博碩士論文 103326026 詳細資訊




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姓名 林哲緯(Zhe-Wei Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 台灣北部高車流量地區細懸浮微粒和超細懸浮微粒的物理特性
(Near-road Measurements of Particle Size Distribution, Lung Deposition Surface Area Concentration, PM and BC Mass Concentrations in Taipei Urban Area)
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檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    至系統瀏覽論文 (2022-9-18以後開放)
摘要(中) 車流發達的地區,交通排放源為細懸浮微粒、超細懸浮微粒和黑碳的主要貢獻者,這對於都市環境的影響,主要會降低城市的空氣品質和衝擊人體的健康,然而現今對於環境連續監測的缺乏,導致探討微粒變化和特性時,增加其不確定性。所以本研究中,選擇位於高車流量地區進行道路邊的連續監測,以微粒質量監測儀 (PSMM, MSP 1600)、錐形元件震盪微量天平 (TEOM, R&P 1400a)、奈米微粒表面積監測儀 (NSAM, TSI 3550)、掃描式電移動度粒徑分析儀 (SMPS, TSI 3936)、氣膠吸光儀 (Magee, AE-31 or AE-33)作為交通源的量測,透過即時的監測系統,了解環境中微粒濃度與特性的變化,同時以氣象塔和影像錄影,紀錄環境溫、濕度變化、風速和風向的分布及交通量的估算,在微粒的結果分析上,包含質量濃度、表面積濃度、數目濃度、粒徑分佈和黑碳濃度的探討,從不同結果的方式研究環境中的微粒,並將個別結果整合和分析,探討都市環境中微粒隨時間的濃度變化和特性。即時系統的建置,針對環境質量濃度和黑碳濃度的量測,做儀器的比對。TEOM和PSMM的比較中,不同濃度下兩者的結果有所差異,量測高濃度的環境下結果有較大偏差。AE-31和AE-33的比較,AE-31的結果在經過修正後,有助縮減和AE-33結果間的偏差,對於環境量測的提升。監測的結果中,在不同季節風向上的差異,受到的交通排放源也有所不同。夏季的風向變化複雜,包含了遠程傳輸和近交通源的影響,冬季風向較明確,受近交通源的影響較高,汙染物的濃度呈現為夏低冬高的結果。對於交通變化而言,工作日的高車流出現在早晚的尖峰期間,這段期間黑碳濃度、數目濃度和肺部沉積表面積可觀察明顯的峰值。作為交通汙染物的指標黑碳而言,在尖峰期黑碳和PM2.5的比值上,能達到15%以上。微粒的數目約15000~20000 #/cm3,肺部沉積表面積約80~95 μm2/cm3。而微粒的構型上,藉由NSAM和SMPS表面積濃度的結果,不規則構型的微粒在交通尖峰期有顯著的提升,也意味著環境中微粒本身多半以非球型的型態存在。對於微粒密度而言,尖峰期間不規則微粒本身結構較為鬆散,環境微粒的有效密度較低。對人體健康而言,以暴露劑量的方式作為衡量吸入的結果。對於尖峰期間,高濃度的環境下會增加危害的風險,尤其對於發育中的幼童和青少年,受到危害較成人高。在道路旁從事運動或高強度的活動,呼吸量的上升因而提升吸入汙染物的劑量。顯示交通排放對於生活在都市環境的居民,健康受到的影響是極需注意的,對於排放源如何有效的控管,更是值得深思的問題。
摘要(英) Studying the characteristics of the size distribution of ambient ultrafine particle and black carbon (BC) at urban traffic sites was critical because the influence of ultrafine particle and BC on air quality and human health depends on size distribution. Both of ultrafine particle and BC are important components of particulate matter that mainly originates from traffic emission. For the physical and chemical characterization and assessment of the health effects of ultrafine particle are considerable uncertainty for lack of monitoring the traffic emission continuously in Taiwan. In this study, monitoring at a roadside site which was near the high traffic in Taipei, for PM2.5 and PM1.0 monitoring by PM Sampler and Mass Monitor (PSMM, MSP 1600), Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalances (TEOM, R&P 1400a), Nanoparticle Surface Area Monitor (NSAM, TSI 3550), Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, TSI 3936) and 7-Wavelength Aethalometer (Magee, AE-31, Magee, AE-33). In result, including mass concentration, lung deposition surface area concentration, number concentration, size distribution and BC mass concentration. Simultaneously, the weather monitor and webcam record the temperature, humidity, wind speed, wind direction and traffic, respectively. In study building the immediate system for the mass concentration and black carbon concentration measurement, doing the instrument comparison. TEOM and PSMM, the result was a large deviation in high concentrations. AE-31 and AE-33, the results of AE-31 were corrected to help reduce the deviation between AE-31 and AE-33 results. The results of the monitoring, the differences in the winds in different seasons, the traffic sources are also different. The wind direction was complex in summer, including the effects of long-distance transmission and near-traffic sources. The winter wind direction was clear, the effect of near-traffic sources. The concentration of pollutants was lower in summer and higher in winter. For traffic changes, the high traffic occurred during the morning and evening, the black carbon concentration, the number concentrations and lung deposition surface area can be observed significantly peak. The BC was indicated that the main contribution in traffic. During the traffic spike, the proportion of PM2.5 can reach more than about 15%. The number of particles was about 15000 ~ 20000 # / cm3, the lung deposition surface area was about 80 ~ 95 μm2 / cm3. For the ratio of surface area concentration between NSAM and SMPS indicated the irregular configuration particles had significant spike in rush hour, and that shows most of particle was non-spherical shape in environment. For the particle apparent density, in rush hour the irregular particles were relatively loose and the apparent density was low in environmental. For human health, the exposure dose was used as a measure of inhalation. In rush hour, the high concentrations will increase the risk of harm in environment, especially for the development of young children and adolescents, more harm than adults. Doing the exercise or the high-intensity activities beside the road, because the breathing increased, it raised the inhalation of pollutants. For residents living in the urban environment, the impact of traffic on health was extremely important to note, how to effective control the emission source was worth pondering.
關鍵字(中) ★ 交通排放源
★ 黑碳
★ 肺部沉積表面積
★ 有效密度
關鍵字(英) ★ Transport emissions
★ Black carbon concentration
★ Lung Deposit Surface area concentration
★ Apparent Density
論文目次 中文摘要......................................................................................................................... i
Abstract ........................................................................................................................ iii
誌謝................................................................................................................................ v
目錄............................................................................................................................... vi
表目錄........................................................................................................................ viii
圖目錄........................................................................................................................... ix
第一章 前言.................................................................................................................. 1
1-1 研究前言 ........................................................................................................ 1
1-2 研究目的 ........................................................................................................ 3
第二章 文獻回顧.......................................................................................................... 5
2-1 交通排放源 .................................................................................................... 5
2-2 細懸浮微粒 .................................................................................................... 8
2-2-1 質量濃度 ............................................................................................. 8
2-2-2 粒徑與數目濃度 ................................................................................. 9
2-2-3 表面積濃度 ....................................................................................... 11
2-2-4 有效密度 ........................................................................................... 13
2-3 黑碳 .............................................................................................................. 16
2-4 氣象條件的影響 .......................................................................................... 19
第三章 研究方法........................................................................................................ 22
3-1 監測地點與時間 .......................................................................................... 22
3-2 監測設計與儀器 .......................................................................................... 27
3-2-1 流程設計 ................................................................................................... 27
3-2-2 監測儀器與原理 ....................................................................................... 30
3-3 結果分析方法 .............................................................................................. 33
3-3-1 密度與構型的推估 ................................................................................... 33
3-3-2 黑碳濃度修正 ........................................................................................... 33
第四章 監測結果與討論............................................................................................ 35
4-1 不同儀器對於PM與黑碳質量濃度的比較和分析 .................................. 35
4-1-1 PM質量濃度:TEOM和PSMM比較 .............................................. 35
4-1-2黑碳質量濃度: AE-31和AE-33比較 ............................................. 38
4-2 PM2.5監測結果分析 ..................................................................................... 42
4-2-1夏季和冬季溫溼度的變化 ................................................................ 42
4-2-2 夏季和冬季的風速風向 ................................................................... 44
4-2-3 交通量 ............................................................................................... 45
4-2-4 季節性觀測結果分析 ....................................................................... 47
4-2-5 質量濃度和黑碳濃度分析 ............................................................... 50
4-2-6 幾何平均粒徑和總數目濃度分析 ................................................... 54
4-2-7 表面積濃度分析 ............................................................................... 56
4-2-8 風速對濃度影響 ............................................................................... 61
4-3 PM1.0監測結果分析 ..................................................................................... 66
4-3-1 質量濃度和黑碳濃度分析 ............................................................... 66
4-3-2 幾何平均粒徑和總數目濃度分析 ................................................... 69
4-3-3 微粒表面積濃度分析 ....................................................................... 71
4-3-4 微粒有效密度分析 ........................................................................... 73
4-3-5 風速影響 ........................................................................................... 75
第五章 結論................................................................................................................ 77
參考文獻...................................................................................................................... 79
問題與建議回復.......................................................................................................... 91
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指導教授 蕭大智(Ta-Chih Hsiao) 審核日期 2017-9-22
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