博碩士論文 103622013 詳細資訊




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姓名 顏銘萱(Ming-Hsuan Yen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 地球科學學系
論文名稱 1935年新竹-臺中烈震之震源破裂特性分析與三維地震波模擬
(The source rupture analysis and 3-D seismic wave simulations of the 1935 Hsinchu-Taichung Earthquake)
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摘要(中) 1935年4月21日上午6時2分於臺灣中部關刀山附近發生一起規模達ML7.1之淺源地震,造成臺灣自有觀測以來最嚴重的地震災害。此地震伴隨著兩條地表破裂,分別為北側逆衝機制的獅潭斷層(Shihtan Fault, STF)及南側右移機制的屯子腳斷層(Tuntzuchiao Fault, TTCF)。隨著此地區的人口及經濟快速發展,未來若再次發生類似地震,其可能造成之損害勢必更加不容忽視。本研究透過釐清此區域震源的破裂特性進行強地動評估,並將此資訊提供為防災減災的參考依據。本研究首先依據前人所提出之斷層模型為基礎,建立四種斷層模型進行震源錯動量逆推,再整合四種斷層模型的逆推結果建立一較具可能性之模型。由模型逆推結果中選取最佳模型,將其震源模型透過譜元素法(Spectral-Element Method, SEM)模擬地震波的三維波傳過程,分析1935年新竹-臺中烈震之最大地動加速度(Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA)的詳細分布情形。將逆推及模擬結果與當時的震度及災害分布等資料進行比對,結果顯示PGA量值最大的區域與錯移量值較大的區域有高度的相關性,且與災害分布亦有相同的趨勢。另外,透過隨機滑移模型計算最佳模型的五組隨機滑移分布,將震源設定於斷層北部、中部及南部,探討不同破裂方向下各地區的PGA分布。模擬結果可見,由於破裂方向加成效應及場址效應,在臺北都會區、宜蘭平原及西部平原有較大的PGA量值出現,在近斷層的地區甚至有超越1g的情形。將模擬之PGA與強地動衰減預估值比較,模擬之PGA普遍小於衰減預估值,而隨距離增加衰減的趨勢與衰減預估值的趨勢相似。
摘要(英) On 21 April 1935, a large earthquake with a local magnitude of 7.1 struck central Taiwan, named the Hsinchu-Taichung earthquake. Its epicenter was located in Miaoli County. It was one of the destructive earthquakes in Taiwan history. This event was associated with two major faults: the northern one is the Shihtan reverse fault, and the southern one is the Tuntzuchiao right-lateral strike-slip fault. With rapid development of the business and the population in this area, we must pay attention to future large earthquakes. This study analyzed the source characteristics and the strong ground motions to prevent the disasters. We constructed four models based on previously proposed fault models and a new model for this event. We investigated the spatial slip distribution based on these fault models from source inversion by using the triangulation data. Then, we took the inversion result of the best model to simulate 3D ground motions by using Spectral-Element Method (SEM). We compared the spatial slip distribution, the ShakeMap, and the intensity distribution. The results shows that the area with larger PGA values is similar with the area with larger slip. Additionally, we calculated the stochastic slip distribution based on the best model by using the stochastic slip model, and set up different sources to discuss PGA distribution in each scenario of different rupture directions. From the scenario simulations, there are larger PGA values in Taipei, Ilan and western plain due to the directivity and the site effects. By comparing the Ground Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE) and simulated PGA values, we find that simulated PGA values are less than GMPE, but the trends of the attenuation are very similar. The scenarios could get more exhaustive PGA and influences of site effects, therefore the simulation results are the important information for preventing and decreasing the earthquake disasters.
關鍵字(中) ★ 1935年新竹臺中烈震
★ 震源錯動量逆推
★ 三維波傳模擬
★ 隨機滑移分布
關鍵字(英) ★ 1935 Hsinchu-Taichung earthquake
★ source inversion
★ ground motion simulation
★ stochastic slip model
論文目次 中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 ix
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 區域地質背景 2
1.3 文獻回顧 2
1.3.1 地震概述 2
1.3.2 地震之地動紀錄 3
1.3.3 地震之災害統計 4
1.3.4 地震斷層特性 4
第二章 研究方法 14
2.1 震源逆推 14
2.1.1 彈性錯位理論 14
2.1.2 逆推方法及設定 16
2.2 三維地震波傳模擬 17
2.2.1 譜元素法 18
2.2.2 三維速度模型與網格建構 18
2.3 隨機滑移模型 19
第三章 重建1935年烈震之震源破裂特性 29
3.1 三角測量資料 29
3.2 斷層模型參數設定 30
3.3 震源逆推結果與討論 31
3.3.1 地表位移及震源破裂之結果 31
3.3.2 震源破裂特性綜合討論 34
3.3.3 解析度標準測試 36
3.4 地動模擬結果與討論 36
3.4.1 最大地表加速度分布 37
3.4.2 地震波歷時 38
第四章 情境地震模擬 60
4.1 參數及模型設定 60
4.2 模擬結果之統計分析與討論 60
4.2.1 最大地表加速度分布 61
4.2.2 強地動衰減式 63
第五章 結論 71
參考文獻 73
附錄A:1935年新竹臺中烈震之地動紀錄 80
附錄B:日本陸地測量部之三角測量資料 83
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指導教授 馬國鳳、李憲忠(Kuo-Fong Ma Shiann-Jong Lee) 審核日期 2016-7-26
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