博碩士論文 103382601 詳細資訊




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姓名 潘普翠(Putri Adhitana Paramitha)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱
(Engineering and Environmental Analysis of Maintenance Interval in Taiwan Freeway -the Case of Guanxi Section)
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摘要(中) 隨著台灣經濟成長,企業、機構與組織的林立,城市的空間漸不足,生活圈持續擴大,以至台灣的路網逐漸繁密,因此道路的維護變得格外重要。本文涉及鋪面屬性、鋪面條件和交通屬性,以了解台灣高速公路不同維護週期的生命週期成本計算(Life Cycle Costing, LCC)和生命週期分析(Life Cycle Analysis, LCA)相關的使用條件,LCC作為替代投資分析,將鋪面的初始和未來貼現、用戶、維護和其他相關成本納入其中,嘗試決定最低生命週期成本的最佳價值,並滿足投資支出績效目標,因為LCA將環境影響和鋪面自身納入系統的整個生命週期,包括於生產、維護和使用階段時發生的影響,因此需要依靠高速公路大數據庫來進行分析,鋪面生命週期對於提高效率,充足性和可靠的資金佔有決定性的因素,同時也涵蓋了影響環境的大量能源和資源消耗。本研究針對台灣第三高速公路關西段進行分析。使用HDM-4模擬分析期間的總生命週期條件和成本,並對不同投資方案進行比較成本估算和經濟分析。收集並分析道路網數據、氣候數據、車流數據和交通數據。將HDM-4進行校正,使其考慮到鋪面破壞、PCI和IRI值,得到小週期維護更適用於關西段。研究成本比較表明,小週期維護成本在環境影響評估,總工務局花費和環境成本皆較高,然而針對(Global warming potential,GWP)的分析卻顯示小週期維護降低了全球暖化潛勢,比現行維護方式低0.46%~ 0.99%。台灣是藉由訂定最低IRI值1.75m/km來提高高速公路的服務水平,本研究同時證實,關西段近期維修使用情況優於以前的長週期,維護週期降低至1.5年可能會提高小週期維護的有效性。短週期維護方法可做為未來維護策略,建議選擇台灣高速公路其他區段進行後續研究。
摘要(英) A low time interval of maintenance, lack of large-scale maintenance, budget limitation, environmental condition, increase of pavement condition standard, and increase of the transportation volume resulted in low pavement condition on the freeway. However, since 2013 Taiwan no longer focused on freeway construction. It intended to concentrate on short-cycle maintenance instead of long-cycle maintenance. Applied short-cycle maintenance indicates better road performance. However, it increases the budget due to the increase of maintenance interval. It becomes essential to embracing sustainability as an effective tool to assist in the selection of maintenance treatments for the roads. As an important feature of sustainability, Life Cycle Cost (LCC) emphasizing engineering economic, while Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) emphasizing environmental factors. The historical freeway database is needed for analyzing the pavement life cycle and long-term road network performance as a function of traffic volumes, traffic loading, pavement type, pavement condition, and maintenance standards. Calibrated HDM-4 used to simulate total life cycle conditions and costs for an analysis period with comparative cost. It estimates an economic analyses of different investment options. Road network data, climate data, vehicle fleet data, and traffic data were collected and analyzed. Based on the analysis of pavement distress, PCI, and IRI value, the result shows applying short-cycle is more acceptable for maintenance in Guanxi section. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) result shows that short-cycle maintenance contributed the smallest GWP with 0.46% up to 0.99% lower than another maintenance type. Maintenance interval, material consumption and pavement roughness would also be identified to impact the environment in this study. Therefore, integrated analysis for engineering LCC, environmental LCA, and IRI by Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to the Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) shows short-cycle as an optimum maintenance option. Likewise, this study validates that recent maintenance use in Guanxi section is better than the previous long-cycle while reducing the maintenance interval to 1.5 years might decrease the maintenance cost of short-cycle maintenance. This maintenance method worth for the next study and could be used as future maintenance strategy in another freeway sections in Taiwan.
關鍵字(中) ★ 鋪面
★ 生命週期評估
★ 環境要素
關鍵字(英) ★ Pavement,
★ life cycle cost analysis
★ environmental
論文目次 ABSTRACT ii
摘要 viii
Acknowledgement ix
Table of Contents x
List of Abbreviation xv
List of Figure xviii
List of Table xxiii
List of Equation xxvii
1. Introduction 1
1.1. Background 1
1.2. Statement of This Study 3
1.3. Research Objective 3
1.4. The Skeleton of the Study 3
1.5. Assumption and Limitations 4
1.6. Remarks 5
2. Literature Review 7
2.1. Taiwan Freeway 7
2.2. Guanxi Section 10
2.3. Taiwan Economic Growth and Budgeting 11
2.4. Pavement Management System (PMS) 14
2.5. Pavement Condition 16
2.5.1. Pavement Distress and Road Deterioration 16
2.5.2. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) 18
2.5.3. International Roughness Index (IRI) 18
2.5.4. Skid Resistance 19
2.5.5. Structural Number of Pavement 20
2.5.6. Road Work Standard 21
2.6. Pavement Effect to Fuel Consumption 22
2.7. Life Cycle Cost (LCC) on Pavement 22
2.7.1. LCC Elements 25
2.7.2. LCC Approaches 28
2.7.3. Economic Indicators 29
2.7.4. Pavement Management Constraints 30
2.8. Overview of HDM-4 31
2.9. Greenhouse Gases Emission and Global Warming Potential 34
2.9.1. Greenhouse Gasses (GHG) 34
2.9.2. Global Warming Potential (GWP) 35
2.10. Overview of GaBi Software 35
2.11. Engineering and Environmental Life Cycle 36
3. Methodology 38
3.1. Study Plan 38
3.2. Life Cycle Inventory Database 40
3.3. Data Manipulation 41
3.3.1. Clustering 41
3.3.2. Pearson’s Correlation Analysis 41
3.3.3. Regression Analysis 42
3.4. HDM-4 42
3.5. The Calibration of HDM-4 49
3.6. Pavement Performance Prediction Model in HDM-4 51
3.7. Engineering Life Cycle 54
3.7.1. Agency Cost 54
3.7.2. User Cost 54
3.8. Environmental Life Cycle 55
3.8.1. Life Cycle Inventory 56
3.8.2. Impact Assessment Phase 57
3.8.3. GWP Analysis 57
3.9. Optimization Model 57
4. Taiwan Freeway Historical Data Inventory 61
4.1. Introduction 61
4.2. Objective of This Chapter 61
4.3. Road Network Inventory Data 62
4.4. Climate Inventory 68
4.5. Vehicle Fleet Inventory 71
4.6. Traffic Inventory 74
4.6.1. Traffic Pattern 77
4.6.2. Traffic Categories 90
4.6.3. Traffic Composition, Volumes and Growth Rates 90
4.6.4. Road Capacity and Speed-Flow Relationships 94
4.6.5. Vehicles Distribution 95
4.7. Remarks 103
5. The Simulation of HDM-4 105
5.1. Introduction 105
5.2. Objective of This Chapter 106
5.3. Maintenance and Rehabilitation 106
5.3.1. Maintenance History 106
5.3.2. Road Work Standard 110
5.3.3. Maintenance Alternatives 113
5.4. Pavement Condition Prediction Model 115
5.4.1. Structural Number of Pavement 115
5.4.2. Deterioration Prediction Model 118
5.4.3. The Prediction results of Pavement Condition Index 122
5.4.4. Pavement Roughness Prediction Models 125
5.4.5. Skid Resistance Prediction 133
5.4.6. Pavement Overall Pavement Condition Index 135
5.5. Remarks 136
6. Engineering Life Cycle Cost (LCC) 137
6.1. Introduction 137
6.2. Objective of This Chapter 142
6.3. Road Maintenance Optimization Model Considering User and Agency Cost at Project Level 143
6.3.1. Assessment 144
6.3.2. Agency Cost 145
6.3.3. User Cost 147
6.4. Road Maintenance Optimization Considering User and Agency Costat Network Level 156
6.4.1. Assessment 156
6.4.2. Agency Cost 158
6.4.3. User Cost 160
6.5. Maintenance and Rehabilitation Recommendation 164
6.6. Remarks 166
7. Environmental Life Cycle Assessment 168
7.1. Introduction 168
7.2. Objectives for This Chapter 170
7.3. Inventory Analysis 171
7.3.1. Inventory Analysis of Project Level 172
7.3.2. Inventory Analysis of Network Level 179
7.4. Impact Analysis and Emission 180
7.4.1. Impact Analysis of Project Level 183
7.4.2. Impact Analysis of Network Level 187
7.5. The Results of Global Warming Potential 190
7.5.1. GWP of Project Level 193
7.5.2. GWP of Network Level 196
7.6. Remarks 201
8. Economic and Environmental Optimization Model 203
8.1. Introduction 203
8.2. Objective for This Chapter 204
8.3. Optimization of Maintenance 204
8.3.1. Maintenance and Environmental Cost of Project Level 205
8.3.2. Maintenance and Environmental Cost of Network Level 212
8.4. Maintenance Alternatives Based on Cost and Environmental 223
8.4.1. Maintenance Alternatives of Project Level 225
8.4.2. Maintenance Alternatives of Network Level 228
8.5. Remarks 229
9. Conclusions and Recommendations 230
9.1. Conclusions 230
9.2. Recommendations 231
REFERENCE 232
Appendix 1. Vehicle Fleet 243
Appendix 2. Detail AADT and ESAL 252
Appendix 3. Road Condition Data 351
Appendix 4. HDM-4 Data Input 371
Appendix 5. Maintenance History 387
Appendix 6. Detail Agency Cost 389
Appendix 7. Cost Analysis 393
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指導教授 陳世晃(Chen, Shih-Huang) 審核日期 2018-7-27
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