博碩士論文 103356010 詳細資訊




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姓名 邱相禎(Hsiang-Chen Chiu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所在職專班
論文名稱 不同改良劑對污染土壤中重金屬植物有效性之影響
(Effect of Various soil Amendments on Phytoavailability in Copper and Zinc Contaminated Soils)
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摘要(中) 由於工業廢水與灌溉水搭排下,導致土壤及地下水污染,使台灣農田污染事件層出不窮,污染超出土壤涵容能力,其中重金屬銅、鋅污染尤甚。植生復育(Phytoextraction)為重金屬污染土壤之復育技術,相較傳統物理、化學整治技術,對環境生態更具友善性、且具較佳之成本效益性。利用重金屬超累積植物(Hyperaccumulator)吸收污染物,藉由植物累積(Phytoaccumulation)再移除植物進行焚化固化等後續處理,可降低整治產生廢棄物量與防止二次污染。
本試驗選用台灣污染區試種過之植物,分別為非洲鳳仙(Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.)及向日葵(Helianthus annuus Linn),種植於受銅、鋅污染的圓墩坡系Yp與和美系Hm土壤經摻入不同改良劑:CK對照、L石灰、O堆肥、R稻稈、A草灰、RL稻稈+石灰、RO稻稈+堆肥、AL草灰+石灰、AO草灰+堆肥等不同施作方式,經種植60天後分析植體與土壤間重金屬累積之關係。
試驗結果於圓墩坡系污染土壤種植非洲鳳仙與向日葵以吸收鋅為主,如未添加改良劑之非洲鳳仙受土壤中數種重金屬污染產生毒害症狀導致死亡,圓墩坡系摻入AL草灰+石灰與單獨加入L石灰種植非洲鳳仙可提高土壤pH值與大幅增加植體吸收鋅,尤其加入L石灰整株非洲鳳仙鋅移除量達11,939.5mg/kg(達到超級累積植物標準10,000mg/kg);圓墩坡系種植向日葵則因重金屬濃度過高或多種重金屬同時存在導致高達5種處理造成向日葵死亡,重金屬銅、鋅移除量不如非洲鳳仙。
和美系污染土壤種植非洲鳳仙鋅累積量大多存於根部,鋅移除量以未添加CK對照最高,顯示鋅污染之坋質黏壤土種植非洲鳳仙,即使不添加改良劑也有移除鋅之功效,和美系種植向日葵之污染土壤鋅累積於地上部,最高鋅總移除量為未添加CK對照2865.8 mg/kg與O堆肥2680.0 mg/kg,向日葵鋅總移除量為非洲鳳仙鋅移除量4倍(鋅總移除為CK對照670.7 mg/kg),添加改良劑不會促進非洲鳳仙與向日葵鋅總吸收量,若以美化環境需求建議種植向日葵。和美系污染土壤種植向日葵,銅移除量最高為未添加CK對照358.4 mg/kg,添加改良劑不會促進銅吸收量,但種植非洲鳳仙以添加O堆肥651.6 mg/kg、RL稻稈+石灰647.7 mg/kg移除量最高,且非洲鳳仙銅移除量為向日葵移除量2倍,建議和美系受銅污染之土壤可摻入O堆肥或RL稻稈+石灰栽種非洲鳳仙。
摘要(英) The discharging of industrial effluent into irrigation system results in the high risk of soil and groundwater pollution,such as copper and zinc pollutants which triggers the endless incidents of farmland pollution in Taiwan. Phytoextraction is one of the soil remediation technologies. Compared with the traditional physical and chemical controlling technology, phytoextraction is More friendly to the environment and ecology, and has better cost effectiveness. The usage of heavy metal hyperaccumulator for uptaking pollutants and the removing of plants for incineration and consolidation by phytoaccumulation can reduce and control the produced waste as well as prevent secondary pollution.
This experiment selects the plants that have been planted in contaminated areas of Taiwan, namely impatiens (Impatiens walleriana Hook. f.) and sunflowers (Helianthus annuus Linn). The plnts are cultivated in the Yantunpo(Yp) and Homei(Hm) soil contaminated by Cu and Zn soil. Soil amendments treatments were as following:control group (CK), lime (L), compost (O), rice straw (R), plant ash (A), rice straw and lime (RL), rice straw and compost (RO), plant ash and lime (AL), as well as plant ash and compost (AO). After 60 days of planting, the soil and plants will both analyze the content of Cu and Zn to realize the relationship between the plants and the contaminated soils.
The results show that plants of impatiens and sunflowers in the Yp contaminated soils mainly uptake Zn. The treatments without adding improvers to the contaminated soils, Impatiens are not survival in the experiment due to the poison of heavy metals. In the Yp soil, treatments with plant ash and lime (AL) and lime (L) can raise the soil pH and substantial increase the Zn uptaked by the impatiens. In particular, the removal of Zn in the whole Impatiens plants treated with lime (L) is up to 11,939.5mg/kg (This meets the hyperaccumulator standard of over 10,000mg/kg). For the sunflowers planted in the Yp soil, the high concentration of heavy metals or various heavy metals exist at the same time cause the death of sunflowers with five different amendment treatments. The removal of Cu and Zn of sunflowers is lower than that of impatiens.
In this experiment, Zn was mostly stores in the impatiens roots planted in the Hm soil, and the highest Zn removal is the control group (CK). It is shown that the impatiens planted in the silty clay loam contaminated by Zn has the effect of removing Zn even without adding improvers. The sunflowers tend to accumulate Zn on the shoot parts planted in the contaminated Hm soil. The highest total removal of Zn is control group (CK) 2865.8 mg/kg and Compost (O) 2680.0 mg/kg. The total removal of Zn by sunflowers is four times as much then that of impatiens. (The total removal of Zn is control group (CK) 670.7 mg/kg). Adding improvers does not increase the total removal of Zn of impatiens and sunflowers. It is recommended to plant sunflowers for decorating the environment. The highest removal of Cu of sunflowers planted in the contaminated Hm soil is control group (CK) 358.4 mg/kg, which means that the adding improvers cannot promote the uptaking of Cu. The highest removal of Cu of impatiens is compost (O) 651.6 mg/kg and rice straw and lime (RL) 647.7 mg/kg. Furthermore, the removal of Cu by impatiens is twice as much as that of sunflowers. Therefore, it is recommended that the Hm soil contaminated by Cu can add compost (O) or rice and lime (RL) for planting Impatiens.
關鍵字(中) ★ 植生復育
★ 銅
★ 鋅
★ 非洲鳳仙
★ 向日葵
★ 植物累積
關鍵字(英) ★ Phytoextraction
★ Copper
★ Zinc
★ Impatiens
★ Sunflowers
★ Phytoaccumulation
論文目次 目 錄
目次 頁次
目錄…………………………………………………………………........... I
圖目錄………………………………………………………………........... V
表目錄………………………………………………………………........... VIII

第一章 前言………………………………………………………………. 1

1-1 研究緣起………………………………………………… 1
1-2 研究目的…………………...……………………………. 2

第二章 文獻回顧…………………………………………………………. 3

2-1 土壤中重金屬來源………………...……………….…… 3
2-1-1 重金屬污染標準………………………………... 6
2-2 台灣污染土壤列管現況………………...………………. 7
2-2-1 重金屬來源與危害……………...……………… 7
2-2-2 重金屬污染調查與列管概況…………………... 8
2-3 土壤中重金屬型態與移動特性………………………… 20
2-3-1 重金屬在土壤中型態…………………………... 20
2-3-2 重金屬在土壤中移動特性……………………... 22
2-4 重金屬污染整治技術…………………………………… 25
2-4-1 化學/物理技術………………………………….. 27
2-4-2 工程技術………………………………………... 28
2-4-3 生物技術………………………………………... 29
2-4-3-1 植生復育植物特性………………….. 29
2-4-3-2 植生復育處理機制………………….. 30
2-4-3-3 植物對重金屬可能的反應機制與關係 31

第三章 材料與方法………...…………………………………………….. 33

3-1 試驗土壤………………...………………………………. 33
3-1-1 桃園土壤………………...……………..………. 33
3-1-2 彰化土壤………………...……………..………. 33
3-1-3 改良劑………………………………………….. 35
3-2 試驗藥品………………………………………………… 35
3-3 試驗設備………………………………………………… 36
3-4 試驗土壤基本性質分析………………………………… 40
3-4-1 土壤pH值:玻璃電極測量法………………… 40
3-4-2 電導度………………...……….……………….. 41
3-4-3 風乾土含水量:重量法……….……………….. 41
3-4-4 土壤質地:吸管法………...……………………. 41
3-4-5 土壤有機碳含量: Walkley-Black濕式氧化法… 41
3-4-6 土壤重金屬全量:王水消化法………………… 45
3-4-7 土壤重金屬生物有效性濃度:0.05 M EDTA(pH 7.0)萃取法………………………….. 48
3-4-8 土壤重金屬生物有效性濃度:0.1 M HCl……... 48
3-4-9 石灰需要量:SMP 方法………………………... 48
3-4-10 植體重金屬…………………………………….. 49
3-5 試驗設計與處理………………………………………… 51
3-5-1 試驗土壤製備…………………………………... 51
3-5-2 試驗改良劑……………………………………... 52
3-5-3 植體前處理……………………………………... 54

第四章 結果與討論………………………………………………………. 55

4-1 土壤基本理化特性……………………………………… 55
4-1-1 桃園土壤………………………………………... 55
4-1-2 彰化土壤………………………………………... 55
4-1-3 試驗改良劑性質………………………………... 56
4-2 施用不同改良劑對土壤理化性質之影響……………… 57
4-2-1 土壤pH與電導度………………………………. 57
4-2-2 土壤有機質含量………………………………... 62
4-2-3 植物之金屬有效性…………………………….. 65
4-3 施用不同改良劑對非洲鳳仙之影響…………………… 69
4-3-1 不同改良劑與不同土壤對非洲鳳仙生長之影響 69
4-3-2 施用不同改良劑與植物中金屬濃度之關係……. 75
4-3-3 不同土壤對植物中金屬累積與生長之影響…… 78
4-3-4 施用不同量改良劑之結果比較………….……... 83
4-4 施用不同改良劑對向日葵之影響………………………. 87
4-4-1 不同改良劑與不同土壤對向日葵生長之影響 87
4-4-2 施用不同改良劑對植物不同部位銅累積濃度之關係………………………………………………... 91
4-4-3 施用不同改良劑對植物不同部位鋅累積濃度之關係………………………………………………... 95
4-4-4 改良劑施用不同量的效果比較………………….. 98
4-5 不同植物利用於植生復育之效益評析…………………… 102
4-5-1 重金屬總移除量………………………………….. 102
4-5-2 施用改良劑效應與植生復育經費評估…………. 108

第五章 結論與建議…………………………………………………………. 110

5-1 結論………………………………………………………… 110
5-2 建議………………………………………………………… 111

參考文獻…………………………………………………………….............. 112
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指導教授 李俊福(Jiunn-Fwu Lee) 審核日期 2018-8-22
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