博碩士論文 103232004 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:9 、訪客IP:3.92.28.84
姓名 方淇(Chi Fang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 照明與顯示科技研究所
論文名稱 室內照明環境與顯示觀賞活動之 舒適輝度對比研究
(Evaluations of Comfortable Luminance Contrast for Indoor Display and Lighting)
相關論文
★ 應用機率類神經網絡之專注力識別方法★ LED檯燈視覺舒適度研究
★ 表面電漿共振系統之相位擷取與分析★ 人眼眼球模型與視覺表現之模擬分析研究
★ 白光LED之視覺生理效應評估★ 利用相位式表面電漿共振系統檢測免疫球蛋白鍵結之應用分析
★ 不同色溫螢光燈用於辦公室照明之視覺效應研究★ 表面電漿共振儀之動態相位偵測技術 與微量生物分子檢測應用
★ 二次通過成像架構量測人眼的光學系統品質★ 週期性奈米金屬結構對拉曼散射訊號增強之研究
★ 日眩光要因分析研究★ 非球面檢測之迭代相移干涉與子孔徑相位接合演算法開發
★ 應用可容忍隨機位移之相移干涉術於相位式表面電漿共振系統之穩定度增進★ 以偵測任務及系統效能評估找尋多針孔微單光子放射電腦斷層掃描系統之最佳化配置
★ 結合表面電漿共振及溫度控制於免疫球蛋白鍵結之檢測分析★ 以二次通過成像量測架構及降低誤差迭代演算法重建人眼之點擴散函數
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   至系統瀏覽論文 (2019-8-1以後開放)
摘要(中) 過去LED照明著重於發光效率的提升與價格成本的降低,伴隨著科技的進步與價格甜蜜點的來臨,重視情境營造、個人化需求及節能環保的LED智慧照明為新的發展趨勢。室內最普遍的休閒活動為觀看電視,對於著重使用者體驗與需求的現今,使用者的觀賞舒適度為照明觀賞環境的設計要點。本論文探討室內照明顯示觀賞活動下使用者的視覺生理狀況,經由心理學實驗法設計人因實驗,以問卷的方式獲得主觀評估,以閃光融合儀與睫狀肌視調節微動儀獲得客觀評估,並以統計軟體SPSS進行數據分析。本研究共有兩個實驗,實驗ㄧ的自變項為顯示輝度(50 nit、100 nit、200 nit)及其與背景輝度之間的對比度(10:1、20:1、50:1、217:1),其中217:1為暗室;實驗二的自變項為顯示輝度(50 nit、100 nit、200 nit)與對比度(2:1、3:1、4:1、6:1、10:1、50:1、217:1)。
人因實驗結果,實驗一的客觀指標無法提出適當的對比度操作範圍,主觀指標僅能初步判斷室內觀賞活動不建議於暗室中進行。實驗二的主觀生理感受評估建議以顯示輝度100 nit進行室內觀賞活動,且不建議於暗室中觀賞;螢幕亮暗感受評估建議以顯示輝度50 nit、對比度範圍2:1至50:1進行室內觀賞活動;背景亮暗感受與整體滿意度評估在不同的顯示輝度水準下有不同的對比度建議範圍。針對螢幕亮暗感受、背景亮暗感受、整體滿意度評估三個主觀評比,建立各自的擬合方程式,模型預測值與實驗各情境的平均評分均高度相關,相關係數分別為0.96、0.97、0.96。綜合三個評比建立室內顯示觀賞活動下燈具的舒適度操作模型,並可調配彼此的權重來改變各評比的重要性。此模型分數越高代表越滿意,並繪出距離最高分位置一個標準誤的範圍,定義為燈具的舒適操作區域,可作為未來調控顯示器亮度與環境照明的依據。
摘要(英) Along with the advancement of relevant technologies, light-emitting diode (LED) lighting has gained attention recently due to LED’s high luminous efficacy and reducing price. LED lighting is now being applied in various indoor and outdoor applications, and its development has moved forward to emphasize users’ demand and environmental protection. Watching television is like the most general leisure activity indoor; thus, user’s comfort under the display condition can be the main concern in designing indoor lighting.
This study investigates the visual comfort and visual fatigue of the user under different combinations of display luminance and contrast, which is the ratio of display luminance to background luminance. Psychophysical experiments were performed to obtain subjective ratings through questionnaires while objective ratings were acquired on visual fatigue from the critical flicker fusion and autorefractor keratometer measurements. The experiments were implemented in two rounds. ExperimentⅠhas two independent variables being the display luminance (50 nit, 100 nit, 200 nit) and the contrast (10:1, 20:1, 50:1, 217:1), where contrast 217:1 implies a darkroom condition. The levels of independent variables in ExperimentⅡare the display luminance (50 nit, 100 nit, 200 nit) and the contrast (2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 6:1, 10:1, 50:1, 217:1).
The results of ExperimentⅠshowed that the contrast is not a significant factor for the objective visual fatigue. This is probably due to the contrast levels in the experiment, and thus more contrast levels are tested in ExperimentⅡ. In the subjective assessments, there is a trend that participants felt more uncomfortable physiologically in the darkroom.
The results of ExperimentalⅡshowed that both the display luminance and the contrast are significant factors for the subjective assessments of physiological responses. Post hoc comparisons show that the display luminance of 100 nit is better than the display luminance of 200 nit and the contrast from 2:1 to 50:1 is better than the darkroom. In the subjective rating of display brightness perception, post hoc comparisons show that the display luminance of 50 nit and the contrast from 2:1 to 50:1 are preferable. In the subjective ratings of background brightness perception and environment satisfaction, post hoc comparisons show that different display luminance levels would suggest different contrast ranges.
The experimental data were used to model the ratings of display brightness perception, background brightness perception and environment satisfaction. A luminaire control model for the indoor display activities was then established based on the three fitted models with adjustable weighting factors. A higher rating from the model implies a more satisfactory lighting and display combination. The suggested luminaire operating range is defined as the region within one standard error from the highest rating of the model.
關鍵字(中) ★ 顯示輝度
★ 背景輝度
★ 對比度
★ 視覺疲勞度
★ 視覺舒適度
關鍵字(英) ★ Display luminance
★ background luminance
★ contrast
★ visual fatigue
★ visual comfort
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract iii
致謝 v
目錄 vi
圖目錄 x
表目錄 xiv
第一章、 緒論 1
1-1 研究背景與動機 1
1-2 研究目的 5
1-3 論文架構 6
第二章、 文獻探討 7
2-1 視覺疲勞評估 7
2-1-1 視覺過程 7
2-1-2 視覺疲勞來源 8
2-2 視覺疲勞衡量指標 9
2-2-1 閃光融合閾值 11
2-2-2 睫狀肌視調節微動 12
2-2-3 主觀評估問卷 16
2-3 室內觀賞環境評估 17
2-4 心理學實驗設計 22
2-4-1 消除漸進誤差之方法 23
2-5 統計分析 25
2-5-1 混合設計之變異數分析 26
2-5-2 受試者內設計之變異數分析 32
第三章、 研究方法與步驟 33
3-1 實驗設計 33
3-1-1 室內觀賞活動實驗一 33
3-1-2 室內觀賞活動實驗二 36
3-2 實驗設備 37
3-2-1 LED智慧照明燈具 37
3-2-2 Demand 4046顯示器 38
3-2-3 閃光融合儀 40
3-2-4 睫狀肌視調節微動分析儀 41
3-2-5 手持式照度計 42
3-2-6 手持式輝度計 43
3-3 實驗環境配置 44
3-4 顯示輝度的量測 49
3-5 實驗流程 51
3-5-1 室內觀賞活動實驗一 51
3-5-2 室內觀賞活動實驗二 53
3-6 受試者招募條件 55
3-7 資料分析方法 56
第四章、 結果與討論 57
4-1 室內觀賞活動實驗一 57
4-1-1 正式實驗之客觀評估指標變異數分析實驗結果 57
4-1-2 正式實驗之主觀評估指標變異數分析實驗結果 59
4-1-3 結果與討論 67
4-2 室內觀賞活動實驗二 70
4-2-1 主觀評估指標變異數分析實驗結果 70
4-2-2 主觀評估指標T檢定實驗結果 85
4-2-3 結果與討論 87
4-3 後續分析 90
4-4 實驗結果之應用 94
4-4-1 三個評估的擬合方程式建立 94
4-4-2 室內觀賞活動之舒適度操作模型 100
4-4-3 舒適度操作模型應用 103
第五章、 結論與未來展望 107
5-1 結論 107
5-2 未來展望 108
參考文獻 110
附錄一 實驗問卷內容 118
附錄二 台大IRB審查核可證明書 120
附錄三 台大IRB變更案審查核可證明書 121
參考文獻 [1] 郭子菱,城邦文化事業股份有限公司,民國101年9月,來源:
http://www.mem.com.tw/article_content.asp?sn=1209260005 ,accessed on 2016/02/23。
[2] 吳碧娥,北美智權報,民國104年4月,來源:
http://udn.com/news/story/6871/841495-LED%E6%87%89%E7%94%A8-2019%E5%B9%B4%E5%B8%82%E5%A0%B4%E8%A6%8F%E6%A8%A1%E4%B8%8A%E7%9C%8B87.1%E5%84%84%E7%BE%8E%E5%85%83,accessed on 2016/02/23。
[3] Marketsand Markets, “ Smart Lighting Market by Connectivity Technologies (Wired & Wireless), End Users, Lighting Types (Fluorescent Lighting, LED Lamps, & Others), Components (Control & Communication, Luminaries & Fixtures), and Geography - Global Forecast to 2020,” 2015, source:
http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/Market-Reports/smart-lighting-market-985.html, accessed on 2016/02/23.
[4] Philips,2014, source:
http://www.philips.com.tw/content/corporate/zh_tw/about/news/archive/standard/about/news/2014/20140508.html, accessed on 2016/04/20.
[5] U.S. Department of Energy, “Adoption of Light-Emitting Diodes in Common Lighting Applications,” Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, 2013.
[6] 蘇慧貞,「室內環境品質及生物性危害與防治」,2007病態建築診斷機制教育宣導講習會,台北,民國96年11月。
[7] Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2013, source:
https://www.statista.com/chart/2980/leisure-activities-in-the-united-states/, accessed on 2016/06/07.
[8] 國家通訊傳播委員會,「電視使用行為及滿意度調查報告」,民國102年7月。
[9] H. Lee and K. W. Whang, “A quantitative measurement of LCD and PDP TVs for human visual preference and fatigue,” Displays, Vol.33, pp.1-6, 2012.
[10] K. Sakamoto, S. Aoyama, S. Asahara, K. Yamashita and A. Okada, “Measurement of visual fatigue for large-sized TVs in a home viewing environment,” The 13th IEEE International Symposium on Consumer Electronics, pp.738-742, 2009.
[11] D. S. Lee and M. L. Huang, “Screen luminance, subtitle, and viewing angle on viewing distance of liquid crystal display high-definition television,’’ 2012 International Conference on Computer Science and Electronics Engineering, pp.106-109, 2012.
[12] A. G. Rempel, W. Heidrich, H. Li and R. Mantiuk, “ Video viewing preferences for HDR displays under varying ambient illumination,’’ Proceedings of the 6th Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, pp.45-52, 2009.
[13] Color Images, 2009, source:http://www.charts.kh.edu.tw/teaching-web/98color/color1-4.htm, accessed on 2016/02/23。
[14] 梁群,人因工程,一版,鼎茂圖書出版,台北市,民國85年。
[15] A. Murata, A. Uetake, M. Otsuka and Y. Takasawa, “ Proposal of an index to evaluate visual fatigue induced during visual display terminal tasks,’’ International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, Vol.13, No.3, pp.305-321, 2001.
[16] F. C. Donders, On the Anomalies of Accommodation and Refraction of the Eye with a Preliminary Essay on Physiological Dioptrics, The New Sydenham Society, London, 1864.
[17] T. Megaw, “The definition and measurement of visual fatigue,’’ Evaluation of Human Work: A Practical Ergonomic Methodology, pp. 840-863, 1990.
[18] 紀佳芬,林房儹,「電腦作業視覺疲勞的量測方法」,勞工安全衛生簡訊,第二十八期,5~8 頁,民國87年4月。
[19] Z. Zhu and J. Wu, “ On the standardization of VDT′s proper and optimal contrast range,” Ergonomics, Vol.33, No.7, pp.925-932,1990.
[20] C. F. Chi and F. T. Lin, “A comparison of seven visual fatigue assessment techniques in three data-acquisition VDT tasks,” Human Factors, Vol.40, No.4, pp. 577-590, 1998.
[21] S. Taptagaporn and S. Saito, “How display polarity and lighting conditions affect the pupil size of VDT operators,” Ergonomics, Vol.33, No. 2, pp.201-208, 1990.
[22] Y. Horie, “A study on the evaluation of sample workload by a thermal video system,” Towards Human Work: Solutions to Problems in Occupational Health and Safety, London, pp.251-252, 1991.
[23] T. Iwasaki, S. Kurimoto and K. Noro, “The changes in colour flicker fusion values and accommodation times during experimental repetitive tasks with CRT display screens,” Ergonomics, Vol.32, No.3, pp.293-305, 1989.
[24] R. I. Thackray and R. M. Touchstone, “The effect of visual taskload on critical flicker frequency (CFF) change during performance of a complex monitoring task,” Office of Aviation Medicine, Federal aviation administration, Washington, DC, Technical Report DOT/FAA-AM-85-13 1985.
[25] K. Nishiyama, “Ergonomic aspects of the health and safety of VDT work in Japan: a review,” Ergonomics, Vol.33, pp.659-685, 1990.
[26] T. Marek and C. Noworol, “Bi-point flicker research and self-ratings of mental and visual fatigue of VDT operators,” In: S. S. Asfour (Ed.), Trends in Ergonomics/Human factors IV. Elsevier, North-Holland, pp.163-168, 1987.
[27] W. N. Charman and G. Heron, “Fluctuations in accommodation: a review,” Ophthalmic Physiol Opt., Vol.8, No.2, pp.153-164, 1988.
[28] F. W. Campbell, J. G. Robson, and G. Westheimer, “Fluctuations of accommodation under steady viewing conditions,” J. Physiol, Vol.145, No.3, pp. 579-594, 1959.
[29] M. Kajita, M. Ono, S. Suzuki and K. Kato, “Accommodative microfluctuation in asthenopia caused by accommodative spasm,” Fukushima J Med Sci., Vol.47, No.1, pp.13-20, 2001.
[30] B. Winn and B. Gilmartin, “Current perspective on microfluctuations of accommodation,” Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, Vol.12, No.2, pp. 252-256, 1992.
[31] N. Takahashi and M. Kajita, “ The effects of astaxanthin on accommodative recovery,” Journal of Clinical Therapeutics & Medicines, Vol.21, No. 4, pp. 431-436,2005.
[32] 湯禹舜,「利用3D顯示平台探討視調節微動與視覺疲勞之研究」,國立交通大學,碩士論文,民國101年。
[33] F. Maeda, A. Tabuchi, K. Kani, K. Kawamoto, T. Yoneda and T. Yamashita, “Influence of three-dimensional image viewing on visual function,” Japanese Ophthalmological Society, Vol.55, No.3, pp.175-182, 2011.
[34] 彭家偉,「面板技術與刺激型態對視覺疲勞出現時間之影響」,朝陽科技大學,碩士論文,民國100年。
[35] 簡鈞豪,「四種眼睛疲勞恢復方法的評估」,朝陽科技大學,碩士論文,民國101年。
[36] H. Yoshitake, “Relations between the symptoms and the feeling of fatigue,” Ergonomics, Vol.14, No.1, pp.175-186, 1971.
[37] 王俊明,「問卷與量表的編製及分析方法」,國立體育學院,民國88年。
[38] E. J. McCormick and M. S. Sanders, Human Factors in Engineering and Design, 5th ed., New York: McGraw-Hill, 1982.
[39] International Commission on Illumination (CIE), “CIE equations for disability glare: CIE collection on glare 2002,” Publication CIE No. 146 (TC 1-50), 2002.
[40] M. Hirning, “The Application of Luminance Mapping to Discomfort Glare: A Modied Glare Index for Green Buildings,” Queensland University of Technology Discipline of Physics, Doctoral Thesis, 2014.
[41] R.G. Hopkinson, “Glare discomfort and pupil diameter,” J. Optical Soc. Am, Vol.46, pp.649-656, 1956.
[42] J. E. Sheedy , R. Smith and J. Hayes, “Visual effects of the luminance surrounding a computer display,” Ergonomics, Vol.48, No.9, pp.1114-1128, 2005.
[43] 林彥輝,莊舜弘,李建璁,「室內工作場所採光罩名與作業安全之研究」,行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所,民國94年。
[44] Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), IES recommended practice for lighting offices containing computer visual display terminals, New York, 1989.
[45] American National Standard Institute (ANSI), 1988, “American National
Standard for Human Factors Engineering of visual display terminal
workstations(ANSI/HFS 100-1988 , 1988),” Human Factors and
Ergonomics Society, Inc., Santa Monica, California.
[46] A. Wolska and M. Switula, “Luminance of the surround and visual fatigue of VDT operators,” Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, Vol.5, pp.553-580, 1999.
[47] I. L. Bailey and M. A. Bullimore, “A new test for the evaluation of disability glare,” Optometry and Vision Science, Vol.68, pp.911-917, 1991.
[48] K. Takahashi, H. Sasaki, T. Saito, T. Hosokawa, M. Kurasaki and K. Saito, “Combined effects of working environmental conditions in VDT work,” Ergonomics, Vol.44, No.5, pp.562-570, 2001.
[49] A. Buchner, S. Mayr and M. Brandt, “The advantage of positive text-background polarity is due to high display luminance,” Ergonomics, Vol.52, No.7, pp. 882-886, 2009.
[50] C. H. Lin, “Brightness Feedback Display Device,” U.S. Pat., 6710318 B2, 2004.
[51] 張碩文,「不同環境光照度下平面顯示器之視覺舒適度研究」,國立臺灣科技大學,碩士論文,民國100年。
[52] 林清山,心理與教育統計學,東華書局,台北,312-313頁,民國81年。
[53] J. J. Shaughnessy, E. B. Zechmeister and J. S. Zechmeister, Research Methods in Psychology, 8th ed., McGraw-Hill, New York, pp.245-259, 2008.
[54] 吳明隆,SPSS操作與應用 : 變異數分析實務,台北,民國96年。
[55] A Field, Discovering Statistics Using SPSS, Sage Publications Press., London, 2009.
[56] J. B. De Boer, “Visual perception in road traffic and the field of vision of the motorist in Public Lighting,” J. B. De Boer ed., Eindhoven, Netherlands, Philips Technical Library, pp.11-96, 1967.
[57] H. J. Schmidt Clausen and J. T. H. Bindels, “Assessment of discomfort glare in motor vehicle lighting,” Lighting Research and Technology, Vol.6, pp.79-88, 1974.
[58] 經濟部標準檢驗局,CNS國家照度標準,來源:
http://www.cnsonline.com.tw/,accessed on 2016/06/20。
[59] 賴鵬宇,「夜間LED廣告看板之眩光研究」,國立臺灣科技大學,碩士論文,民國102年。
[60] 許仕勳,「動態照明在辦公環境應用之可行性評估與眼動儀偵測視覺疲勞之研究」,國立中央大學,碩士論文,民國104年。
[61] 陳沛鑫,「以人因評估建立智慧照明燈具之控制模型」,國立中央大學,碩士論文,民國105年。
[62] M. Urvoy, M. Barkowsky and P. L. Callet, “How visual fatigue and discomfort impact 3D-TV quality of experience: a comprehensive review of technological, psychophysical, and psychological factors,” Ann. Telecommun., Vol.68, pp.641-655, 2013.
指導教授 陳怡君(Yi-Chun Chen) 審核日期 2016-7-26
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明