博碩士論文 103386002 詳細資訊




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姓名 粘愷峻(Kai-Chun Nien)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 活性碳與沸石吸附之工程實踐評估
(Evaluation of Activated Carbon and Zeolite Adsorption for Field Application)
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摘要(中) 吸附(濾材)技術已廣泛應用於揮發性有機物(VOCs)之去除,乃一種有
效的控制技術,固定床活性碳回收設備及沸石濃縮轉輪焚化系統技術為業
界經常採用之技術,但實廠上仍面臨一些應用限制。有鑑於此,本研究致
力於改善活性碳及沸石吸附系統之效能,以期提供相關改善建議方法及健
全空氣污染防制技術,為提升空氣品質做出貢獻。於活性碳吸、脫附過程
抑制丁二酮(butanedione, BDO)生成的研究方面,本研究測試5種商用活性
碳、9種改質劑、3種溶劑、多種浸置時間與溫度的處理流程,超過28組以
上的活性碳改質方法。實驗結果顯示使用適當的改質劑、較高的改質劑負
荷、以氮氣作為脫附氣體可有效降低MEK反應生成BDO。證實以改質之活
性碳進行溶劑回收與揮發性有機物控制,初期投資成本雖較高且操作費用
較貴,但可大幅提升系統操作之安全性。此外,在提升沸石濃縮轉輪吸附
大分子均三甲苯性能的研究方面,本研究發現單一種沸石基材吸附劑無法
通用於分子尺寸不同的VOCs,對噴塗製程廢氣的混合性VOCs而言,本研
究整合微孔洞(H-ZSM-5)與中孔洞(MCM-41)兩類沸石串連的工程解決方
案。研究結果指出在含甲苯與均三甲苯兩種VOCs濃度各50 ppm的進流排
氣,單獨使用H-ZSM-5-25沸石的貫穿時間為3.5 min,單獨使用MCM-41-AS
沸石的貫穿時間為6.5 min,串聯兩類型沸石的貫穿時間明顯延長至20.5
min,是單一沸石的3.2倍或5.9倍,實驗結果證實,串聯兩類型沸石組合可
適用於同時含有小分子與大分子的噴塗製程VOCs之有效控制。
摘要(英) Adsorption technologies have been widely used to control the emissions
of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and it is regarded as an effective way
for VOCs removal. Especially, activated carbon and zeolite are commercially
available for field application. However, they still have some limitations.
Therefore, this study is motivated to improve the performance of adsorption
systems of activated carbon and zeolite. First, methods for inhibiting
butanedione (BDO) formation during activated carbon adsorption-desorption of
methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) were investigated. In total, more than 28 types of
modified activated carbons were extensively examined. The tests included five
types of commercial activated carbons, nine kinds of modifiers, three kinds of
solvents, and a variety of processing time and temperatures. Experimental
results indicated that BDO formation from MEK oxidation could be greatly
inhibited by suitable modifier, high modifier loading, and adopting N2 as
desorption medium. For instance, BDO concentration in the test with raw
activated carbon as adsorbent was 0.123%, and decreased to 0.0115% as
modified activated carbon was applied, indicating that BDO concentration
could be reduced by more than 10 times. Although the capital and running costs
would increase by using modified activated carbon for solvent recovery, the
operational safety can be greatly improved and it is economically feasible. On
the other hand, zeolite adsorption rotor was studied for the enhancement of
mesitylene adsorption. It is found that a rotor with single type of zeolite could
not achieve good removal efficiency due to various VOCs molecular sizes in
the exhausts of spray coating processes. This study hence proposed a possible
engineering solution with the integration of both micropore (H-ZSM-5) and
iii
mesopore (MCM-41) zeolites. Experimental results indicated that the
breakthrough time with H-ZSM-5-25/MCM-41-AS as adsorbent was greatly
extended to 20.5 min. On the other hand, the breakthrough times were 3.5 and
6.5 min, respectively, when H-ZSM-5 and MCM-41-AS were applied as
adsorbent, respectively, for the gas stream containing 50 ppm toluene and
mesitylene. Obviously, the breakthrough time of the combined zeolite
developed can increase by 3.2 - 5.9 times if compared with individual zeolite. It
is proved that combined H-ZSM-5-25/MCM-41-AS zeolite as adsorbent is
suitable for simultaneous and effective removal of VOCs from spray coating
exhaust.
關鍵字(中) ★ 活性碳吸附
★ 沸石濃縮轉輪
★ 溶劑回收
★ 丁二酮
★ 均三甲苯
★ 揮發性有機物
關鍵字(英) ★ Activated carbon adsorption/desorption
★ zeolite adsorption rotor
★ solvent recovery
★ butanedione (BDO)
★ mesitylene
★ volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
論文目次 目錄
摘要 ........................................................................................................................... i
Abstract ..................................................................................................................... ii
表目錄 ...................................................................................................................... V
第一章 前言............................................................................................................. 1
1.1 研究緣起 .............................................................................................. 1
1.2 研究目的 .............................................................................................. 3
第二章 文獻回顧 ..................................................................................................... 4
2.1 丁酮、均三甲苯及甲苯之物化特性、來源及危害 ............................. 7
2.2 揮發性有機物之控制技術 .................................................................. 11
2.3 國內重要之產業現況分析及VOCs 之排放 .......................................15
2.4 吸附與脫附理論 ..................................................................................38
2.5 影響吸附之因子 ..................................................................................41
2.6 活性碳於吸附VOCs 之應用...............................................................44
2.7 沸石於VOCs 吸附之應用 ..................................................................52
2.8 等溫吸附方程式 ..................................................................................59
2.9 吸附貫穿曲線 ......................................................................................64
第三章 研究方法 ....................................................................................................66
3.1 商用活性碳選用 ..................................................................................67
3.2 活性碳之改質方法 ..............................................................................68
3.3 活性碳吸脫附性能測試系統...............................................................70
3.4 活性碳吸脫附測試流程 ......................................................................71
3.5 活性碳吸附容量之計算 ......................................................................72
3.6 BDO 吸收液分析及檢量線 .................................................................73
3.7 活性碳表面官能基分析方法...............................................................73
II
3.8 沸石吸附實驗方法 ..............................................................................74
第四章 改質活性碳之吸附效能探討 .....................................................................77
4.1 活性碳孔徑特性與灰分含量之差異 ...................................................77
4.2 活性碳表面含氧官能基之差異及改質後活性碳之起燃點 ................79
4.3 未改質活性碳再生時之BDO 生成量 .................................................81
4.4 脫附溫度及表面含氧官能基對BDO 產生量之影響..........................83
4.5 改質劑負荷對BDO 產生量之影響 ....................................................84
4.6 活性碳含氧官能基差異對BDO 產生量之影響 .................................87
4.7 MEK/甲苯交替吸脫附對BDO 之影響 ...............................................89
4.8 脫附介質對BDO 之影響 ....................................................................90
4.9 活性碳改質成本分析與經濟效益評估 ...............................................93
第五章 沸石對均三甲苯之吸附效能探討 .............................................................95
5.1 沸石孔徑特性分析及其均三甲苯之吸附效能 ....................................95
5.2 沸石矽鋁比之影響與吸附均三甲苯等溫吸附方程式 ........................98
5.3 相對濕度對MCM-41 吸附均三甲苯之影響 .................................... 100
5.4 MCM-41-AS 沸石吸附均三甲苯之循環測試 ................................... 102
5.5 沸石孔洞大小對不同氣體分子尺寸之影響 ..................................... 104
第六章 結論與建議 .............................................................................................. 108
6.1 結論 ................................................................................................... 108
6.2 建議 ................................................................................................... 109
參考文獻 ............................................................................................................... 110
圖目錄
圖2.1 VOCs 逸散及反應途徑示意圖 ................................................................... 5
圖2.2 國內不同製程之總VOCs 排放佔比情形 ................................................... 6
圖2.4 PU 合成皮乾式製程: 轉塗法 ................................................................... 18
圖2.5 PU 合成皮乾式製程: 直接塗佈法 ........................................................... 19
圖2.6 PU 合成皮乾式製程操作流程 .................................................................. 19
圖2.7 PU 合成皮濕式製程:塗佈法 .................................................................. 20
圖2.8 PU 合成皮濕式製程: 含浸法 ................................................................... 20
圖2.9 PU 合成皮濕式製程操作流程 .................................................................. 21
圖2.10 某乾式PU 皮業製程之THC 排放檢測結果 ............................................ 21
圖2.11 國內某乾式PU 皮業製程之VOCs 排放種類及濃度 ............................... 22
圖2.12 三槽式固定床活性碳溶劑回收設備圖 ..................................................... 23
圖2.13 流體化床溶劑回收設備圖 ........................................................................ 24
圖2.14 三槽式固定床活性碳溶劑回收系統流程 ................................................. 24
圖2.15 正常活性炭顆粒與火災燃燒後之活性碳 ................................................. 27
圖2.16 金屬表面塗裝流程.................................................................................... 30
圖2.17 木材塗裝作業流程.................................................................................... 32
圖2.18 塑膠塗裝作業流程圖 ................................................................................ 33
圖2.19 蜂巢狀沸石吸附轉輪及卡匣 .................................................................... 37
圖2.20 沸石濃縮轉輪焚化系統流程示意圖 ......................................................... 37
圖2.21 吸附原理示意 ........................................................................................... 39
圖2.22 典型之活性碳吸脫附回收系統 ................................................................ 46
圖2.23 ZSM-5 沸石結構示意圖 ........................................................................... 55
圖2.24 六種型態之等溫吸附曲線示意圖 ............................................................ 61
圖2.25 吸附質傳帶示意圖.................................................................................... 65
IV
圖3.1 研究架構與流程 ......................................................................................... 67
圖3.2 活性碳改質性能實驗設置 .......................................................................... 71
圖3.3 活性碳表面官能基形式 .............................................................................. 74
圖3.4 均三甲苯之沸石吸脫附實驗設置 .............................................................. 76
圖4.1 不同活性碳之灰份組成比較 ...................................................................... 78
圖4.2 活性碳表面各種官能基之佔比與毫莫耳數 ............................................... 80
圖4.3 未改質活性碳再生時之BDO 生成量 ........................................................ 82
圖4.4 脫附溫度對BDO 產生量之影響 ................................................................ 84
圖4.5 改質劑負荷對BDO 產生量之影響 ............................................................ 85
圖4.6 原碳及改質活性碳之含氧官能基 .............................................................. 86
圖4.7 改質活性碳之BDO 生成量 ........................................................................ 87
圖4.8 MEK/甲苯交替吸脫附實驗結果 ................................................................ 88
圖4.9 以氮氣為脫附介質時對BDO 生成之影響................................................. 90
圖4.10 混合VOCs 條件下之吸脫附循環實驗結果 ............................................... 91
圖5.1 四種沸石之均三甲苯等溫吸附曲線........................................................... 97
圖5.2 五組均三甲苯濃度之MCM-41-AS 等溫吸附曲線 .................................... 99
圖5.3 MCM-41-AS 吸附均三甲苯之Freundlich 等溫方程式 ............................ 100
圖5.4 相對濕度對MCM-41-AS 沸石吸附均三甲苯之影響 .............................. 101
圖5.4 MCM-41-AS 沸石吸附均三甲苯之連續吸脫附測試結果 ....................... 103
圖5.5 HZSM-5 及MCM-41-AS 吸附甲苯及均三甲苯之吸附曲線 ................... 106
表目錄
表 2.1 全球每年人為排放及自然排放之VOCs 排放量 ........................................ 7
表 2.2 揮發性有機氣體處理技術之優缺點 .......................................................... 14
表 2.3 國內現有之VOCs 管制法規與相關行業 .................................................. 17
表 2.4 汽車製造業及PU 合成皮業法規管制內容 ............................................... 17
表 2.5 某乾式PU 皮業之製程排放THC 檢測結果 ............................................. 22
表 2.6 國內某乾式PU 皮業製程之VOCs 排放種類及濃度分析 ........................ 23
表 2.7 VOCs 控制技術之能源耗用及成本評估 ................................................... 25
表 2.8 VOCs 評估控制技術之成本效益比較 ....................................................... 26
表 2.9 各種表面塗裝製程之污染物 ..................................................................... 34
表 2.10 表面塗裝程序排放VOCs 特性 ................................................................. 35
表 2.11 物理吸附與化學吸附 ................................................................................. 40
表 2.12 影響吸附特性之因子 ................................................................................. 44
表 2.13 活性碳之特性 ............................................................................................ 46
表 2.14 一般活性碳結構內孔隙特徵 ..................................................................... 47
表 2.15 活性碳應用於VOCs 吸附之文獻彙整 ...................................................... 48
表 2.16 沸石應用於VOCs 吸附之文獻彙整 .......................................................... 56
表 2.17 常用之吸附劑之特性、規格及用途 .......................................................... 59
表 3.1 活性碳改質列表 ........................................................................................ 69
表 3.2 吸附實驗測試之MEK 與Toluene 性質 .................................................... 70
表 4.1 活性碳之孔洞特性及物性分析結果 .......................................................... 78
表 4.2 活性碳改質前、後之起燃點變化 ............................................................. 80
表 4.3 未改質活性碳再生時之BDO 平均生成量與相關特性 ............................ 82
表 4.4 改質劑負荷對BDO 產生量之影響 ........................................................... 86
表 4.5 活性碳改質成本分析 ................................................................................. 93
VI
表 5.1 沸石孔徑特性分析結果 ............................................................................. 96
表 5.2 四種沸石吸附均三甲苯的貫穿時間、飽和時間與飽和吸附量 ............... 97
表 5.3 相對濕度對MCM-41-AS 沸石吸附均三甲苯之影響 ............................. 101
表 5.4 MCM-41-AS 沸石吸附均三甲苯之連續十次吸脫附測試結果 ............... 103
表 5.5 MCM-41 系列沸石吸附VOCs 之比較 .................................................... 104
表 5.6 HZSM-5 及MCM-41-AS 吸附甲苯及均三甲苯之實驗結果 .................. 106
表 5.7 HZSM-5-25/MCM-41-AS 複合型沸石吸附甲苯及均三甲苯之效果 ...... 107
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指導教授 張木彬(Moo-Been Chan) 審核日期 2018-7-27
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