Limitations and Future Work 104
References 105
Appendix 113
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指導教授 蘇木春、陳攸華 審核日期 2016-4-29
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