博碩士論文 103825003 詳細資訊




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姓名 黄雅爲(Ya-Wei Huang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱 中文假字形聲限制高低對於試誤與無誤學習之影響的行為與事件相關腦電位研究
(Errorful and Errorless Learning of Chinese Pseudocharacters with High and Low Orthography-to-Phonology Constraints: Behavioral and ERP Studies)
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摘要(中) 過往研究顯示,測驗所引起的記憶提取練習歷程相較於重複學習,更利於長期記憶之保存,此結果通稱為測驗效應。然而,測驗效應是否或如何受到測驗時產生之錯誤影響,仍有待研究。關於此議題的少量研究結果並不一致,因此,本研究使用中文的假字-注音配對探討下列問題: (1)測驗產生錯誤和沒有產生錯誤,是否比直接學習更有助於長期記憶? (2)中文假字的表音限制性如何影響試誤(測驗產生錯誤)和無誤(測驗無產生錯誤)學習? (3) 相關之電生理訊號會如何受到文字傳達的訊息量調控? 實驗中運用字型和字音之間的表音一致性,將中文假字-注音配對分為高限制性和低限制性兩組,組內一半的材料讓受試者直接學習,另一半則讓受試者透過測驗學習。分析時,測驗學習組可進一步分為學習階段答對而最終測驗也答對(無誤學習),或是學習階段答錯而最終測驗答對(試誤學習)兩種學習型態。
實驗一至三皆顯示,在高或低限制性的假字-注音配對中,受試對高限制性組表現較好。實驗二顯示,直接學習組和測驗學習組比二擇一組表現的好。實驗二?之二和實驗三皆顯示,無誤學習組的表現較直接學習組好,而直接學習組的表現又比試誤學習組好。事件相關腦電位結果顯示,高限制性假字比低限制性假字引起更大的N400,而且,在假字出現後的1000~1900ms中,低限制性假字比高限制性假字引起較正向的振幅。在低限制性組中,常見音將近比罕見音引起更大的P300,高限制組中則無顯著差異。此外,在注音出現後的1200~1900ms中,常見音及罕見音兩者間的振幅差異在高限制性組中較大。本研究結果指出,測驗時產生的錯誤不利於學習。不論中文假字的表音限制性高低,受試者在試誤學習中表現最差,而在無誤學習的表現比直接學習好。此外,除了N400和P300效果外,研究中還發現類似於延伸的pN400FP效果,此效果可能暗示當預期與結果不一致時,若對於事件的預期越強,需要花更多的努力去推翻原先的預期。
摘要(英) According to previous studies, testing produced better long-term retention than repeated studying because retrieval practices are needed in testing which is known as testing effect. However, it is not clear whether and how retrieval errors affect the mnemonic benefits of testing. The very few studies that examined this issue gave rise to inconsistent results. Therefore, this thesis employed Chinese pseudocharacters- ZhuYin FuHao associations to examine the following issues in the same task: (a) Does test-errorless learning and test-errorful learning benefits memory retention compared with study-only (no-test) learning? (b) How does the errorful and errorless learning affect by cue-target constraint levels? (c) How does the information conveyed by words modulate electrophysiological correlates of the testing effect? In the current study, orthography-to-phonology consistency was applied to define the constraints between Chinese pseudocharacters-ZhuYin FuHao associations. In both high-constraint and low-constraint associations, half of associations was assigned to no-test learning condition, the other half was assigned to testing condition. During analysis, the recall rates of testing condition were further calculated for errorful and errorless trials.
In Experiment 1 to 3, participants’ performance on high-constraint characters was always better than low-constraint characters. The results of Experiment 2 revealed that no-test (study-only) learning group and test self-generated learning group led to better performance than test with 2 alternatives learning group. The results of the Experiment 2-2 and 3 both revealed that errorless learning led to better performance than no-test (study-only) learning, and no-test learning led to better performance than errorful learning. The ERP results revealed that high-constraint characters elicited a more negative N400 wave than low-constraint characters, and the mean amplitudes of low-constraint characters were more positive than high-constraint characters in the time windows from 1000 to1900ms. The ERPs elicited by the ZhuYin FuHao revealed that common pronunciations marginally elicited more positive P300 than uncommon pronunciations for low-constraint condition but not for high-constraint condition. In addition, mean amplitudes difference between common and uncommon pronunciations was greater on high-constraint characters in the time windows from 1200 to1900ms.
The current findings suggested that test with error occurred decreased the benefit of testing on learning. Errorful learning led to the worse retention, and errorless learning led to better retention than no-test learning whether the cue-target constraint was high or low. In addition, except for ERP results revealed consistency (cue-target constraint) and oddball effects at N400 and P300, the novel prolonged pN400FP like effects were found, which might suggested that more efforts were needed to override a strongly held prediction than weakly held prediction.
關鍵字(中) ★ 測驗效果
★ 線索回憶
★ 題目對答案之限制性
★ 無誤學習
★ 試誤學習
★ 事件相關電位
關鍵字(英) ★ testing effect
★ cued recall
★ cue–target constraints
★ errorless learning
★ errorful learning
★ event-related potentials
論文目次 Table of Contents
摘要 ………………………………………………………………………i
Abstract…………………………………………………………………..iii
誌謝 …………………………………………………………………… vi
Table of Contents ……………………………………………………… viii
List of Figures…………………………………………………………… xi
List of Tables……………………………………………………….…..xiv
1.Introduction 1
2. Testing Effect and Errorful Learning 3
2-1.Testing effect 3
2-2. Errorful and errorless learning 6
3.Orthography-to-phonology consistency and uncertainty 13
3-1. Phonological consistency of Chinese phonograms 13
3-2. Shannon’s information theory 15
4. ERP studies of orthography-to-phonology consistency and uncertainty................................................................................................18
4-1. Event-related potentials (ERPs) 18
4-2. ERP studies of consistency 19
4-3. ERP studies of uncertainty 21
5. Experiment 1 22
5-1. Methods 22
5-2. Results and Discussion 25
6. Experiment 2 30
6-1. Experiment 2-1 31
6-1-1. Methods 31
6-1-2. Results 32
6-2. Experiment 2-2 34
6-2-1. Methods 34
6-2-2. Results (2-1 and 2-2) 36
6-3. Discussion 39
7. Experiment 3 41
7-1. Methods 42
7-2. Results 49
7-2-1. Behavioral Data 49
7-2-2. The ERPs elicited by the pseudocharacters in the initial study phase 54
7-2-3. The ERPs elicited by the ZhuYin FuHao in the initial study phase 56
7-3. Discussion 59
8. General Discussion 63
8-1. Experimental Findings 63
8-2. Future Directions 67
8-3. Conclusions 67
References 69
Appendix 1 72
Appendix 2 76
Appendix 3 80



















List of Figures
Figure 1 Mean proportions correct in the cued-recall test 1 week after learning. Adapted from J. D. Karpicke & H. L. Roediger (2008). 5
Figure 2 Proportion correct on the final test for initially non-retrievable weak associate target words in Experiments 3–6. Adapted from N. Kornell, M. J. Hays & R. A. Bjork (2009). 7
Figure 3 Proportions of words recalled on the final cued recall test. Adapted from Grimaldi, P. J., & Karpicke, J. D. (2012). 8
Figure 4 Mean proportions correct in the final cued-recall test. Adapted from E. K. Bridger & A. Mecklinger (2014). 10
Figure 5 Mean cued recall performance for targets as a function of age and condition. Adapted from A. –A. Cyr & N. D. Anderson (2014). 11
Figure 6 Example of consistent and inconsistent Chinese characters. Adapted from C.Y. Lee, J. L. Tsai, W. H. Chana, C. H. Hsu, D. L. Hung, & O. J. L. Tzeng (2006). 14
Figure 7 Shannon’s uncertainty formula. 16
Figure 8 Schematic of the learning trial in Experiment 1. 25
Figure 9 Mean proportions correct on no-test and test-errorful trails in the final cued-recall test in Experiment 1. 27
Figure 10 Mean proportions correct on no-test, test-errorless and test-errorful trials in the final cued-recall test in Experiment 1. 28
Figure 11 Mean proportions correct on test no-test and test-errorful trials in the final cued-recall test in Experiment 2. 32
Figure 12 Mean proportions correct on no-test, test-errorless and test-errorful trials in the final cued-recall test in Experiment 2. 33
Figure 13 Schematic of the learning trial in Experiment 2. 35
Figure 14 Mean proportions correct in the final cued-recall test on no-test, test self-generated and test with 2 alternatives learning in Experiment 2. 37
Figure 15 Mean proportions correct in the final cued-recall test on test-errorless and test-errorful trials of test self-generated and test with 2 alternatives learning in Experiment 2. 38
Figure 16 Schematic of the initial study trial in Experiment 3. 46
Figure 17 Schematic of the learning trial in Experiment 3. 46
Figure 18 Mean proportions correct on no-test and test trials in the immediate and delay cued-recall test in Experiment 3. 51
Figure 19 Mean proportions correct on no-test, test-errorless and test-errorful trials in the immediate and delay cued-recall test in Experiment 3. 53
Figure 20 Grand averaged ERPs at representative electrodes from reading high-constraint and low-constraint characters in Experiment 3. 54
Figure 21 Grand averaged ERPs at representative electrodes from reading common and uncommon pronunciations of high-constraint and low-constraint characters in Experiment 3. 58
Figure 22 Grand averaged ERPs at representative electrodes from reading common and uncommon pronunciations of high-constraint and low-constraint characters in Experiment 3. 59
























List of Tables
Table 1 Four Learning conditions adapted from the study of J. D. Karpicke & H. L. Roediger (2008).………………………………………………………….....4
Table 2 How to quantify the uncertainty contribution of pronunciation and the entropy of phonetic radical in Experiment 3.………………………………......17
Table 3 Using Shannon’s uncertainty formula to quantify the uncertainty contribution of pronunciation and the entropy of phonetic radical.……………43
Table 4 Index of uncertainty contribution and standard deviations.…………...43
Table 5 The valid trial numbers in the initial learning phase in Experiment 3...48


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指導教授 鄭仕坤(Shih-Kuen Cheng) 審核日期 2017-1-18
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