博碩士論文 103322040 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳思凱(Ssu-Kai Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 砂土中模型基樁之單向反覆軸向載重試驗
(Cyclic Axial Loading Tests on Model Pile in Sand)
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摘要(中) 多樁形式的離岸風機基礎需長期承受上部結構重量及週期性作用力。當上部結構受到風力、洋流及波浪等週期性側向作用力傳遞至下部結構,對樁基礎產生週期性的軸向壓力及拉力,造成樁基礎產生差異沉陷使風機傾斜,進而影響風機系統運轉之穩定性。因此,本研究主要目的為探討基樁受長期反覆軸向作用力下之受力行為。
本研究利用空氣霣降法製作Dr=60%乾砂試體,進行1-g模型樁載重試驗。模擬風機基礎於自重條件安全係數為3的情況下,再施加反覆軸向載重振幅進行試驗。本研究進行靜態試驗時,發現靠近樁底砂土相對密度明顯影響樁底承載力的發揮,故極限靜壓載重試驗總共進行10組,並記錄砂土各層相對密度,以便觀察對樁底承載力之影響,確保日後試驗砂土條件之一致性。單向反覆載重試驗總共進行6組,3組受反覆軸向壓力、3組受反覆軸向拉力,反覆荷載分別為1/3Pu、1/6Pu及1/12Pu,反覆作用週數分別為10000、10000及20000次。
  試驗結果顯示,較大的反覆軸向振幅下,樁頭勁度隨著反覆作用次數衰減越明顯,樁頭位移遞增率亦越大。相同反覆軸向振幅下,樁基礎受反覆軸向壓力的殘餘位移較大。當反覆作用週數增加時,樁身摩擦力逐漸減小,但樁底承載力則逐漸增大。
摘要(英) Because the offshore wind turbine pile foundations such as that jacket and tripod are subjected to the WTG loading and long-term wind and wave loading transmitted from upper structure to lower substructure, the generated cyclic axial compression and tension, result in pile groups of difference settlement, affecting the stability of operation of the wind turbine. Therefore to investigate different pile behavior under cyclic axial load, is the destination of this study.
  In this study, air pluviation method of sample was adopted to prepare a dense homogeneous dry sand specimen with a relative density of 60%, and 1-g model pile load test was conducted. When conducting axial cyclic load test, the loading which approach 1/3 of ultimate static in the axial load capacity was applied to simulate the normal conditions under safety factor of 3.In the static load tests it was, found that near bottom of the pile the sand relative density significantly affects the pile bearing capacity, the ultimate static load test total was totally 10 groups, with recording the relative density of sand layers in order to observe the variation of pile bearing capacity, and to ensure the consistent in preparation of sand samples in the future. Six unidirectional cyclic axial load test were conducted, in which three tests were under cyclic axial compression, and three tests under cyclic axial tension. The magnitude of loading were 1/3Pu, 1/6Pu and 1/12Pu, and the number of cycles were 10000, 10000 and 20000 respectively.
  The results represent that the larger number of axial load cycles apply, the smaller equivalent stiffness of pile head was obtained as well as pile head displacement increases with an increasing number of cycles. Under the same condition of axial load cycles, the accumulated residual displacement of pile foundation under cyclic axial compression was larger than cyclic axial tension case. When increasing number of cycles, the pile shaft friction decreases. But the bearing capacity of pile tip increases.

關鍵字(中) ★ 離岸風力發電
★ 模型樁試驗
★ 反覆軸向作用
★ 乾砂
關鍵字(英) ★ offshore wind power
★ model pile
★ cyclic axial load
★ dry sand
論文目次 摘要 i
ABSTRACT ii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vii
圖目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機與目的 1
1-2 研究方法與內容 3
1-3 論文架構 3
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2-1 現地基樁載重試驗法 5
2-2 基樁垂直承載之行為與機制 6
2-2-1 受力機制 6
2-2-2 承載力理論 9
2-3 荷重傳遞曲線 12
2-3-1 API建議之t-z曲線 13
2-3-2 API建議之Q-z曲線 15
2-3-3 Reese建議砂土之t-z曲線 16
2-3-4 Reese建議砂土之q-z曲線 18
2-4 樁基礎受反覆載重之行為 19
2-4-1 Chan and Hanna (1980) 19
2-4-2 Long and Vanneste (1994) 23
2-4-3 Jardine and Standing (2012) 26
2-4-4 Li et al (2012) 31
第三章 試驗設備與方法 33
3-1 試驗規劃與設計 33
3-2 試驗砂樣及基本性質 33
3-3 試驗儀器設備 36
3-3-1 移動式霣降機 36
3-3-2 模型試驗箱 38
3-3-3 模型計測樁 39
3-3-4 荷載施加設備 45
3-3-5 資料擷取系統 48
3-4 試驗方法與步驟 52
3-4-1 量測儀器之校正 52
3-4-2 砂土試體製作 57
3-5 模型樁載重試驗 59
3-5-1 極限靜態承載試驗 59
3-5-2 單向反覆軸向載重試驗 60
第四章 試驗結果與討論 62
4-1 試驗規劃及配置 62
4-2 極限靜壓載重試驗結果 64
4-2-1 樁頭載重-位移曲線之討論 71
4-2-2 樁身軸力與樁身摩擦力變化情形. 75
4-2-3 樁底應力變化情形 98
4-3 單向反覆軸向載重試驗結果 99
4-3-1 CL1-test試驗結果 103
4-3-2 CL2-test試驗結果 111
4-3-3 CL3-test試驗結果 119
4-3-4 CU1-test試驗結果 126
4-3-5 CU2-test試驗結果 133
4-3-6 CU3-test試驗結果 140
4-4 綜合分析與討論 147
4-4-1 殘餘位移受反覆作用週數之影響 147
4-4-2 樁身摩擦力受反覆作用週數之影響 150
4-4-3 樁底承載力受反覆作用週數之影響 151
4-4-4 樁頭勁度受反覆作用週數之影響 153
第五章 結論與建議 158
5-1 結論 158
5-2 建議 160
參考文獻 161

參考文獻 1.American Society for Testing Materials, “Standard Test Method for Piles Under Static Axial Compressive Load.” Annual Book of Standard, ASTM D1143/D1143M-07 (2013).
2.API. “API Recommended Practice 2A-WSD, Recommended Practice for lanning, Designing, Constructing Fixed Offshore Platforms-Working Stress Design(2005).
3.Chan, S. F., and Hanna, T. H., “Repeated Loading on Single Piles in Sand,” Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, Vol. 106, No. 2, pp.171-188(1980).
4.Li, Z., Bolton, M. D., and Haigh, S. K., “Cyclic Axial Behavior of Piles and Pile Groups in Sand,” Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Vol. 49, No. 9, pp. 1074-1087 (2012).
5.Long, J. H., and Vanneste, G., “Effects of Cyclic Lateral Loads on Piles in Sand,” Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 120, No. 1, pp.225-244 (1994).
6.O’Neill, M. W., and Reese, L. C., “Drilled shafts: construction procedures and design methods.” Publication No. FHWA-IF-99-025, U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administraion, Washington, D.C., U.S.A. (1999).
7.Terzaghi, K., “Evaluation of coefficient of subgrade reaction,” Geotechnique, Vol. 5, No. 4. pp. 279-326 (1955).
8.Tomlinson, M. J., Pile Design and Construction Practice, London (1977).
9.Jardine R. J., and Standing J. R., “Field axial cyclic loading experiments on piles driven in sand,” Soils and Foundation, Vol. 52, pp. 723-736 (2012).
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指導教授 黃俊鴻(Jin-Hung Hwang) 審核日期 2017-1-24
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