博碩士論文 103825005 詳細資訊




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姓名 高焄紋(Hsun-Wen Kao)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 認知與神經科學研究所
論文名稱 閱讀效能在中文字辨認的視覺擁擠效應之影響
(The Influences of Individual Differences in Reading Proficiency on Visual Crowding Effects during Chinese Character Recognition)
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摘要(中) 過去學者們嘗試用兩種層面去解釋閱讀能力差異的原因,一種為認知層面,而另一種為知覺層面。本研究從視知覺層面來看閱讀效能在中文字辨認表現上的差異。過去文獻提及視覺廣度大小與閱讀速度有相關性,而調節視覺廣度大小的主要決定因子為視覺擁擠效應(He, Legge, & Yu, 2013)。過去檢驗視覺廣度大小相關的研究,大多以拼音文字書寫系統為主。繁體字的型態複雜度較高,且大多為兩個以上的部件組合成複合字,目前少有研究檢驗型態較複雜的中文字對視覺廣度的影響。本篇研究目的為檢驗不同複雜度的繁體中文字如何誘導視覺擁擠效應產生,並探討不同閱讀效能的讀者受到視覺擁擠效應的干擾差異。本研究採用旁側干擾作業檢驗視覺擁擠效應對文字辨識的影響。實驗操弄三個獨變項,5種視野位置(左側與右側視野周邊、左側與右側近視野中央與視野中央)、3種文字複雜度(低、中等與高複雜度),以及是否受到旁側干擾字所包圍。透過受試者於不同情況下的辨認正確率及作答反應時間,檢驗各文字複雜度如何誘導視覺擁擠效應產生,與目標字與旁側干擾字所形成的字間擁擠效應對文字辨識的影響。接著,依據中文字唸名作業之結果將所招收的大學生分類成高低閱讀效能組,並與旁側干擾作業做連結。
實驗結果發現,目標字離視中央位置愈遠,字間擁擠對辨識目標字的干擾強度愈大,且字間擁擠效應與文字複雜度有交互作用,文字複雜度引發的視覺擁擠效應僅在字間擁擠的情況下才顯現出來。此外,當實驗參與者依閱讀效能進行分組,目標字呈現於近側時,低閱讀效能組受到文字複雜度的影響較大,而目標字呈現於遠側時,低閱讀效能組受到的字間擁擠效應干擾較強。根據結果可知,視覺擁擠效應發生於周邊視野區域,且文字複雜度對讀者的影響取決於是否處於字間擁擠的情況下,而一般閱讀的自然情境是閱讀文章或句子,因此字間擁擠效應為文字辨認歷程中的重要決定因素。其次,閱讀效能反映於區辨相鄰文字的能力隨著文字呈現的位置而有不同,因此高低閱讀效能組在辨識遠側及近側的文字時,受到字間擁擠效應與文字複雜度的干擾程度不同,顯示不同閱讀效能的視覺廣度大小在視知覺的層次為字間擁擠效應和文字複雜度所共同決定。
摘要(英)
In the past, many studies have tried to explain the differences of reading proficiency through two perspectives. One is cognitive components and another is perceptual components. This study will examine the differences of Chinese character recognition in reading proficiency from the visual perceptual view. Previous studies have mentioned that a visual crowding effect has a major impact on the visual span size, as which is related to reading speed (He et al., 2013). Factors affecting the size of the visual span have been studied in alphabetic order. However, Traditional Chinese characters are often made up of more than two radicals which are called compound words. There is a visual crowding effect formation between radical and radical in Traditional Chinese characters. There are only a few studies investigating the effects of Chinese characters with greater pattern complexities in visual span. This study aims to examine how a variety of character complexities lead to a visual crowding effect during the recognition of Traditional Chinese characters and how visual crowding effect contributes to reading proficiency of Chinese readers. In this study, flanker task was used to investigate the visual crowding effect on Chinese character recognition. Three independent variables were manipulated to include five visual fields (left periphery, left parafovea, fovea, right parafovea, and right periphery), three character complexities (low, medium and high complexities), and flanked condition. Accuracy rates and reaction times were employed to investigate the magnitude of visual crowding effect of character complexities and between-character crowding effect of target chatacter and embedded characters on Chinese character recognition. Next, Chinese characters naming task was also adopted to divide our subjects into two groups—group of high reading proficiency (HR) and group of low reading proficiency (LR) and linked with the flanker task.
The results showed that between-character crowding effect was getting stronger when the target character was far from the fovea. There was an interaction between character complexities and between-character crowding effect indicating that the effect of character complexities only showed up in the between-character crowding situation. In addition, LR group was influenced more by the effect of character complexities when the target character presented in the parafovea and LR group was influenced more by the between-character crowding effect when the target character presented in the periphery. According to these results, the visual crowding effect takes place in the peripheral vision and the influences of character complexities to readers depends on the magnitude of between-character crowding effect. Reading an article or sentences are common reading activities and the between-character crowding effect is the primary dominator in the process of character recognition. Second, reading proficiency reflected the abilities of discriminating neighboring characters and this ability changed as the location of target character changed. Thus, HR and LR suffered from different degrees of between-character crowding effect and the effect of character complexities when recognized characters in the parafovea and periphery. Above results indicated that the size of visual span in different reading proficiency is determined by between-character crowding effect and the effect of character complexities together in the level of visual perception.
關鍵字(中) ★ 中文字辨認
★ 視覺擁擠效應
★ 視覺廣度
★ 可辨識視窗
★ 閱讀效能
關鍵字(英) ★ Chinese character recognition
★ visual crowding effect
★ visual span
★ uncrowded window
★ reading proficiency
論文目次 中文摘要i
英文摘要iii
誌謝vi
第一章 前言1
第一節 研究背景1
第二節 研究問題6
第二章 文獻回顧9
第一節 視覺廣度與視覺擁擠效應9
第二節 視覺擁擠效應機制與物體辨認的典型階層模式12
第三節 物體特徵對視覺擁擠效應階層模式之挑戰14
第四節 視覺擁擠效應的個別差異17
第五節 中文字的視覺擁擠效應與視覺廣度21
第三章 研究方法23
第一節 研究對象23
第二節 旁側干擾作業實驗設計23
第三節 中文字唸名作業34
第四章 結果39
第一節 中文字唸名作業結果39
第二節 旁側干擾作業結果41
第五章 討論61
第一節 視野位置與視覺擁擠效應間的關係61
第二節 視覺擁擠效應與閱讀效能間的連結64
第六章 結論69
參考文獻70
附錄78
附錄一 旁側干擾作業與中文字唸名作業的文字材料78
附錄二 有旁側干擾字情境所呈現的刺激材料79
附錄三 旁側干擾作業統計分析摘要表80
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指導教授 蔡介立、李佳穎(Jie-Li Tsai Chia-Ying Lee) 審核日期 2017-6-27
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