||Golf is one of popular sports. There are more than thirty thousand golf courses around the world, which implies that golf has great potential for commercial development. It is hard for beginners to learn golf. Therefore, many products using the Global Position System (GPS) and map calibration are on the market to assist golfers to properly control the driving distance and/or putting distance. However,these products still have some room to improve. The study proposes a system, which is called iPutting and uses the iBeacon technique to help golfers estimate the distance|
between the golf ball and the hole in a golf green. The basic idea of iPutting is to deploy three landmarks around the golf green that send iBeacon signals periodically.
Golfers can then use smart phones to receive iBeacon signals of landmarks for the distance estimation. The iPutting system applies the combination of four filters,
namely the mean filter, the median filter, Gaussian filter and Kalman filter, to mitigate the influence of both signal noise and distortion. Without using the GPS system and map calibration, it achieves fair accuracy of distance estimation.Furthermore, iPutting tackles the problem caused by the scheduled hole position changes on the green. The iPutting system is implemented as an app running on iPhones to verify the system correctness and evaluate system performance. The performance evaluation shows that the iPutting system achieves the distance estimation error of 3 meters or less, which improves the error of 10 meters of the
counterparts using the GPS system by a factor of more than 50%.
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