博碩士論文 103622011 詳細資訊




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姓名 楊婉歆(Wan-Hsin Yang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 地球科學學系
論文名稱 以測高衛星與重力衛星觀測南海水量的年際變化
(Water budget variation of the South China Sea in relation to ENSO as determined from space altimetric and gravimetric observations)
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摘要(中) 南中國海(South China Sea, SCS)為四周環繞陸地與島嶼的半封閉海域,其海平面高度變化對於周圍環境影響甚大,且此處位於低緯度地區,應考慮聖嬰現象 (El Niño–Southern Oscillation, ENSO)的影響。因此本研究分析1993年至2014年測高衛星所測量的海平面高度變化及2003年至2014年GRACE(Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment)重力資料變化,同時將南中國海與其他海域連通的海峽納入考量,分析1993年至2014年海峽地轉流流速變化情形。透過經驗正交方程(Empirical Orthogonal Function, EOF)分析,結果發現南中國海海平面高度移除季節性訊號後,其Mode-1和多變量聖嬰指數(Multivariate ENSO Index, MEI)相關係數達到0.3;於GRACE重力資料變化能夠得知進水量的變化,移除季節性訊號後EOF分析Mode-1和MEI的相關性有0.26:顯示反聖嬰年時海平面高度明顯上升,於聖嬰年反之。海峽地轉流流速變化,以呂宋海峽為例,與MEI也有0.28的高相關性,於聖嬰年時進入南中國海的流速增強,代表海峽進出量有調節南中國海水量的功能,並非影響整體南海水量的主要因素。綜合測高資料及GRACE重力資料分析結果,南中國海水量於聖嬰年時水量較少,反聖嬰年時水量較多。
摘要(英) The South China Sea (SCS) is a semi-enclosed marginal sea surrounded by continents and islands, thus, water can only exchange through the straits. In this study, we analyze the water budget variations of SCS during 1993-2014, using (i) the AVISO-released surface geostrophic current (SGC) daily data computed by combining the satellite altimeter data in reference to the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) geoid; (ii) the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) monthly time-variable gravity signifying the water mass variation; and (iii) daily sea level variation (SLV) from AVISO satellite altimeter data. We find from (i) that SGC water intrusion into SCS through the Luzon Strait, normally stronger in winter and weaker in summer, is correlated at the coefficient of 0.28 with the Multivariate El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Index (MEI) apparently under the influence of the variation of monsoon and the strength of Kuroshio in response to the ENSO. As the water mass budget will also be reflected in the gravity and SLV, we use the GRACE data (ii) to find the water mass redistributions and the satellite altimeter data (iii) for the SLV in SCS, both showing similar annual variation patterns. We also conduct the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis on the non-seasonal datasets. We find both leading modes showing unison water rise-and-fall behavior in the whole SCS. Their time series have correlation coefficients up to 0.44 and 0.30, respectively, with the MI. This means SCS water budget is under ENSO influence, not only in the intrusion but also reflected in the mass and sea level height. The SCS water budget variation is larger in normal winters and smaller during El Niño years.
關鍵字(中) ★ 測高衛星
★ GRACE重力衛星
★ 南中國海
★ 黑潮
★ ENSO
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 授權書
論文指導教授推薦書
論文口試委員審定書
中文摘要 i
英文摘要 ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
圖目錄 vi
表目錄 viii
第一章 緒論 1
1-1 研究動機與目的 1
1-2 研究區域介紹 2
1-3 本文內容 3
第二章 理論基礎 6
2-1 大地水準面 (Geoid) 6
2-2 參考橢球體 (Reference Ellipsoid) 7
2-3 海平面高度 (Sea Surface Height) 7
2-4 絕對動力高度 (Absolute Dynamic Height) 8
2-5 地轉流 (Sea Surface Geostrophic Current, SGC) 8
2-6 聖嬰南方震盪現象 (El Niño-Southern Oscillation, ENSO) 10
2-7-1 MEI (Multivariate ENSO Index) 11
2-7 印度洋偶極振盪現象(Indian Ocean Dipole) 12
2-7-2 DMI (Dipole Mode Index) 13
第三章 衛星介紹 18
3-1 測高衛星 (Satellite Altimetry) 18
3-2 GOCE衛星 (Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer) 19
3-3 GRACE衛星 (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) 20
第四章 衛星資料處理 26
4-1 測高衛星海平面高度資料 26
4-2 地轉流流速資料 26
4-3 GRACE衛星重力資料 27
第五章 資料分析方式 31
5-1 最小平方法擬和 (Least-Squares Fitting) 31
5-2 交相關函數分析 (Cross-correlation Function) 32
5-3 經驗正交函數分析 (Empirical Orthogonal Function Analysis) 33
第六章 研究結果與討論 36
6-1 南海通道流速變化 36
6-1-1 呂宋海峽 37
6-1-2 台灣海峽 38
6-1-3 巽他陸架 38
6-2 南海海平面變化 39
6-2-1 季節性變化 40
6-2-2 經驗正交函數分析結果 40
6-3 南海重力變化 41
6-3-1 季節性變化 42
6-3-2 經驗正交函數分析結果 42
第七章 結論與建議 56
參考文獻 57
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指導教授 趙丰(Benjamin Fong Chao) 審核日期 2016-7-22
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