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姓名 劉睿涵(Jui-Han Liu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 藝術學研究所
論文名稱 內在視像的體現——Egon Schiele的肖像畫研究
(The Embodiment of Inner Vision: A Study in Egon Schiele′s Portraiture)
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摘要(中) 二十世紀初奧地利畫家Egon Schiele(1890-1918)聞名於其迥異且獨特的畫風,在他轉瞬的畫家生涯裡致力且不停歇地創作肖像畫。Schiele以肖像畫和自畫像吸收與消化不同藝術風格、時代思潮、醫學新知和新科技,以此為基石織就藝術理念,並藉由拓展出雙重自畫像及雙人肖像畫,以構圖巧思、雙重身概念以及強調觀看感受的宗教感實踐和傳達他對於觀看的想法,讓觀者藉由觀看辨別「瞧見」與「看透」的區別,在觀看過程中同時體現創作者和召喚觀者的內在視像以觸及觀看的多種可能性。

本論文第一章,以四檔二十世紀初展覽中的肖像畫梳理十九世紀前半葉到二十世紀初維也納肖像畫發展的歷史、社會及文化背景,討論身處其中的贊助者、被畫者和藝術家面臨大環境的變動,選擇以肖像畫表達主體的軌跡,如此現象沿襲至二十世紀初Schiele這一代新藝術家繼續透過肖像畫形塑現代主體。第二章首先聚焦Schiele在1910年以前的個人生命經驗和藝術養成歷程,Schiele與家人的關係、求學過程接觸的新事物、結識啟發其藝術的貴人、以及以素描和水彩嘗試多種表現手法。其次,論述Schiele選擇描繪維也納知名人士、贊助者、孕婦與嬰兒以及青少年的肖像畫,累積不同的面孔和身體圖像,探索和拉扯於被畫者的內在情緒和外在認知之間,進而逐漸形塑自己的藝術風格。第三章首先探討Schiele透過大量實驗自畫像,同時作為自畫像的創作者和被畫者的雙重角色,大膽突破出屬於自己的語彙並發展雙重自畫像。接著,聚焦探討Schiele雙重自畫像《自我預知者》系列,透過Schiele對於此系列「瞧見」與「看透」兩種觀看模式的說明,分析《自我預知者》系列從草圖和構思階段逐步建構並表達「看透」的重要性,是一種超越外在並能夠辨認內在視像的途經。第四章將焦點鎖定「雙重身」的概念,爬梳雙重身概念從神話時代發展至世紀之交維也納的演變,勾勒雙重身的概貌,接著比較與分析Schiele雙重自畫像在精神分析理論下的詮釋,以及雙重身在繪畫不同於文學的表現形式下拓展的新意義。第五章聚焦在Schiele在1912年創作的雙人肖像畫《隱士》和《痛苦》,討論和分析Schiele如何運用不同基督教元素鏈結雙人肖像畫中人物的關係,進而影響觀者的觀看感受,藉由觀看多重宗教元素感覺其神聖性和內在性以體現Schiele所謂的「宗教感」。
摘要(英) The early twentieth-century Austrian painter Egon Schiele (1890-1918) is famous for his very different and unique style of painting. During his short career as a painter, he devoted himself to creating portraits incessantly. Schiele portrayed different classes, ethnic groups, and self-portraits by absorbing and digesting different artistic styles, contemporary trends, new medical knowledge, and new technologies. He used this as a cornerstone to weave his artistic concepts. He developed double self-portraits and double portraits with skillful compositions, the concept of doppelgänger, and religious sensation emphasizing his thoughts on viewing, allowing viewers to distinguish the difference between “daraufsehen” (look at) and “hineinsehen” (look into) through viewing. In so doing, his works reflect the inner vision of the creator and invite the viewer to generate many possibilities for viewing.

The first chapter focuses on the portraits in the four exhibitions at the beginning of the twentieth century, sorting out the historical, social and cultural background of the development of Vienna’s portrait paintings from the first half of the nineteenth century to the beginning of the twentieth century. It discusses how the patrons, painters, and artists who faced the social changes and chose to express the subjectivities through portraits. This phenomenon had continued until the early twentieth century when the new generation of artists, including Schiele, shaped the modern subject through portraits. The second chapter firstly focuses on Schiele′s personal life experience and artistic development before 1910, exploring topics such as Schiele′s relationship with his family, his discovery of new things at school, his acquaintance with those who inspired his art, and his preference for drawing and watercolor as experimental mediums for various expressions. Secondly, Schiele chose to accumulate different face and body images by depicting portraits of famous Viennese personalities, patrons, pregnant women, babies, and teenagers, exploring the tensions between the inner emotions and outer recognition of sitters, gradually forming his own artistic style. The third chapter first discusses Schiele’s many experiments in the genre of self-portraiture, playing the dual roles of both the creator and the subject of the self-portraits. He boldly breaks through his visual vocabulary and develops the double self-portraits. Then the chapter focuses on the Schiele’s Self-Seer series, in the light of Schiele′s explanation of the two viewing modes of this series, “look at” and “look into.” I analyze the gradual completion of the Self-Seer series from the sketches and demonstrate the importance of “look into” which is a way to transcend the outside and be able to recognize the inner vision. In the fourth chapter, I focus on the concept of “doppelgänger” which has evolved from the age of mythology to turn of the twentieth-century Vienna, outlining the context of doppelgänger. Then I compare and analyze the interpretation of Schiele′s double self-portraits under the psychoanalytic theory and the new meaning of doppelgänger in painting different from literature. This concept echoes Schiele′s embodiment of inner vision and his thoughts on portraits. The fifth chapter focuses on Schiele’s double portraits Hermit and Agony made in 1912, discussing and analyzing how he used the different elements of the Christian iconography, thereby affecting the viewer′s viewing experience, by looking into multiple religious elements feel their sacredness and internality in order to reflect what Schiele calls the “sensation of religion.”
關鍵字(中) ★ Egon Schiele
★ 世紀末維也納
★ 現代性
★ 肖像畫
★ 雙重自畫像
★ 《自我預知者》系列
★ 內在視像
★ 雙重身
★ 雙人肖像畫
★ 宗教感
關鍵字(英) ★ Egon Schiele
★ Fin-De-Siècle Vienna
★ Modernity
★ Portraiture
★ Double Self-Portrait
★ Self-Seer Series
★ Inner Vision
★ Doppelgänger
★ Double Portrait
★ Sensation of Religion
論文目次 緒論⋯⋯1
研究背景與動機⋯⋯1
文獻回顧⋯⋯3
研究範圍和章節安排⋯⋯9
第一章 肖像畫與現代主體——世紀之交維也納的現代肖像⋯⋯11
前言⋯⋯11
舊維也納人肖像展⋯⋯11
Anton Romako身後畫展⋯⋯14
藝術展與國際藝術展⋯⋯16
小結⋯⋯20
第二章 進入觀看——Schiele早期肖像畫(c. 1910⋯⋯21
前言⋯⋯21
Schiele的藝術養成⋯⋯21
贊助者肖像⋯⋯25
孕婦與嬰兒肖像⋯⋯26
青少年肖像⋯⋯28
小結⋯⋯31
第三章 形塑內在視像——Schiele的雙重自畫像⋯⋯32
前言⋯⋯32
自畫像⋯⋯32
《自我預知者》系列(1910-1911)⋯⋯36
「瞧見」與「看透」⋯⋯38
草圖與構思⋯⋯39
小結⋯⋯44
第四章 觀看的儀式——雙重身(Doppelgänger)⋯⋯45
前言⋯⋯45
「雙重身」起源與浪漫主義文學中的演變⋯⋯45
「雙重身」的新意義⋯⋯48
雙重自畫像與Schiele的觀看方式⋯⋯51
小結⋯⋯55
第五章 觀看信仰——Schiele的雙人肖像畫⋯⋯56
前言⋯⋯56
宗教意味的雙人肖像畫⋯⋯57
扮演宗教感⋯⋯59
Schiele的新哥德⋯⋯63
小結⋯⋯69
結論⋯⋯70
參考資料⋯⋯75
圖版⋯⋯80
參考文獻 西文書目
1. Bär, Gerald. Das Motiv des Doppelgängers als Spaltungsphantasis in der Literature und im deutschen Stummfilm. Amsterdam: Rodolphi, 2005.
2. Barnstone, Deborah Ascher and others. The Doppelgänger. Bern: Peter Lang AG, 2016.
3. Bauer, Christian. Egon Schiele: Almost a Lifetime. Bern: Hirmer, 2015.
4. Beller, Steven. Vienna and the Jews, 1867-1938: A Cultural History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.
5. Blackshaw, Gemma, et al. Facing the Modern: The Portrait in Vienna 1900. London: National Gallery London, 2013.
6. Braasch, August Heinrich. Die religiösen Strömungen der Gegenwart. Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1909.
7. Comini, Alessandra, et al. Egon Schiele: Portraits. New York: Prestel, 2014.
8. Comini, Alessandra. Egon Schiele′s Portraits. Berkeley: University of California, 1969.
9. Crow, Thomas et al. Nineteenth Century Art: A Critical History. London: Thames & Hudson, 2002.
10. Edwards, Mary D. Doppelgangers, Alter Egos and Mirror Images in Western Art, 1840-2010: Critical Essays, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc., 2020.
11. Everdell, William R. The First Moderns: Profiles in the Origins of Twentieth-Century Thought. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
12. Gaillemin, Jean-Louis. Egon Schiele: The Egoist. London: Thames & Hudson, 2007.
13. Gilman, Sander L. Psychological writings and letters. New York: Continuum, 1995.
14. Gronberg, Tag. Vienna: City of Modernity, 1890-1914. Bern: Peter Lang AG, 2007.
15. Hoffmann, E. T. A. Späte Werk. Darmstadt: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 1979.
16. Husslein-Arco, Agnes, et al. Egon Schiele: Self-Portraits and Portraits. Vienna: Prestel, 2011.
17. Janik, Allan and Stephen Toulmin. Wittgenstein′s Vienna. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1996.
18. Junod, Philippe. Das Selbstportrait im Zeitalter der Photographie: Maler und Photographen im Dialog mit sich selbst. Bern: Benteli Verlag, 1985.
19. Kallir, Jane. Egon Schiele, The Complete Works: including a biography and a catalogue raisonné. London: Thames and Hudson Ltd, 1990.
20. Kallir, Otto. Egon Schiele: Oeuvre-Katalog der Gemälde. Vienna: Paul Zsolnay, 1966.
21. Kandel, Eric R. The Age of Insight: The Quest to Understand the Unconscious in Art, Mind, and Brain: from Vienna 1900 to the Present. New York: Random House, 2012.
22. Kapralik, Eduard et al. In Memoriam Egon Schiele. Wien: R. Lányi, 1921.
23. Leopold, Diethard and Elisabeth Leopold et al. Melancholie und Provokation: Das Egon Schiele Projekt. Wien: Brandstätter Verlag, 2011.
24. Leopold, Rudolf and Elisabeth Leopold. Egon Schiele: Letters and Poems 1910-1912 from the Leopold Collection. Vienna: Leopold Museum; Munich; New York: Prestel, 2008.
25. Rudolf Leopold. Egon Schiele: Paintings Watercolours Drawings. London: Phaidon Press Limited, 1973.
26. Marten, Lorna. Shadow Lines: Austrian Literature from Freud to Kafka. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1996.
27. Mathews, Patricia. Passionate Discontent: Creativity. Gender and French Symbolist Art. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.
28. Natter, Tobias G. Die Galerie Miethke: Eine Kunsthandlung Im Zentrum Der Moderne. Wien: Judisches Museum Wien, 2003.
29. Nebehay, Christian Michael. Egon Schiele, 1890-1918: Leben, Briefe, Gedichte. Wien: Residenz Verl, 1979.
30. Neugebauer, Roman. Egon Schiele: An Illustrated Life. Mitterfels: Vitalis, 2014.
31. Otto, Rudolf. The Idea of the Holy, trans. John Harvey. New York: Oxford University Press, 1969.
32. Paul, Jean. Siebenkäs. Berlin, 1796.
33. Rank, Otto. The Double: the Psychoanalytic Study. Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 1971.
34. Roessler, Arthur. Briefe und Prosa von Egon Schiele. Wien, 1921.
35. Saez, Helena Pereña. Egon Schiele: “Das unrettbare ich”: Werke aus der Albertina. Cologne: Wienand, 2011.
36. Schorske, Carl E. Fin-De-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture. New York: Knopf, 1980.
37. Schroder, Klaus Albrecht et al. Egon Schiele and his contemporaries: Austrian painting and drawing from 1900 to 1930 from the Leopold collection, Vienna. Munich: Prestel; New York: Distributed in the USA and Canada by te Neues Pub. Co., c1989.
38. Silverman, Kaja. The Subject of Semiotics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.
39. Smith, Kimberly A. Between Ruin and Renewal: Egon Schiele′s Landscapes. New Haven: Yale University Press, c2004.
40. Soussloff, Catherine M. The Subject in Art: Portraiture and the Birth of the Modern. Durham: Duke University Press, 2006.
41. Staggs, Janis. et al. Egon Schiele: Ronald Lauder and Serge Sabarsky Collection. Munich: Prestel, 2005.
42. Timpano, Nathan J. Constructing the Viennese Modern Body: Art, Hysteria, and the Puppet. New York: Routledge, 2017.
43. Tillich, Paul. Theology of Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
44. Vardoulakis, Dmitris. The Doppelgänger: Literature’s Philosophy. New York: Fordham University Press, 2010.
45. Vergo, Peter. Art in Vienna 1898-1918: Klimt, Kokoschka, Schiele and Their Contemporaries. London: Phaidon, 1993.
46. Webber, Andrew J. The Doppelgänger: Double Visions in German Literature. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
47. Werkner, Patrick. Egon Schiele: Art, Sexuality, and Viennese Modernism. Palo Alto, Calif.: Society for the Promotion of Science and Scholarship, 1994.
48. West, Shearer. Portraiture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
49. Whalen, Robert Weldon. Sacred Spring: God and the Birth of Modernism in Fin de Siècle Vienna. Grand Rapids, Cambridge: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2007.

中文書目
1. 史蒂芬・貝萊爾(Steven Beller)著,《奧地利史》(A Concise History of Austria),黃豔紅譯,北京市:中國大百科全書,2009。
2. 卡爾・休斯克著(Carl E. Schorske),《世紀末的維也納》(Fin-de-Siècle Vienna: Politics and Culture),黃煜文譯,台北:麥田,2002。

西文期刊
1. Ambrózy, Johann Thomas. “Das Geheimnis der „Eremiten“: Die Entschlüsselung einer Privat-Ikonographie und die Klärung des ursprungs der V-Geste von Egon Schiele“ Egon Schiele Jahrbuch Vol. I (2011): 10-57.
2. Ambrózy, Johann Thomas. “ Egon Schiele und Franz von Assisi: Die Lösung des hundertjährigen Rätsels um die mönchischen Gestalten des allegorischen Werkes. 1. Teil – Die Entschlüsselung der »Agonie«,“ Egon Schiele Jahrbuch Vol. II/III (2014): 30-69.
3. Blackshaw, Gemma. “The Pathological Body: Modernist Strategising in Egon Schiele’s Self-Portraiture,” Oxford Art Journal 30 (2007): 379-401.
4. Brendell, Ulrik. “Zwei Notizen über Egon Schiele,” Die Aktion: Wochenschrift für Politik, Literatur, Kunst 6 35-36(1916): 499-500.
5. Felton, Lori. “Doubling as a Device in Vienna 1900“, Egon Schiele Jahrbuch Vol. II (2014): 44-61.
6. Liegler, Leopold. “Egon Schiele,“ Die graphischen Künste, vol. 39, III (1916): 70-80.
7. Roessler, Arthur. “Kollektivausstellung Egon Schiele,“ Arbeiter-Zeitung 14 (1915): 9.
8. Vlachos, Georgios. “Monasticism, its birth, evolution and characteristics,” Pharos Journal of Theology 99 (2018): 1-20.
9. Werth, Eva. “Religion ist ihnen Empfindungsgrad, Zu Egon Schiele Lyrik und seinen Bildern,“ Egon Schiele Jahrbuch Vol. IV-VIII (2019): 110-137.

學位論文
1. Felton, Lori Anne., Egon Schiele’s Double Self Portraiture. Ph.D. Thesis: Bryn Mawr College, 2015.

網路資源
1. Austria-Forumhttp:<//austria-forum.org/af/AEIOU/Arthaber,_Rudolf_von>(2016/11/18檢索)。
2. Austria-Forumhttp:< http://austria-forum.org/af/AustriaWiki/%C3%96sterreichisch-Ungarischer_Ausgleich >(2016/11/18檢索)。
3. Deutsche Fotothek:< http://www.deutschefotothek.de/documents/wer/16303521#%7Chome >(2016/11/18檢索)
4. Leopold Museum:< https://www.leopoldmuseum.org/en/exhibitions/114/hundertwasser-schiele >(2020/06/21瀏覽)
5. Online Etymology Dictionary:< https://www.etymonline.com/word/alter%20ego >(2018/3/28檢索)。
6. RACHEL′S:< http://rachelsband.rachelgrimespiano.com/discography/ >(2020/06/22瀏覽)
7. Wallpaper:< https://www.wallpaper.com/art/jean-michel-basquiat-egon-schiele-fondation-louis-vuitton>(2020/06/21瀏覽)
8. Wikipedia: < https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arthur_Roessler> (2016/10/23檢索)
9. Wikipedia:<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Music_for_Egon_Schiele>(2020/06/22瀏覽)
10. Zeno.org:< http://www.zeno.org/Literatur/M/Jean+Paul/Romane+und+Erzählungen/Blumen-,+Frucht-+und+Dornenstücke >(2018/3/28檢索)。
指導教授 曾少千(Shao-Chien Tseng) 審核日期 2020-8-20
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