博碩士論文 103322034 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:22 、訪客IP:54.208.73.179
姓名 黃適謙(Shih-Chien Huang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 卵礫石層直接剪力試驗與垂直平鈑載重試驗之離散元素法數值模擬
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摘要(中) 本文旨在以數值模型進行大型試驗之模擬與參數探討。直接剪力試驗為簡易且可快速獲取土壤剪力強度的常用方法,而垂直平鈑載重試驗能觀測現地土壤的承載能力,根據Prandtl(1921)基礎承載理論,土壤內摩擦角為估計基礎承載力的重要依據。

褚炳麟(1996)研究將卵礫石層依平鈑載重試驗應力-沉陷關係,分成三類。第一類,呈線性關係,卵礫石顆粒相互接觸,第二類,僅部分卵礫石相互接觸,若稍加夯實承載力即大幅提升,第三類,顆粒間沒有明顯接觸,與細顆粒土壤行為類似。而宜蘭牛鬥橋結果呈上凹趨勢,似乎沒有可分類情況,故於本研究中加以探討。

由於大尺寸現地試驗中,土壤的受力行為不易直接觀察,並且較難以室內縮尺實驗表現。因此,本研究以離散元素法進行模擬分析,使用PFC2d (Particle flow code2d)程式。本研究首先擬合宜蘭舊牛鬥橋試驗之結果,以確認模型之正確性,後續探討微觀參數對巨觀行為之影響,而後利用顆粒旋轉判斷破壞弧範圍。

試驗結果顯示:(1)牛鬥橋現地平鈑載重試驗之應力-沉陷量關係,其上凹趨勢屬尚未達降伏部份,持續加載後方有明顯尖峰值與殘留應力區間產生。(2)藉由紀錄顆粒旋轉量,發現卵礫石層之破壞弧將延伸超過規範之基坑寬的4倍鈑寬。(3)對於卵礫石層而言,直剪試驗獲得之內摩擦角與垂直平鈑載重試驗之極限承載力,受輸入顆粒勁度影響較大。

摘要(英) This research aims to simulate in-situ large-scale experiments and discuss the relationship of input parameters by using numerical models. Direct shear test is a general method which can quickly obtain the soil’s properties. The vertical plate load test can directly obtain the ground’s bearing capacity. According to Prandtl(1921)’s theory of foundation bearing capacity, the inner friction angle is important to estimate the ground’s bearing capacity.

Bing-Lin Chu (1996) classified gravel deposits into three types based on vertical plate load test’s stress-displacement results. The first type, gravel particles are in contact with each other and stress-displacement curve is almost a linear line. The second type, only a few gravel particles contact with each other. After being compacted, the bearing capacity will get very high. The third type, nearly no gravel particles are in contact with each other. But the Niu-Dou Bridge’s result is a concave upward curve which is close to none of upper mentioned types.

For micro-mechanical aspect of the soils under above in-situ condition, it is very difficult to observe the grain particle’s behavior. Therefore, this research using PFC2d (Particle flow code2d) program to simulate in-situ tests based on the results from Yilan old Niu-Dou Bridge.

Research results showed that: (1) Plate load test result’s concave curve is elastic part of whole test. By adding more loads will get full stress-displacement relationship with peak stress and residual stress. (2) By calculate the amounts of particle’s rotation, it can determine the failure zone. The results showed the failure zone is larger than excavation width defined by standard (3) The inner friction angel and bearing capacity are greatly influenced by the particle stiffness.

關鍵字(中) ★ 顆粒鍵結
★ 直接剪力試驗
★ 垂直平鈑載重試驗
★ 離散元素法
關鍵字(英) ★ Bonding particle
★ Direct shear test
★ Plate load test
★ Discrete element method
論文目次 Abstract I

摘要 III

目錄 IV

表目錄 VII

圖目錄 VIII

第一章 緒論 1

1.1研究動機 1

1.2研究方法與目的 2

1.3研究內容 3

1.4模擬現地資料流程 5

第二章 文獻回顧 6

2.1 簡述台灣卵礫石層地質背景與分佈 6

2.2 台灣卵礫石層一般特性 8

2.3 簡述宜蘭縣舊牛鬥橋試驗計畫 9

2.3.1 橋址地質 9

2.3.2 現地大型直接剪力試驗 11

2.3.3 垂直平鈑載重試驗 13

2.4以離散元素法模擬直剪試驗 15

2.4.1直接剪力試驗 15

2.4.2直剪試驗模擬 17

2.4.3直剪試驗之體積與孔隙率變化 18

2.4.4直剪試驗之剪動觀察 20

2.4.5 顆粒摩擦對顆粒材料剪切行為影響 22

2.5淺基礎承載理論 24

2.5.1淺基礎破壞型式 26

2.6垂直平鈑載重試驗 28

2.6.1卵礫石地層之試驗結果 29

2.6.2探討垂直平鈑載重試驗鈑之尺寸效應 32

2.6.3以數值模擬探討淺基礎受載重下之力學行為 33

2.7顆粒鍵結模型 36

2.7.1利用鍵結模型觀察砂岩微觀性質 36

2.7.2以離散元素法模擬顆粒破碎 37

第三章 研究方法 39

3.1離散元素法 39

3.2 Particle flow code 2D 模式簡介 40

3.2.1接觸勁度模式(Contact-stiffness model) 41

3.2.2滑動模式(Slip model) 41

3.2.3鍵結模式(Bonding model) 42

3.3數值模型建立流程 43

3.3.1直剪試驗之模型建立 43

3.3.2垂直平鈑載重試驗之模型建立 45

3.3.3設定模型參數 46

3.3.4顆粒填入方式 48

3.3.5基本顆粒鍵結模型 49

3.3.6直剪試驗觀測項目 51

3.3.7 垂直平鈑載重試驗觀測項目 53

3.3.8加載正向力 55

3.3.9選定試驗速度 55

3.4 模型資料分析處理 57

3.4.1直剪試驗剪應力計算 57

3.4.2垂直平鈑載重試驗應力-沉陷量計算 58

3.4.3垂直平鈑載重試驗微觀變化紀錄 59

3.4.4剪動模擬速度的計算 64

3.4.5 電腦配備與模型花費時間 65

第四章 宜蘭舊牛鬥橋模擬試驗結果 66

4.1離散元素法擬合舊牛鬥橋現地資料 66

4.1.1擬合模型基本顆粒 66

4.1.2直接剪力試驗之數值分析 69

4.1.3垂直平鈑載重試驗之數值分析與現地結果比較 71

4.1.4垂直平鈑載重試驗數值探討鈑寬尺寸效應 73

4.1.5垂直平鈑載重試驗數值探討顆粒尺寸效應 76

第五章 改變輸入參數探討對試驗結果影響 78

5.1試驗模型簡述 78

5.1.1擬合模型基本顆粒 78

5.2直接剪力試驗基本結果 79

5.2.1直接剪力試驗結果展示 79

5.2.2改變顆粒勁度對摩擦角之影響 81

5.2.3不同摩擦係數對摩擦角之影響 83

5.2.4直接剪力試驗計算臨界狀態摩擦角 85

5.3垂直平鈑載重試驗基本結果 91

5.3.1垂直平鈑載重試驗結果展示 91

5.3.2不同顆粒勁度對垂直平鈑載重試驗影響 93

5.3.3不同摩擦係數對垂直平鈑載重試驗之影響 95

5.3.4利用承載曲線對卵礫石層特徵分類 97

第六章 101

6.1 結論 101

6.2 未來展望 103

參考文獻 104

附錄一 問與答 111

附錄二 模擬試驗結果 112

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59.張光宗、陳宥序、鄭敏杰,「以數值方法探討卵礫石層的力學行為」,中華水土保持學報,第45卷,第95-102 頁(2014)。

指導教授 黃文昭(Wen-Chao Huang) 審核日期 2015-8-26
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