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姓名 王仲宇(CHUNG-YU WANG)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 工業管理研究所
論文名稱 競爭下的忠誠計畫與定價策略
(Loyalty program and pricing strategy under competition)
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摘要(中) 現今市場上,因製造商普遍具有相同製程能力來提供消費者幾乎相似的商品選擇,導致在銷售面多數僅能利用定價、促銷或服務等其他手段來獲得消費者的青睞。同時,因為消費者可以選擇&比價的管道太多,所以銷售者在定價決策是如此重要,不管是初始的訂價或是過程中需要不斷的改變。因為這不僅影響消費者的購買行為同時直接的影響到自身的利益。
在本篇中,我們嘗試利用一固定期間銷售產品的競爭定價模型來探討銷售者的定價策略以及期望利潤。我們利用經濟學上的內部與外部參考價格的結合來形成消費者的效用函數,當中的內部參考價格係指消費者自身的對過往商品價格記憶,而外部參考價格則是外部銷售環境所產生的競爭比較與促銷方案的提出的影響,同時,我們假設此消費者效用函數遵循雙韋伯分配,藉此我們可以描繪出消費者在一雙頭壟斷的市場下他們的選擇模式。
我們使用兩個環境來討論競爭與促銷活動是如何影響消費者的參考價格。在環境一中,假設當市場存在兩銷售者,在純競爭環境下其定價的方式對消費者參考價格以及銷售者自身利潤的影響。在環境二中,同樣假設市場存在兩銷售者,且此時其中一方提出一促銷手段 – 忠誠方案給予消費者,此時兩銷售者雙方定價方式對消費者的參考價格以及自身利潤的影響。
此研究的貢獻在於兩部分,首先,我們利用消費者參考價格與消費者效用間的關係描繪出一二維圖形,具體的呈現市場上所有消費者的可能選擇方式,這與過往文獻僅以一維方式且對離開市場之消費者也以一假設比例來表達更具靈活度。再者,藉由參考價格在競爭與促銷影響的模型化,能夠提供銷售者更了解消費者在競爭環境與促銷方案下對售價的認知而決定出更好的策略。
摘要(英) In the marketplace, because manufacturers have same process capability and offer consumers similar product selection. As a result, most sellers can only use some approaches, for example, pricing, promotion, service or others to enhance consumers to choose them. Simultaneously, consumers have too many channels to select and compare the pricing. Pricing strategy becomes important to sellers′ decision. No matter initial pricing setting or he changes his pricing during selling period. Because it not only affects consumers’ behaviors but also affects sellers’ profit.
In this paper, we try to use a competition pricing model at a fixed period to investigate sellers’ pricing strategy and expected profit. We incorporate internal and external reference price of economics to form the consumers’ utility function. Among the internal reference price means the price of their memory. External reference price means the effects of price of competition and promotion under sale environment. Moreover, we suppose the consumer utility function follows bivariate weibull distribution. As a result, we can depict a selection model of consumer which under a duopoly marketplace.
We discuss under two environments, how influence about competition and promotion affect consumer reference price. First, we assume there are two sellers in the marketplace. If both of them without offer any promotion - a completely pricing competition environment - the variation of consumer reference price and sellers’ profit that under sellers′ pricing strategies. Second, same environment – two sellers – but one of them offers a promotion – loyalty program – to consumers. When this moment, how is the variation of consumer reference price and sellers’ profit that under sellers′ pricing strategies.
關鍵字(中) ★ 參考價格
★ 定價策略
★ 競爭
★ 忠誠獎勵計畫
關鍵字(英) ★ Reference price
★ Pricing strategy
★ Competition
★ Loyalty reward program
論文目次 摘要 I
Contents III
List of tables V
List of figures VI
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Chapter 2 Literature Review 3
2.1. Reference price 3
2.1.1. Reference price on economics 3
2.1.2. Internal and external reference price 4
2.2. Loyalty program 6
2.2.1. Loyalty program on returning customers policy 6
2.2.2. Past loyalty program research on reference price 9
2.3. Competition 10
Chapter 3 Model 12
3.1. Environment and assumption 12
3.2. Notations and demand function 13
3.3. Model without competition 18
3.3.1. The structure of the reference price parameter, θ 18
3.3.2. Recency effect of prior exposures to price on reference price, α 20
3.4. Model with competition and promotion 21
3.4.1. The structure of the reference price parameter, θ 21
3.4.2. Competition effect 22
3.4.3. Promotion effect 24
3.5. Basic Model 26
3.5.1. Model 1: Two seller’s competition 26
3.5.2. Model 2: Two seller’s competition with loyalty program 27
Chapter 4 Numerical example 29
4.1. Model 1: Two seller’s competition 29
4.1.1. Unknown competitor in duopoly market 29
4.1.2. Competitor in duopoly market but with perfect information 30
4.2. Model 2: Two seller’s competition with loyalty program 31
4.2.1. Unknown competitor with a loyalty program on duopoly market 32
4.2.2. Competitor with a loyalty program and perfect information on duopoly market 33
Chapter 5 Sensitive analysis 36
5.1. Loyalty program - Parameter L 36
5.2. Recency effect of prior exposures to price on reference price - Parameter α 38
5.3. Competition effect – Parameter λ 40
5.4. Promotion effect – Parameter γ 42
Chapter 6 Summary and Future research 45
6.1. Summary 45
6.2. Future research 47
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指導教授 曾富祥 審核日期 2016-7-15
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