博碩士論文 103426007 詳細資訊




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姓名 俞舒寧(Su-Ning Yu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 工業管理研究所
論文名稱 類似Kiva系統之Kiva機器人分配於揀貨工作站作業以及Pod之暫存位置決定的相關問題探討
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摘要(中) 國家經濟受到全球化的影響,造成社會需求及消費習慣的改變,消費者對於
產品需求逐漸轉變為「少量、多樣、多頻率」的商品以滿足零售商與消費者,如
此轉變使得物流中心逐漸興起。多樣少量的需求時代來臨,高倍速的環境改變速
度、高度普及化的電腦設備應用及電子商務的看漲,都顯示出企業必須不斷的加
快本身企業活動運作速度與效率,方能趕上時代、消費者與競爭者的腳步。
2012 年 3 月,Amazon 收購 Kiva System,其最重要的創新就是為客戶創
造物品清單,並將訂單中的物品送往揀貨人員,如此,揀貨人員就不必親自前往
揀貨區。此外,Kiva System 還可以根據訂單較多的物品,自行組織存貨清單,
使物品擺放於更接近揀貨工作站之區域,在諸多細節上的規劃對於提升系統效率
是不容小覷的,因此如何合理的規劃才能有效達成降低作業時間與成本並提升系
統績效,對於Kiva物流中心之營運有決定性的影響。
本研究欲探討之問題為 Kiva 機器人分配法則及Pod 暫存區位置指派法則
對於系統績效的影響,並搭配不同補貨比例條件,應用模擬軟體實驗之結果來分
析本研究所提出的多種法則在不同因子下的表現,觀察其能否有效降低總系統執
行時間以及總揀貨旅行距離,以期能達到最佳的效能。
摘要(英) National economies affected by globalization, resulting in the changing form
consumer habits and social needs. Consumer demand gradually transformed into “a
small, diverse and multi-frequency” of product to satisfy retailers and consumers, in
such case, many distribution center emerges progressively.
In the era of various and small amount products demand, rapid environmental
changing along with high volume popularity computer equipment applications and
E-commerce shown that companies must continue to accelerate their business
activities, in order to catch up on times, consumers and competitors’ pace.
March 2012, Amazon acquired Kiva Systems, it is expected that the robots
would significantly improve Amazon’s packing and shipping efficiency. Besides, Kiva
robots were tasked with picking up shelves in Amazon′s giant warehouses and
delivering them to warehouse employees at various stations. Therefore, reducing
operation time and costs to enhance systems performance will appreciate company
accomplishments.
In this paper, we give a critical survey of existing works and discuss open
problems in this field. Through investigating Kiva dispatching rules and Pod storage
position dispatching rules in contrasting replenishment ratio, simulation experiments
are conducted to evaluate two performance measures ─ Total System Time(TST),
and Total Travel Distance of Kiva(TTD)to achieve the best efficiency.
關鍵字(中) ★ 物流中心
★ Amazon
★ Kiva System
★ Kiva 機器人
★ Pod 暫存區位置
關鍵字(英) ★ Distribution center
★ Amazon
★ Kiva System
★ Kiva robot
★ Pod storage
論文目次 目錄.............................................................................................................................. III
圖目錄.......................................................................................................................... VI
表目錄....................................................................................................................... VIII
第1 章 緒論.................................................................................................................. 1
1.1 研究背景 ......................................................................................................... 1
1.2 研究動機 ......................................................................................................... 2
1.3 研究目的 ......................................................................................................... 2
1.4 研究環境 ......................................................................................................... 3
1.5 研究方法說明 ................................................................................................. 3
1.6 論文架構 ......................................................................................................... 4
第2 章 文獻探討.......................................................................................................... 7
2.1 物流 ................................................................................................................. 7
2.1.1 物流的定義 .............................................................................................. 8
2.1.2 物流中心之介紹 ...................................................................................... 9
2.1.3 物流中心種類 ........................................................................................ 12
2.2 揀貨作業 ....................................................................................................... 14
2.2.1 揀貨作業方法 ........................................................................................ 14
2.2.2 揀貨路徑策略 ........................................................................................ 16
2.3 Kiva 系統介紹 ................................................................................................ 20
2.3.1 Kiva系統 ................................................................................................ 20
2.4 Kiva 系統之效益 ............................................................................................ 26
2.4.1 人工智慧運用於Kiva系統 .................................................................. 27
2.4.2 Kiva系統之資源分配 ............................................................................ 28
2.4.3 Kiva系統之路徑規劃 ............................................................................ 30
IV
第3 章 研究方法........................................................................................................ 32
3.1 各研究議題之方法整理 ............................................................................... 32
3.2 符號及變數定義 ........................................................................................... 33
3.3 Kiva 系統中揀貨工作站 WS(w) 之作業流程 ............................................ 33
3.4 Kiva 系統中儲位架 Pod(p) 之作業流程 ..................................................... 35
3.5 Kiva 系統中儲位架 Pod(p) 之分配流程圖 ................................................. 39
3.6 Kiva 分配作業相關法則 ................................................................................ 42
3.6.1 隨機選取 .............................................................................................. 42
3.6.2 「距離 Pod 距離最近之 Kiva」法則 ................................................ 42
3.6.3 「閒置最久之Kiva」法則 ................................................................... 43
3.6.4 「使用率最低之Kiva」法則 ............................................................... 45
3.6.5 「剩餘電力最多之Kiva」法則 ........................................................... 46
3.7 Pod 暫存區位置相關法則 ............................................................................. 47
3.7.1 隨機指派 .............................................................................................. 48
3.7.2 「固定位置停放」法則 ........................................................................ 48
3.7.3 「距離 Pod 原所在之揀貨工作站最近的位置」法則 ...................... 48
3.7.4 「距離Pod 目前位置最近的位置」法則 ........................................... 50
3.7.5 「最靠近揀貨工作站中心點的位置」法則 ........................................ 52
3.8 補貨條件 ....................................................................................................... 53
第4 章 實驗與分析.................................................................................................... 55
4.1 前言 ............................................................................................................... 55
4.2 模擬實驗 ....................................................................................................... 55
4.2.1 環境設定 ................................................................................................ 55
4.2.2 總實驗訂單張數 .................................................................................... 58
4.2.3 環境假設 ................................................................................................ 58
4.2.4 實驗因子組合 ........................................................................................ 59
V
4.3 績效評估準則 ............................................................................................... 61
4.4 統計分析 ....................................................................................................... 61
4.4.1 依『總系統執行時間(TST)』為績效評估值 ................................... 62
4.4.2 依『總行走距離(TTD)』為績效評估值 .......................................... 74
4.5 實驗結論 ....................................................................................................... 86
第5 章 結論與後續研究建議.................................................................................... 88
5.1 研究結論 ....................................................................................................... 88
5.2 未來研究建議 ............................................................................................... 89
參考文獻...................................................................................................................... 90
中文文獻 .............................................................................................................. 90
英文文獻 .............................................................................................................. 91
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指導教授 何應欽(Ying-Ching-Ho) 審核日期 2016-7-26
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