博碩士論文 103424017 詳細資訊




以作者查詢圖書館館藏 以作者查詢臺灣博碩士 以作者查詢全國書目 勘誤回報 、線上人數:24 、訪客IP:3.236.124.77
姓名 陳芊儒(Chien-Ju Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 產業經濟研究所
論文名稱 新興市場中之合作與競爭—以U.S. v. Apple案為中心
(Rethinking Restraints of Trade in Emerging Markets: What We Can Learn From U.S. v. Apple)
相關論文
★ 網路中立原則 - 我國管制可能性之研究★ 電子投票與民主參與 -以英國之實驗經驗為借鏡
★ 智慧財產證券化—法制環境之檢討與建議★ 開放源碼軟體商業應用之法律爭議及其可能之解決途徑
★ Google Books計畫所涉之法律問題研析─以反托拉斯法律相關議題為中心★ 論債權式新資金引入—以公司重整制度為中心
★ 頻譜資源分配之政策─以開放模式為目標★ 律師業管理機制與公平交易法衝突之研究─從法易通案談起
★ 專利主張實體問題之研究─以美國經驗為借鏡★ 論跨媒體合併行為之管制―以民主機能之健全為中心
★ 雲端個人健康資訊系統專法芻議 ─以平衡、有效之隱私保護為核心★ 離職後競業禁止約款之適法性研究-以人才流動自由化為政策取向
★ 網路環境中之著作權法第一次銷售原則-迷思之化解與困境之突破★ 非實施專利實體與專利訴訟-美國發明法實施前後之實證分析
★ 美國軟體專利適格性之研究 —談審查之趨勢與我國企業的因應之道★ 隱私權於資訊時代中之再思考-以被遺忘權為核心
檔案 [Endnote RIS 格式]    [Bibtex 格式]    [相關文章]   [文章引用]   [完整記錄]   [館藏目錄]   [檢視]  [下載]
  1. 本電子論文使用權限為同意立即開放。
  2. 已達開放權限電子全文僅授權使用者為學術研究之目的,進行個人非營利性質之檢索、閱讀、列印。
  3. 請遵守中華民國著作權法之相關規定,切勿任意重製、散佈、改作、轉貼、播送,以免觸法。

摘要(中) 在數位時代的潮流下,紙本書即使已流傳數百年,但由於攜帶不便,是以難逃轉型,電子書之概念逐漸成形,古騰堡計劃作為書籍電子化之先驅,吸引了包括Amazon在內之廠商投入電子書與電子閱讀器之製作與銷售。但Amazon以低價銷售電子書之方式卻受到詬病,出版商更是大力譴責,並與新參進者Apple合作。然而出版商與Apple之間的合作除了使電子書零售價格上升,亦消弭了零售階層的價格競爭,是以無論是紐約南區聯邦地區法院,或是第二巡迴上訴法院,皆認為Apple與出版商之間的行為構成水平聯合訂價,應以當然違法原則處理,並判決Apple違法。但不同於法院之判決結果,本文認為Apple與出版商簽訂的代理協議雖抬高了零售價格,但實際上卻能促進市場競爭,因此有以合理原則判案之可能性。但在討論Apple之行為是否構成共謀前,應先探詢Amazon對電子書之銷售策略是否有掠奪性訂價之嫌疑,接著才會深入探討為何本文認為Apple之行為能促進競爭,而例外合法。
對於一個新興市場而言,主管機關不應在產業萌芽初期即過分打壓參與者,以免影響市場之發展,尤其是與資訊流通密切相關的出版產業。隨著傳統出版商之重要性衰弱,Amazon除了逐漸取代傳統出版商外,還幾乎獨占了電子書零售市場,如此將導致消費者選擇產品之範圍縮減。因此,主管機關應鼓勵新參與者之進入,活躍整個產業的競爭,即使該新參與者是以可能限制市場競爭之手段進入市場,主管機關仍應先放寬審查之標準,留待該參與者之市場力量已足以使其交易相對人對其產生依賴時,其仍持續採用該限制競爭之手段,主管機關再對其加以制裁即可。
此外,本篇論文亦會假設,假若Apple案發生在我國,我國公平交易法會如何處理,是會如同美國法院般以當然違法原則論處,或是有較大之可能性適用合理原則。再者,本篇論文會稍加論述我國出版產業之現況,還有電子書在我國發展之現況,期望在出版產業之市值逐年下降之現在,能有再度起飛的未來。
摘要(英)
Despite the history of over hundreds of years, paper books are still forced to face the transformation as result of the inconvenience. At the time of fading away of paper books, E-books are starting to cut a figure. Amazon, the world’s largest E-commerce platform, saw the business opportunity and developed a E-reader ‘Kindle’ which immediately caught consumers’ attention. However, Amazon underselling E-books caused discontent among publishers, which decided to make an illegal price-fixing agreement with a new entrant, Apple. Because of the illegal horizontal collusion between Apple and publishers eliminating competition within E-books retail market, United States District Court for the Southern District of New York and United States Court of Appeals, Second Circuit asserts their conduct was subject to per se illegal. On the contrary, in my opinion, in spite of price increase, the price-fixing agreement actually encouraged potential market entrants entering the E-book market which fostering the competition. In addition, in terms of emerging markets, in order to facilitate the development of them, the authorities concerned have to encourage potential entrants to enter into the markets, especially in the publishing industry, even though the practices the entrants adopted have a probability to harm the competition. Hence, the Apple’s conduct should have room for discussion.
關鍵字(中) ★ Apple
★ Amazon
★ 電子書
★ 反托拉斯法
★ 新興市場
★ 水平聯合訂價
關鍵字(英) ★ Apple
★ Amazon
★ E-books
★ Antitrust Law
★ Emerging Markets
★ Price-fixing
論文目次
1. 緒論 1
1.1. 研究背景與動機 1
1.2. 研究目的與問題意識 2
1.3. 研究方法與限制 4
1.4. 研究架構 5
2. 訴訟案件背景說明 7
2.1. 事實背景 7
2.1.1. 電子書面世沿革 7
2.1.2. Amazon之市場策略 9
2.1.3. Apple進軍電子書零售市場 13
2.1.4. 簽定代理協議 17
2.1.5. Amazon下架Macmilliam的書籍 19
2.2. 與Apple案相關之Amazon與Hachette爭議 20
2.2.1. 合作促銷費用的提升 20
2.2.2. Hachette與Amazon之紛爭陷入僵局 21
2.2.3. Amazon與Hachette間爭議之解決 22
2.3. 引發之法律爭議 23
2.3.1. 定性Apple之行為 23
2.3.2. Amazon對電子書的售價是否為掠奪性定價 24
2.3.3. Apple與出版商之間的聯合訂價行為是否有例外合法之可能性 25
2.4. Apple案之法院見解 26
2.4.1. 法院適用當然違法原則之理由 27
2.4.2. 以證據檢驗Apple與出版商之共謀行為合意 37
2.4.3. 法院判決 43
3. 電子書之市場生態與Amazon之市場力 45
3.1. 經濟學中所區分之市場結構 46
3.1.1. 完全競爭市場 46
3.1.2. 不完全競爭市場 48
3.1.3. 獨占市場 51
3.2. 電子書相關市場界定 52
3.2.1. 市場界定之概述 52
3.2.2. 電子書之市場界定 56
3.3. 美國經濟學界與聯邦司法實務對掠奪性訂價之發展 63
3.3.1. Areeda-Turner成本檢定法 65
3.3.2. Easterbrook回收檢定法 70
3.4. Amazon實行掠奪性訂價之認定 71
3.4.1. 適用Areeda-Turner檢定法 71
3.4.2. 適用Easterbrook回收檢定法 72
3.5. 本文對Amazon實施掠奪性訂價之見解 76
4. Apple與出版商簽訂的代理協議予以合理化之可能性 79
4.1. 相關案例 80
4.1.1. Leegin Creative Leather Products v. PSKS, Inc.案 80
4.1.2. Toledo Mack Sales & Serv., Inc. v. Mack Trucks, Inc.案 82
4.1.3. Leegin案法院見解在Apple案之適用 84
4.2. 以合理原則處理Apple與被告出版商行為之可能性 85
4.2.1. 最惠國條款對競爭造成之效果 86
4.2.2. 司法部僅向法院提起民事訴訟 90
4.2.3. 電子書為新興產業 92
4.3. Amazon整合出版商與零售商之角色為出版產業帶來之影響 93
4.3.1. 出版商之角色受到削弱 94
4.3.2. 終端消費者的選擇減少 99
4.4. 打破電子書零售市場由Amazon享有優勢地位之局面 103
4.4.1. 代理模式是否為Apple唯一可行之方式 103
4.4.2. Apple為電子書零售市場帶來競爭 109
4.4.3. Apple產品對競爭對手造成的銷量影響 112
4.5. Apple行為合法化之可能性 124
4.5.1. 合法化Apple之行為 124
4.5.2. 將Apple活絡市場競爭之行為一般化 129
4.6. 小結 131
5. 電子書爭議為我國法制及出版產業帶來之啟示 135
5.1. 類似案件在我國法之管制建議 135
5.1.1. 公平會對軸輻式共謀之處理方式 136
5.1.2. Apple行為例外豁免於當然違法原則之可能性 139
5.1.3. 我國與美國就軸輻式共謀管制手段之差異 146
5.2. 我國出版產業之現況分析 154
5.2.1. 出版產業之銷售概況 155
5.2.2. 數位出版在我國之未來性 159
6. 結論與未來研究建議 163
參 考 文 獻 166

參考文獻
中文文獻
Carr, Nicholas著,王年愷譯,網路讓我們變笨?數位科技正在改變我們的大腦、思考與閱讀行為,台北:貓頭鷹出版(2013)。
Merkoski, Jason著,吳慕書譯,下一波數位化浪潮,台北:商周出版(2014)。
Mia,台灣首發!樂天Kobo電子書進軍華文市場,Inside網站,2016/09/29,https://www.inside.com.tw/2016/09/29/rakuten-kobo-in-taiwan.
Stone, Brad著,廖月娟譯,什麼都能賣:貝佐斯如何締造亞馬遜傳奇,台北:天下文化(2014)。毛慶生、朱敬一、林全、許松根、陳添枝、陳思寬、黃朝熙,基礎經濟學,台北:華泰文化,第五版(2010)。
公平交易委員會,公平交易委員會行政決定彙編,2012年11月30日。
───,公平交易委員會對於薦證廣告之規範說明修正規定,行政院公報,第19卷第210期(2013/11/07),可參見http://gazette.nat.gov.tw/EG_FileManager/eguploadpub/eg019210/ch04/type2/gov34/num8/OEg.pdf.
───,認識公平交易法,台北:公平會,增訂第十六版,2015年7月。
公平交易法第二十條第三款所稱之「低價利誘」,其定義為何,公平交易委員會網站,2015/11/02,http://www.ftc.gov.tw/internet/main/doc/docDetail.aspx?uid=1209&docid=13211.
公平交易委員會對於機車事業之規範說明,公平交易委員會網站,http://www.ftc.gov.tw/internet/main/doc/docDetail.aspx?uid=172&docid=12246(最後瀏覽日:2017/0307)。
王立達,聯合行為應改採事後追懲制,把握當下緣起隨喜,2011/10/06 22:44,http://richardlidarwang.blogspot.tw/2011/10/blog-post.html#links.
公平會公處字第093號處分。
公平會公處字第101009號處分書。
公平會公處字第103040號。
公平會公處字第103068號。
王乾任,為台灣出版業把脈!一起衝破出版業的困境吧,作家生活誌,http://showwe.tw/books/choice.aspx?c=18(最後瀏覽日:2017/01/08)。吳秀明、梁哲瑋,德國(營業)限制競爭防止法2005年第七次修法內容簡介與全文翻譯,《競爭法之研究》,台北:元照,2010年6月。
───、沈麗玉,競爭法制革新之整體規劃與藍圖,月旦法學雜誌,第228期(2014)。
───,從依賴性理論探討相對市場優勢地位,《競爭法制之發軔與展開》,台北:元照(2004)。
───、梁哲瑋,德國限制競爭防止法—最新修正內容及全文翻譯,https://www.ftc.gov.tw/upload/2ce242d0-1b87-4614-9d79-789f4bcb2744.pdf(最後瀏覽日:2017/03/12)。
邱莉玲,跨境商機增加、行動營收翻倍、暢銷書大賣加持,博客來圖書營收,逆勢增16%,中時電子報,2015/12/22,http://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20151222000144-260204.
何定照,書店1年關100家⋯⋯出版業寒冬,三年來產值幾腰斬,聯合新聞網,2016/06/06,https://udn.com/news/story/7314/1744717.
何晴,電子出版業適用反托拉斯法疑義—從蘋果電子書案觀察,公平交易季刊,第24卷第3期(2016)。
何秀玲,書香味愈來愈淡,實體書店9年大減400家,聯合新聞網,2016/07/03,http://udn.com/news/story/9994/1802763.
呂靜怡,淺談公平交易法第十九條第二款及第三款,法律新知,http://www.taifer.com.tw/taifer/tf/043003/68.htm(最後瀏覽日:2017/02/05)。
邱炯有、宋雪芳,古騰堡計畫與電子文件建置之相關模式初探,資訊傳播與圖書館學,第5卷第3期(1999)。
周振鋒,論品牌內垂直非價格限制:以美國法為中心,國立政治大學法律研究所碩士論文(2005)。
邱詩茜,從專利獨占之制度目的設計角度定義公平交易法第四十五條之專利權正當行使行為:以美國法制為借鏡,國立政治大學法律研究所碩士論文(2006)。
林以文,論中小學教科書市場之聯合行為:兼評行政法院相關判決,台北市立教育大學學報,第40卷第1期(2009)。
邱燕玲,台灣人不愛閱讀,每人每年只看2本書,自由時報,2013/03/22,http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/paper/663854.
林宜男,水平聯合行為之特定市場界定:公平交易法實務案例之研析與間接證據之論政,公平交易季刊,第22卷第1期(2014)。
邱映曦,電子出版時代的競爭:蘋果e-book聯合行為案初探,科技法律透析,第26卷第7期(2014)。
───,電子出版時代的競爭(續):追蹤蘋果e-book聯合行為案之法律遵循義務,科技法律透析,第26卷第8期(2014)。
周怡伶,從日本看台灣,華文電子書產業的「破」與「立」,能力雜誌,2015/02/09,https://www.inside.com.tw/2015/02/09/ebook-industry-in-taiwan.
邱瓊玉、魏莨伊,台北重慶南路書街,又有2家店倒下了,聯合報網站,2016/12/02,http://a.udn.com/focus/2016/12/02/26184/index.html.
邱映潔,公平交易法第20條所謂「限制競爭之虞」是否以行為事業市占率有無超過百分之十作為發動基準?(台灣),理慈國際科技法律事務所,http://www.leetsai.com/fyi/front/bin/ptdetail.phtml?Part=COL-C-00086&Category=107977(最後瀏覽日:2017/01/20)。
林冠宇,美國第七巡迴上訴法院伊利諾運輸貿易協會訴芝加哥市政府案之判決評析:與德國法蘭克福地方法院計程車派車聯盟訴優步案就行政管制思維之比較,科技法律透析,第29卷第2期(2017)。
張清溪、許嘉棟、劉鶯釧、吳聰敏,經濟學:理論與實際〈上〉,台北:翰蘆圖書(2000)。
陳龍昇,淺談公平交易法「獨占事業」的意義與種類,萬國法律,第151期(2007)。
陳穎青,老貓學出版:編輯的技藝&二十年出版經驗完全彙整,台北:時報文化(2007)。
───,做個火車頭:出版產業真正該做的事,科技報橘網站,2014/04/22,https://buzzorange.com/techorange/2014/04/22/what-publishing-industry-should-do-is/.
───,台灣出版業崩盤的五年:最新統計合計大跌超過三成八,閱讀最前線網站,2015/04/03,https://news.readmoo.com/2015/04/03/oc-five-year-of-decreasing/.
張芳瑜,行政院公平交易委員會第1055次委員會議紀錄,2012年1月18日。
麥樹仁,是書店還是百貨公司:誠品賺錢的秘密,投資網誌,2014/07/18,https://www.cmoney.tw/notes/note-detail.aspx?nid=14184.
陳志民,2015年公平交易法修正與「轉售價格維持」約定之違法性判斷初探,Research Gate,2015/07,https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282152114_zhuanshoujiageweichiyuedingxinjie.
陳志民等,非價格垂直限制適用「合理原則」之違法考量因素,公平交易委員會委託研究報告(2012),可參見:https://www.ftc.gov.tw/upload/e3ba3c47-0b40-4063-b8b5-e47e569a43a1.pdf.
陳炳宏,變色的書市/出版市場萎縮,電子書蹉跎商機,自由時報,2016/03/20,http://news.ltn.com.tw/news/life/paper/970437.
陳俐萩,美國19981年著作權延長法案的司法風波,國家衛生研究院電子報,第365期,http://enews.nhri.org.tw/enews_list_new2_more.php?volume_indx=365&showx=showarticle&article_indx=7869(最後瀏覽日:2017/02/23)。
單驥、莊春發、馬泰成、謝仁弘,掠奪性訂價認定方法之實證研究:Areeda-Turner成本基礎法初判,公平交易季刊,第6卷第4期(1998)。
黃秀娟,以不當方法大幅調漲求才廣告費,新世紀廣告遭公平會開罰300萬元,東南亞集團,2012/01/20,http://www.sea.com.tw/news_detail.php?sn=2639#.WKKy8hJ96Rt.
黃榮華,台灣電子書籍平台現況介紹,全國新書資訊月刊,第201期,頁19-25(2015)。
楊智傑,最優惠條款與競爭法之案例研究,公平交易季刊,第23卷第3期(2015)。
葉鈞正,公平交易法之事業之市場地位之研究,世新大學法律研究所碩士論文(2011)。
葉怡宣,產業分析:出版業,台灣趨勢研究報告,2013/08,引自:http://www.twtrend.com/upload/shares/a_13824959090.pdf.
董福興,董福興:發展電子書,改革台灣出版產業,端傳媒,2016/07/21,https://theinitium.com/article/20160721-opinion-bobbytung-ebook/.
趙政珉,我見我思—出版業大崩壞,中時電子報,2016/07/03,http://www.chinatimes.com/newspapers/20160703000337-260109.
鄭優、王立達,公平交易委員會執法十年來之回顧、成效與檢討,科技法學評論,第1卷第1期(2004)。
劉俊宏,公平交易法對獨占事業濫用市場地位行為之規範:以掠奪性定價為例,國立成功大學法律研究所碩士論文(2006)。
劉怡君,Google Books計畫所涉之法律問題研析—以反托拉斯法相關議題為中心,國立中央大學產業經濟研究所碩士論文(2011)。
賴宏宗,競爭法上杯葛行為之研究,國立政治大學法律研究所碩士論文(2006)。
謝杞森,薦證廣告與薦證者之責任,第17屆競爭政策與公平交易法學術研討會論文集(2010)。
蕭永群、李漢威,已經超過80歲的米老鼠,為什麼仍然「版權所有、翻印必究」,關鍵評論,2016/01/31,https://www.thenewslens.com/article/35480.
顏廷棟,日本獨占禁止法對於國際卡特爾之規範與實例,貿易政策論叢,第13期(2010)。
───,聯合行為之執法檢討與展望,公平交易季刊,第20卷第4期(2012)。
簡榮宗,口碑行銷與薦證廣告,台灣法律網,http://lawtw.com/article.php?template=article_content&parent_path=,1,561,&job_id=201692&article_category_id=200&article_id=119042(最後瀏覽日:2017/03/12)。
羅之盈,首度公開:易遊網年營收99億、博客來59億,網路企業逆勢成長,天下雜誌,2016/05/18,http://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5076382.
───,博客來要賣電子書了,你會放下紙本嗎,天下雜誌,2015/09/01,http://www.cw.com.tw/article/article.action?id=5070443.

外文文獻
2015 U.S. Book Industry Year-End Review, Nielsen.com (May 31, 2016), http://www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/reports/2016/2015-us-book-industry-year-end-review.html.
6 Things You Didn’t Know About Publishing a Digital Book on Apple iBooks, AuthorsMarketingInstitute.com, http://authormarketinginstitute.com/6-things-you-didnt-know-about-publishing-a-digital-book-on-apple/ (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
About Createspace, Createspace.com , https://www.createspace.com/AboutUs.jsp (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
Anderson, David A., Freedom of the Press, 80 Tex. L. Rev. 429 (2002).
Apple iPod iTunes Antitrust Litigation, No. 05-CV-0037 YGR, 2014 WL 4809288 (N.D. Cal. Sept. 26, 2014).
Areeda, Phillip & Donald F. Turner, Predatory Pricing and Related Practices under 2 of the Sherman Act, 88 Harv. L. Rev. 697 (1975).
ARL Staff, Copyright Timeline: A History of Copyright in the United States, Association of Research Libraries, http://www.arl.org/focus-areas/copyright-ip/2486-copyright-timeline#Top (last visted Apr. 6, 2017).
Baker, Jonathan B., Market Definition: An Analytical Overview, 74 Antitrust L.J. 129 (2007).
-----& Judith A. Chevalier, The Competitive Consequences of Most-Favored-Nation Provisions, 27 Antitrust 20 (2013).
Ballhaus, Werner, Turning the Page: the Future of eBooks, PWC.com, available at: https://www.pwc.co.uk/assets/pdf/ebooks-trends-and-developments.pdf (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
Barney, Kevin, Charles Canessa, Adrain Clarke, Nicole Cosenza & Matthew Handwerk, Strategic Analysis on Barnes and Noble, SlideShare (Apr. 28, 2015), available at http://www.slideshare.net/MattHandwerk/strategic-analysis-on-barnes-and-noble.
Baron, Jonathan, Thinking And Deciding (Cambridge University Press, New York, 2007).
Baumol, William J., Quasi-Permanence of Price Reductions: A Policy for Prevention of Poredatory Pricing, 87 Yale L. J. 384 (1977).
Bellante, Don, Edward Chamberlin: Monopolistic Competition and Pareto Optimality, Journal of Business & Economices Research, 2(4), 17 (2011).
Benefits of Competition, AMD.com, http://www.amd.com/en-us/who-we-are/corporate-information/competition/benefits (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
Benefits of Competition and Indicators of Market Power, Council of Economic Advisers Issue Brief (Apr. 14, 2016), available at https://sites.duke.edu/collardwexler/files/2015/01/20160414_cea_competition_issue_brief.pdf.
Berghel, Hal, Predatory Disintermediation, Communication of the ACM, 43(5), 23 (2000).
Bertelsmann at a Glance, Bertelsmann.com, https://www.bertelsmann.com/company/company-profile/ (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
Bluestone, Marisa, U.S. Publishing Industry’s Annual Survey Reveals Nearly $28 Billion in Revenue in 2015, Association of American Publishers (July 11, 2016), http://newsroom.publishers.org/us-publishing-industrys-annual-survey-reveals-nearly-28-billion-in-revenue-in-2015.
Bolton, Patrick, Joseph F. Brodley & Michael H. Riordan, Predatory Pricing: Strategy Theory and Legal Policy, 88 Geo L. J. 2239 (2000).
Bookhouse of Stuyvesant Plaza Inc. et al. v. Amazon.com Inc. et. al., 985 F. Supp. 2d 612 (S.D.N.Y. 2013).
Bork, Robert H., The Rule of Reason and the Per Se Concept: Price Fixing and Market Division, 74 Yale L. J. 775, 826 (1965).
Bostic, Kevin, Apple’s iTunes Rules Digital Music Market with 63% Share, Apple Insider (Apr.16, 2013), http://appleinsider.com/articles/13/04/16/apples-itunes-rules-digital-music-market-with-63-share.
Bosman, Julie & Michael J. de la Merced, Borders’ Bankruptcy Shakes Industry, N.Y. Times (Feb. 16, 2011), http://www.nytimes.com/2011/02/17/business/media/17borders.html?_r=0.
-----, Justice Dept. Sues Apple and Publishers Over E-Books Pricing; 3 Publishers Settle, N.Y. Times (Apr. 11, 2012), https://mediadecoder.blogs.nytimes.com/2012/04/11/justice-files-suit-against-apple-and-publishers-over-e-book-pricing/?_r=0.
-----, Penguin and Random House Merge, Saying Change Will Come Slowly, N.Y. Times (June 1, 2013), http://www.nytimes.com/2013/07/02/business/media/merger-of-penguin-and-random-house-is-completed.html.
Bowker, Self-Publishing in the United States, 2010-2015: Print and Ebook, Bowker.com, http://media.bowker.com/documents/bowker-selfpublishing-report2015.pdf (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
Brewer, Evan D., The E-Books Price Fixing Litigation: Curious Outlier or Harbinger of Change in Antitrust Enforcement Policy, 6 Hastings Sci. & Tech. L.J. 43 (2014).
Brief for Appellant, Apple v. U.S., 791 F. 3d 290 (2nd Cir. 2015) (No.15-565).
Broadcast Music, Inc. v. Columbia Broadcasting System, Inc., 441 U.S. 1 (1979).
Brooke Group Ltd. v. Brown & Williamson Tabacco Corp., 509 U.S. 209 (1993).
Brown Shoe Co. v. U.S., 370 U.S. 294 (1962).
Byford, Sam, Print Books Preferred to iPad Ebooks by Both Parents and Kids in Survey, The Verge (Sept. 18, 2012), http://www.theverge.com/2012/9/18/3355338/print-books-preferred-to-ipad-ebooks-by-both-parents-and-kids-in.
Cafe News, The E-book vs. Paper Book Preference Depends on Purpose, Savvyroo (Sept. 29, 2014), http://savvyroo.com/chart-1143552460966-the-e-book-vs-paper-book-preference-depends-on-purpose.
Carreiro, Erin, Electronic Books: How Digital Devices and Supplementary New Technologies are Changing the Face of the Publishing Industry, Publishing Research Quarterly, 26(4), 219 (2010).
C.C., Why Books Come Out in Hardback Before Paperback, The Economist (Oct. 15, 2014), http://www.economist.com/blogs/economist-explains/2014/10/economist-explains-15.
Cha, Wan, A New Post-Leegin Dilemma: Reconciliation of the Third Circuit’s Toledo Mack Case and the Second Circuit’s Apple E-book Case, 67 Rutgers U. L. Rev. 1547 (2015).
Charman-Anderson, Suw, Amazon’s Greed May Prove its Undoing in E-Book Price War, Forbes (Apr. 12, 2012), http://www.forbes.com/sites/suwcharmananderson/2012/04/12/could-amazons-greed-be-its-undoing/#408756d55b71.
Chen, Brian X., Outcome of E-Book Case Could Hurt Competition, Apple Lawyer Says, N.Y. Times (June 20, 2013), http://www.nytimes.com/2013/06/21/business/outcome-of-e-book-case-could-hurt-competition-apple-lawyer-says.html.
Chen, Zhijun & Patrick Ray, Competitive Cross-Subsidization (Dec. 14, 2013), available at: http://fbe.unimelb.edu.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0010/1049644/Zhijun_Chen.pdf.
Cheng, Jacqui, Kindle for PC Adds Flexibility, But Not a Whole Lot More, Arstechnica (Nov. 11, 2009), https://arstechnica.com/information-technology/2009/11/kindle-for-pc-adds-flexibility-but-not-a-whole-lot-more/.Deahl, Rachel & Jim Milliot, Is Amazon Pushing Publishing to Brink On Terms, Co-op, Publishers Weekly (Dec. 15, 2011), http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/bookselling/article/49874-is-amazon-pushing-publishers-to-brink-on-terms-co-op.html.
Dediu, Horace, Measuring the iBook Market, Asymco (Feb. 28, 2013), http://www.asymco.com/2013/02/28/measuring-the-ibook-market/.
DOJ Horizontal Merger Guidelines (2010).
Dr. Mils Medical Co. v. John D. Park & Sons. Co., 220 U.S. 373 (1911).
Easterbrook, Frank H., Predatory Strategies and Counterstrategies, 48 U. Chi. L. Rev. 263 (1981).
eBook Publishing Services, C7 Publishing.com, http://c7publishing.com/?page_id=48 (last visited May 7, 2017).
Elkin-Koren, Niva, The Changing Nature of Books and the Uneasy Case for Copyright, 79 Geo. Wash. L. Rev. 1712 (2011).
Elmer-DeWitt, Philip, How Much Revenue Did iTunes Generate for Apple Last Quarter, Fortune (Apr. 20, 2014), http://fortune.com/2014/04/20/how-much-revenue-did-itunes-generate-for-apple-last-quarter-2/.
Falcone, John, Kindle vs. Nook vs. iPad: Which E-book Reader Should You Buy, Cnet (Dec. 17, 2012), https://www.cnet.com/news/kindle-vs-nook-vs-ipad-which-e-book-reader-should-you-buy/.
Flood, Alison, Ebook Sales Falling for the First Time Finds New Report, The Guardian (Feb. 3, 2016), https://www.theguardian.com/books/2016/feb/03/ebook-sales-falling-for-the-first-time-finds-new-report.
Flood, Zachary C., Antitrust Enforcement in the Developing E-Book Market: Apple, Amazon, and the Future of the Pubishing Industry, 31 Berkeley Tech L.J. 879 (2016).
Gardner, Rachelle, How Book Royalties Work, Rachelle Gardner (Nov. 10, 2009), http://www.rachellegardner.com/how-book-royalties-work/.
Garrity, Erin, A New Chapter in Antitrust Law: The Second Circuit’s Decision in United States v. Apple Determines Hub-and-Spoke Conspiracy Per Se Illegal, 57 B.C.L. Rev. 84 (2016).
Geddes, James, Is Apple Music Growth Offsetting iTunes Download Revenue Decline, Tech Times (Apr. 29, 2016), http://www.techtimes.com/articles/154545/20160429/is-apple-music-growth-offsetting-itunes-download-revenue-decline.htm.
Geneva Pharms. Tech. Corp. v. Barr Labs. Inc., 386 F. 3d 485 (2d Cir. 2004).
Giammatteo, Giacomo, ALLi, Watchdog: Amazon vs Apple, Self Publishing Advice Center (Feb. 5, 2015), http://selfpublishingadvice.org/alli-watchdog-amazon-vs-apple/.
Greenfield, Jeremy, Kindle Most Popular Device For Ebook, Beating Out iPad; Tablets on the Rise, Forbes (Oct. 30, 2013), http://www.forbes.com/sites/jeremygreenfield/2013/10/30/kindle-most-popular-device-for-ebooks-beating-out-ipad-tablets-on-the-rise/#7c37f8443784.
-----, Average Price of an Ebook Best-Seller on the Rise, Digital Book World (Aug. 14, 2014), http://www.digitalbookworld.com/2014/average-price-of-an-ebook-best-seller-on-the-rise/.
Gutknecht, Kerry, Apple and Amazon’s Antitrust Antics: Two Wrongs Don’t Make a Right, But Maybe They Should, 22 CommLaw Conspectus 160 (2014).
Ha, Thu Huong, Amazon Has Cornered the Future of Book Publishing, Quartz (Sep. 15, 2016), http://qz.com/780897/amazon-has-cornered-the-future-of-book-publishing/.
Hachette - Key Dates, http://www.hachette.com/en/about-us/key-dates (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
Hansell, Saul, Amazon Reading Device Doesn’t Need Computer, N.Y. Times (Nov. 20, 2007), http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/20/business/20bookxx.html.
Hanson v. Shell Oil Co., 541 F. 2d 1352 (9th Cir. 1976).
Harvey, Ellen, 2015 U.S. Book Publishing Revenue; Print Sales Rise as Ebook Sales Decline, Book Business (July 12, 2016), http://www.bookbusinessmag.com/article/2015-u-s-book-publishing-revenue-flat-print-sales-rise-ebook-decline/.
Hibner, Don T., Cross Subsidization for Purpose of Enhanced Grocery Sales Through Alleged Below Cost Gasoline Discounts Found Not to Violate California Unfair Practices Act, Sheppard Mullin (Aug. 21, 2015), http://www.antitrustlawblog.com/2015/08/articles/articles/cross-subsidization-for-purpose-of-enhanced-grocery-sales-through-below-cost-gasoline-discounts-found-not-to-violate-california-unfair-practices-act/.
HovenKamp, Herbert, Federal Antitrust Policy: The Law of Competition and Its Practice (West Academic, U.S., 2015).
Heisler, Yoni, What’s the Story Behind Slumping iPad Sales, BGR (May 4, 2015), http://bgr.com/2015/05/04/why-have-ipad-sales-tanked/.
Hickie, Brandon, iPad Marketing Strategy: Why Competitive Advantages Should Steer Strategy, Business 2 Community (June 18, 2012), http://www.business2community.com/marketing/ipad-marketing-strategy-why-competitive-advantages-should-steer-strategy-0199506#hpZTxTsKcaOE1LjM.97.
Hoffelder, Nate, Amazon May Have Just Killed Free Kindle eBook Promotions, The Digital Reader (Feb. 23, 2013), http://the-digital-reader.com/2013/02/23/amazon-may-have-just-have-completely-killed-free-ebook-promotions/.
-----, When Number Lie: Apple iBooks Revenue Estimated to be Over a Billion Dollars, The Digital Reader (Feb. 28, 2013), http://the-digital-reader.com/2013/02/28/when-numbers-lie-apple-ibooks-revenue-estimated-to-be-over-a-billion-dollars/.
-----, Fire Tablet Sales Boost Amazon to Third Place in a Shrinking Tablet Market, The Digital Reader (Feb. 1, 2016), http://the-digital-reader.com/2016/02/01/fire-tablet-sales-boost/.
Hofstrand, Don, Product Life Cycle, Iowa State University (Aug. 2007), https://www.extension.iastate.edu/agdm/wholefarm/html/c5-211.html.
Howard Hess Dental Labs. Inc. v. Dentsply Int’l, Inc., 602 F.3d 237 (3d Cir. 2010).
Illinois Transportation Trade Association v. City of Chicago, 839 F. 3d 594 (7th Cir. 2016).
Introducing Amazon Kindle, Amazon.com (Nov. 19, 2007), http://phx.corporate-ir.net/phoenix.zhtml?c=176060&p=irol-newsArticle&ID=1079388.
Kirkwood, John B., Collusion to Control a Powerful Customer: Amazon, E-Books, and Antitrust Policy, 69 U. Miami L. Rev. 1, 48 (2014).
Klepper, Steven, Entry, Exit, Growth, and Innovation over the Product Life Cycle, The American Econmic Review, 86(2), 562 (1996).
Kokemuller, Neil, What is Consumer Buying Power?, Chron, available at http://smallbusiness.chron.com/consumer-buying-power-68682.html (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
Korwitts, Kayte, Print Books vs. E-books: What’s the Future of Reading, SurveyMonkey (Mar. 25, 2013), https://www.surveymonkey.com/blog/2013/03/25/print-books-vs-e-books-whats-the-future-of-reading/.
Lebirt, Marie, eBook: 1998 – The First Ebook Readers, Project Gutenberg News (July 16, 2011), http://www.gutenbergnews.org/20110716/ebooks-1998-the-first-ebook-readers/.
Lee, Jennifer D., Post U.S. v. Apple: How Should Most-Favored Nation Clauses Be Treated Now, 33 Cardozo Arts & Ent LJ 237 (2015).
Leegin Creative Leather Prods, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., 551 U.S. 877 (2007).
Leslie, Christopher R., Achieving Efficiency Through Collusion: A Market Failure Defense to Horizontal Price-Fixing, 81 Cal. L. Rev. 243 (1993).
Li, Hui, The Impact of Ebooks on Prints Book Sales: Cannibalization and Market Expansion, available at https://bepp.wharton.upenn.edu/bepp/assets/file/huili_ebook_feb15.pdf (last visited June 15, 2016).
Linden, Greg, Brent Smith & Jeremy York, Amazon.com Recommendations: Item-to-Item Collaborative Filtering, IEEE Internet Computing, 7(1), 76 (2003).
Liptak, Adam & Vindu Goel, Supreme Court Declines to Hear Apple’s Appeal in E-Book Pricing Case, N.Y. Times (Mar. 7, 2016), https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/08/technology/apple-supreme-court-ebook-prices.html.
Loss Leader Strategy Difinition, Investopedia.com, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/l/lossleader.asp (last visted Apr. 6, 2017).
Mangen, Anne, Bente R. Walgermo & Kolbjørn Brønnick, Reading Linear Texts on Paper Versus Computer Screen: Effects on Reading Compregension, International Journal of Educational Research, 58, 61 (2013).
Manjoo, Farhad, The Stupidest Thing Apple Ever Did, Slate Magazine (July 11, 2013), http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/technology/2013/07/apple_e_book_price_fixing_federal_judge_rules_in_amazon_s_favor.html.
Mankiw, N. Gregory, Principles of Economics (Cengage Learning, Stamford, USA, 2011).
Marsal, Katie, World’s Largest Book Publisher Random House May Soon Join Apple’s iBookstore, Apple Insider (Feb. 28, 2011), http://appleinsider.com/articles/11/02/28/worlds_largest_book_publisher_random_house_may_soon_join_apples_ibookstore.
Matsushita Electric Industrial Co. v. Zenith Ratio Corp., 475 U.S. 574 (1986).
McGee, John S., Predatory Price Cutting: The Standard Oil Case, 1 J. Law & Econ. 137 (1958).
Meadows, Chris, Amazon Wants Co-op Payments, and Also Concession in the UK, Teleread (June 24, 2014), http://teleread.com/amazon-wants-co-op-payments-and-also-some-concessions-in-the-uk/.
Michell, Lynn, Amazon’s Profits are Small Publishers’ Losses, The Guardian (Apr. 7, 2011), https://www.theguardian.com/books/booksblog/2011/apr/07/amazon-profits-small-publisher-losses.
Milliot, Jim, Amazon, Hachette Reach Deal on Sales Terms, Publishers Weekly (Nov. 13, 2014), http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/bookselling/article/64723-amazon-hachette-reach-deal-on-sales-terms.html.
Monsanto Co. v. Spray-Rite Serv. Corp., 465 U.S. 752 (1984).
Most Favored Nation Clause Difinition, Investopedia.com, http://www.investopedia.com/terms/m/mostfavorednation.asp (last visited: Apr. 6, 2017).
Much at Stake in Amazon-HBG Fight, Publishers Weekly (May 12, 2014), http://www.publishersweekly.com/pw/by-topic/industry-news/publisher-news/article/62254-much-at-stake-in-amazon-hbg-fight.html.
National Collegiate Athletic Ass’n v. Board of Regents of the University of Oklahoma, 468 U.S. 85 (1984).
Nawotka, Edward, Apple’s iBookstore Growing at One Million Users Per Month, Publishing Perspectives (Jan. 16, 2015), http://publishingperspectives.com/2015/01/apples-ibookstore-growing-one-million-users-per-month/#.WFaw5rZ97MV.
Newton, Casey, The Everything Book: Reading in the Age of Amazon, The Verge (Dec. 17, 2014), http://www.theverge.com/2014/12/17/7396525/amazon-kindle-design-lab-audible-hachette.
Nunber of Active Amazon Customer Accounts Worldwide From 1st Quarter 2013 to 1st Quarter 2016 (in Millions), Statista.com, https://www.statista.com/statistics/476196/number-of-active-amazon-customer-accounts-quarter/ (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
Palazzolo, Joe, Apple Ruling Heaps Doubt on ‘MFN’ Clauses, Wall Street Journal (July 14, 2013), https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424127887323664204578605880157245830.
Parloff, Roger, Second Bite: Can Apple Clear its Name in the Ebooks Drama?, Fortune (Dec. 02, 2014), http://fortune.com/2014/12/02/apple-ebooks-litigation/.
Patrick, Liam, Edwin Liang & Taylor Sakamoto, Strategic Repositioning in Changing Market Conditions, BlaisSell Consulting (Apr. 23, 2003), available at http://www.slideshare.net/jolipham3/barnesnoble-39454308.
Peterson, Valerie, The Big Five Trade Book Publishers, The Balance (Feb. 29, 2016), https://www.thebalance.com/the-big-five-trade-book-publishers-2800047.
Phlips, Louis, The Economics of Price Discrimination (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1983).
Posner, Richard A., Natural Monopoly and Its Regulation, 21 Stan. L. Rev 548 (1969).
Primetime 24 Joint Venture v. Nat’l Board. Co., 219 F. 3d 92 (2d Cir. 2000).
Ramasubbu, Suren, Paper Books vs. eBooks: the State of the Art of Reading, The Huffington Post (Nov. 5, 2016), http://www.huffingtonpost.com/suren-ramasubbu/paper-books-vs-ebooks-the_b_9890584.html.
Rich, Motoko, Publishers Delay E-Book Release, N.Y. Times (Dec. 9, 2009), https://artsbeat.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/12/09/publishers-delay-e-book-releases/.
-----& Brad Stone, Publisher Wins Fight with Amazon Over E-Books, N.Y. Times (Jan. 31, 2010), http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/01/technology/companies/01amazonweb.html.
-----, Apple’s Prices for E-Books May be Lower Than Expected, N.Y. Times (Feb. 17, 2010), http://www.nytimes.com/2010/02/18/technology/18apple.html.
Riordan, Michael, No Monopoly on Innovation, Harvard Business Review (Dec. 2005), https://hbr.org/2005/12/no-monopoly-on-innovation.
Robinson, Roxana, A Call to Investigate Amazon, The Authors Guild (July 13, 2015), https://www.authorsguild.org/industry-advocacy/a-call-to-investigate-amazon/.
Rocket eBook Definition, PC Magazine.com, http://www.pcmag.com/encyclopedia/term/50592/rocket-ebook (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
October 2015 – Apple, B&N, Kobo, and Google: a Look at the Rest of the Ebook Market, Authorearnings.com, http://authorearnings.com/report/october-2015-apple-bn-kobo-and-google-a-look-at-the-rest-of-the-ebook-market/(last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
Sadun, Erica, iBook Lesson: Picking Vendors, Price, and Exclusivity, Engadget (July 5, 2012), https://www.engadget.com/2012/07/05/youre-the-editor-picking-vendors-price-and-exclusivity/.
Schlackman, Steve, How Mickey Mouse Keeps Changing Copyright Law, Art Law Journal (Feb. 15, 2014), http://artlawjournal.com/mickey-mouse-keeps-changing-copyright-law/.
Semeraro, Steven, Should the E-book Case Presage the Decline of the Per Se and Market Share Doctrines, 35 T. Jefferson L. Rev. 15 (2013).
Sharp, Kathleen, Amazon’s Bogus anti-Apple Crusade, Salon (Jan. 12, 2014), http://www.salon.com/2014/01/12/amazons_bogus_anti_apple_crusade/.
Silberman, Steve, Ex Libris, Wired (July 1, 1998), https://www.wired.com/1998/07/es-ebooks/.
SLJ, SLJ’s Average Book Prices for 2016, School Library Journal (July 3, 2016), http://www.slj.com/2016/03/research/sljs-average-book-prices-for-2016/.
Standard Oil Co. of New Jersey v. U.S., 221 U.S. 1 (1911).
Statt, Nick, Amazon, Once a Big Spender, is Now a Profit Machine, The Verge (July 28, 2016), http://www.theverge.com/2016/7/28/12313526/amazon-q2-2016-earnings-report-aws-cloud-profit.
Stewart, James B., Booksellers Score Some Point in Amazon’s Spat With Hachette, N.Y. Times (June 20, 2014), https://www.nytimes.com/2014/06/21/business/booksellers-score-some-points-in-amazons-standoff-with-hachette.html?_r=2.
Streitfeld, David, Plot Thickens as 900 Writers Battle Amazon, N.Y. Times (Aug. 7, 2014), https://www.nytimes.com/2014/08/08/business/media/plot-thickens-as-900-writers-battle-amazon.html.
-----, Amazon and Hachette Resolve Dispute, N.Y. Times (Dec. 13, 2014), https://www.nytimes.com/2014/11/14/technology/amazon-hachette-ebook-dispute.html.
Swenson, Laurie, The Impact of the Kindle & iPad on the Book Publishing Business, Chron, available at: http://smallbusiness.chron.com/impact-kindle-ipad-book-publishing-business-47705.html (last visited Apr. 6, 2017).
Timchalk, Nicholas, E-Books Collusion, and Antitrust Policy: Protecting a Dominant Firm at the Cost of Innovation, 38 Seattle U. L. Rev. 161 (2014).
Toledo Mack Sales & Serv., Inc. v. Mack Trucks, Inc., 530 F. 3d 204 (3d Cir. 2008).
Trachtenberg, Jeffery A., HarperCollins Joins Ranks of Those Delaying E-Books, Wall Street Journal (Dec. 10, 2009), https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052748704825504574586291583582158.
-----, Random House Balks at Apple’s Book Pricing, Wall Street Journal (Apr. 5, 2010), https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052702303912104575164160878744870.
-----& Greg Bensinger, Amazon, Hachette End Publishing Dispute, Wall Street Journal (Nov. 13, 2014), https://www.wsj.com/articles/amazon-hachette-end-publishing-dispute-1415898013.
Two Decades of e-Reader Evolution – Ahead of Their Time, CNN.com (Oct. 26, 2010), http://money.cnn.com/galleries/2010/technology/1010/gallery.ereader_history/2.html.
U.S. v. Aluminum Co. of Am., 148 F. 2d 416 (2d Cir. 1945).
U.S. v. Andreas, 216 F. 3d 645 (7th Cir. 2000).
U.S. v. Apple Inc., 952 F. Supp. 2d 638 (S.D.N.Y. 2013).
U.S. v. Apple Inc., 791 F. 3d 290 (2nd Cir. 2015).
U.S. v. Apple, Inc. et al. 12 Civ. 2826 DLC, 2012 WL 1193205, at ¶ 99 (S.D.N.Y. Sept. 5, 2012).
U.S. v. E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., 351 U.S. 377 (1956).
U.S. v. Socony-Vacuum Oil Co., 310 U.S. 150 (1940).
Weinman, Sarah, Amazon Removes Pre-Order Capability on Many Forthcoming Hachette Titles, Publishers Lunch (May 22, 2014), https://lunch.publishersmarketplace.com/2014/05/amazon-removes-pre-order-buttons-forthcoming-hachette-titles/.
Welcom to Amazon Publishing, Amazon.com, https://www.amazon.com/gp/feature.html/ref=s9_acss_ft_ki_x_khm?docId=1000664761&pf_rd_m=ATVPDKIKX0DER&pf_rd_s=center-1&pf_rd_r=HPSXD9S0M4GW6DCCZM22&pf_rd_t=1401&pf_rd_p=2356427302&pf_rd_i=1000664761 (last visited Apr. 10, 2017).
Wiesmann, Gerrit, Random House Fears iPad Price War, Financial Times (Mar. 23, 2010), https://www.ft.com/content/4d11b5fc-36b9-11df-b810-00144feabdc0.
Williamson, Oilver E., Predatory Pricing: A Strategic and Welfare Analysis, 87 Yale L. J. 384 (1977).
WSJ Staff, What is ‘Agency Pricing’, Wall Street Journal (Apr. 11, 2012), http://blogs.wsj.com/digits/2012/04/11/what-is-agency-pricing/.
Yamey, B.S., Predatory Price Cutting: Notes and Comment, 15 J. Law & Econ. 129 (1972).
指導教授 王明禮(Ming-Li Wang) 審核日期 2017-7-11
推文 facebook   plurk   twitter   funp   google   live   udn   HD   myshare   reddit   netvibes   friend   youpush   delicious   baidu   
網路書籤 Google bookmarks   del.icio.us   hemidemi   myshare   

若有論文相關問題,請聯絡國立中央大學圖書館推廣服務組 TEL:(03)422-7151轉57407,或E-mail聯絡  - 隱私權政策聲明