博碩士論文 103322049 詳細資訊




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姓名 李冠宏(Guan-Hong Lee)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 最終處置場近場環境對緩衝材料回脹壓力之影響
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摘要(中) 在最終處置場近場環境中主要受到熱–水力–力學–化學效應影響(即T-H-M-C效應)。這些耦合效應對緩衝材料的劣化有直接的影響,因此不同近場環境因子對緩衝材料回脹行為之影響必須加以分析釐清。
本研究將SPV 200膨潤土壓實至乾密度為1600 kg/m^3狀態,針對衰變熱、地下水化學、pH值與垂直應力效應,進行單向度回脹試驗、回脹壓力與水力傳導試驗,從研究結果顯示:
(1)SPV 200膨潤土於65℃ 水–熱環境下,造成膨潤土回脹壓力迅速發展,且回脹壓力隨著溫度提高而降低;
(2)SPV 200膨潤土於氯化鈉與氯化鈣環境下,回脹壓力隨著陽離子濃度提升而降低,其中氯化鈉效應下對回脹壓力影響較大;
(3)當 SPV 200膨潤土處於pH值<13溶液中,對回脹壓力沒有明顯影響;
(4)由XRD與ICP分析結果顯示,SPV 200膨潤土於氫氧化鈉[1.0M]系統中,蒙脫石與石英礦物有減少趨勢,且矽離子有明顯溶出現象;
(5)單向度回脹試驗顯示,垂直應力提升時,壓縮了膨潤土的回脹。但膨潤土於海水效應中,垂直應力越高,使得陽離子對膨潤土回脹影響程度越小。
摘要(英) In a final disposal site for radioactive wastes, the evolution of the near field is mainly controlled by the thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (T-H-M-C) effects. The coupling effects have a direct impact on the deterioration of the buffer material, and therefore the effects of various near field environmental factors on the swelling behavior of the buffer material must be analyzed.
In this study, SPV 200 bentonite compacted to a dry density of 1600 kg/m^3 was tested for one-dimensional swelling pressures, with considerations on simulation decay heat, groundwater chemistry, pH environment, and the vertical stress effect. Results from the study show:
(1) SPV 200 bentonite at 65℃ water - heat solution exhibited a rapid development of bentonite swelling pressures, and increases in temperature cause decreases in swelling pressure;
(2) in NaCl and CaCl2 solution, the swelling pressure of bentonite decreases with increasing cation concentration, and the effect of NaCl on swelling pressure is more pronounced;
(3) at solutions with pH < 13, no significant reduction on swelling pressure was observed;
(4) as illustrated by XRD and ICP analysis, SPV 200 bentonite in NaOH [1.0M] solution shows decreases in montmorillonite and quartz minerals, while the Si ions exhibits obvious increase;
(5) one-dimensional swelling tests showed that the amount of swelling is highly dependent on the vertical stresses applied on bentonite.
關鍵字(中) ★ 緩衝材料
★ 回脹壓力
★ SPV 200 膨潤土
★ 回脹行為
關鍵字(英) ★ buffer material
★ swelling pressures
★ SPV 200 bentonite
★ swelling behavior
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract II
致謝 III
目錄 IV
圖目錄 X
表目錄 XV
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機 1
1.2 研究目的 2
1.3 研究方法與範圍 2
第二章 文獻回顧 5
2.1 用過核子燃料最終處置之設計概念 5
2.2 緩衝材料之功能需求 6
2.3 膨潤土基本特性 10
2.3.1 膨潤土結晶構造 10
2.3.2 膨潤土水合作用 11
2.3.3 分散與絮凝結構 12
2.3.4 pH值對膨潤土結構效應 13
2.4 擴散雙層理論 14
2.4.1 溫度對擴散雙層厚度之影響 16
2.4.2 電解質濃度及離子價數對擴散雙層厚度之影響 16
2.4.3 pH值對擴散雙層厚度之影響 17
2.4.4 陽離子水化半徑對擴散雙層厚度之影響 18
2.5 膨潤土回脹行為 19
2.5.1 壓實膨潤土之結構 19
2.5.2 膨潤土自由回脹行為 20
2.5.3 膨潤土定體積回脹行為 22
2.6 國外最終處置場近場環境分析 23
2.6.1 溫度效應對回脹壓力之影響 24
2.6.2 地下水化學效應對回脹壓力之影響 28
2.6.3 pH值效應對回脹壓力之影響 31
2.6.4 垂直應力效應對回脹壓力之影響 34
第三章 研究計劃 39
3.1 研究內容與架構 39
3.2 試驗材料 40
3.2.1 Volclay SPV 200膨潤土 40
3.3 基本物理性質分析方法 41
3.4 化學性質分析方法 41
3.4.1 化學成分分析 41
3.4.2 陽離子交換容量分析 41
3.4.3 X光繞射分析 42
3.4.4 Field Emission SEM分析 43
3.4.5 pH值量測 44
3.4.6 回脹潛能試驗 45
3.5 回脹壓力與水力傳導試驗 45
3.5.1 回脹壓力與水力傳導試驗方法 46
3.5.2 緩衝材料試體製作 47
3.6 回脹壓力與水力傳導試驗系統配置 49
3.6.1 定體積回脹壓力試驗 49
3.6.2 水力傳導試驗 51
3.7 模擬近場環境之試驗方法 52
3.7.1 衰變熱效應 52
3.7.2 地下水化學效應 52
3.7.3 pH值效應 53
3.8 單向度回脹試驗 53
3.8.1 單向度回脹試驗方法 54
3.8.2 緩衝材料試體製作 55
3.9 單向度回脹試驗系統配置 56
第四章 試驗結果與分析 57
4.1 膨潤土基本物理性質分析 57
4.2 膨潤土化學性質分析 58
4.2.1 化學組成分析 59
4.2.2 陽離子交換容量分析 59
4.2.3 X光繞射分析 61
4.2.4 膨潤土pH值與回脹潛能分析 61
4.3 不同近場環境之回脹潛能試驗結果 62
4.4 回脹壓力與水力傳導試驗結果 65
4.4.1 衰變熱效應–回脹壓力試驗結果 65
4.4.2 地下水化學效應–回脹壓力試驗結果 70
4.4.2.1 不同陽離子效應對回脹壓力之影響 74
4.4.2.2 陰離子效應對回脹壓力之影響 75
4.4.2.3 陽離子交換容量分析 76
4.4.2.4 X光繞射分析 79
4.4.3 pH效應–回脹壓力試驗結果 81
4.4.3.1 外觀分析 85
4.4.3.2 SEM分析 87
4.4.3.3 膨潤土pH值切片分析 92
4.4.3.4 陽離子可交換容量分析 95
4.4.3.5 X光繞射分析 98
4.4.4 水力傳導試驗 100
4.5 單向度回脹試驗 101
4.5.1 Deionized water系統–單向度回脹試驗結果 102
4.5.2 模擬海水系統–單向度回脹試驗結果 103
第五章 結論與建議 105
5.1 結論 105
5.2 建議 108
參考文獻 109
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指導教授 黃偉慶(Wei-Hsing Huang) 審核日期 2016-7-27
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