博碩士論文 104181004 詳細資訊




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姓名 廖純瑜(Chun-Yu Liao)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 中國文學系
論文名稱 臺灣茶產業、茶文化之承衍與新變研究
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摘要(中) 臺灣是一個以移民為主體的島嶼,由不同地域、不同族群,經不同的時期遷徙來臺,再與島內的原住民融合,形成多元文化的社會,又因島內人民的飲茶習慣,可窺知臺灣四百多年歷史發展的軌跡,可謂臺灣茶產業與茶文化的櫥窗。
本論文以《臺灣茶產業、茶文化之承衍與新變研究》為題,在歷時性的研究,時間縱貫荷西、明鄭、清領、日治時代、光復後至當代。又以共時性研究,探討政治、經濟、社會、文化等相關背景,對於臺灣茶產業、茶文化發展之影響因素。在 茶 產業 的研究 範圍 裡 涵 概 臺灣 茶 的溯源 、 茶葉 的 產 製、外銷 、 消費 及 政策等 議題 。 在 茶文化方面 包括 各種 泡茶技藝、飲茶形式、茶會活動、茶藝館 、 茶空間 、茶食 以及 當代茶人的茶道 理與 實踐等。緒論 涵 蓋 的內容 研究背景 及目的 、 文獻回顧 與評述 、研究方法與範圍、 論文架構 。 在 第二章 〈 臺 茶生產、銷售的變遷與特色〉中,筆者 主要 探討 臺灣茶產業的溯源,與早期先民透過遷徙的傳播,將原鄉種茶與製茶的技術,傳入臺灣成為他鄉是故鄉,探源各種茶的製作及當代臺茶的特色等。荷據時期,臺灣處於大航海時代的交通要道,臺灣成為大陸茶運銷歐洲的轉運站,因而建立起臺茶百年以出口外銷為導向的根基。日治時期,在日本政府標榜「日本工業,臺灣農業」的旗幟下,對於茶樹的研究、育種、栽種以及茶葉機械化等茶業的紮根,為臺茶產業一百多年來的發展,奠定起良好而穩固的基礎。戰後臺灣仍沿襲日治時代的產銷制度與紅茶外銷的主力,作為政府茶產業的主要政策。直至一九七零年代,因兩次國際能源危機,臺茶產業的發展,才逐漸由外銷轉向以內銷為主。
第三章探討〈臺灣茶產業、茶文化的分流與匯合〉中,筆者發現臺灣茶文化的醞釀、形成與發展,皆與先民的遷徙息息相關,除了明清時期,先民將傳統功夫茶的泡茶形式傳入臺灣外,一九四九年大陸各省的移民,把中國各地的飲茶習慣橫向移植來臺,形成鄉愁的象徵,反映出臺灣的飲茶形態,是移民飲茶文化的縮影。一九八零年後,政府因側重臺茶內銷的發展,取銷「產銷分離」制度,極力以茶文化行銷茶產業,讓茶文化帶動茶產業的開展,致使原本茶產業與茶文化各自平行發展的路線,匯流而產生一種共生共榮的關係。深究當代茶文化發展的脈絡,在一九八零年代,茶藝復興時期是以傳統功夫茶作為基礎,開展出當代各種泡茶與飲茶的風貌,一九九零年代則以臺灣本土為軸,發展出以臺灣為主體性的茶文化形態。西元兩千年後,當代茶文化的發展,融合各國茶文化的元素,讓原本臺灣的茶藝文化產生質變,形成去邊界、後現代茶文化豐富多樣的景象。
近二十年,臺灣當代飲茶形式與茶會活動趨於成熟階段,探討臺灣當代茶人
的茶道思想,逐漸形成另一股趨勢。在第四章〈臺灣當代茶道理論與實踐〉中,筆者考察當代茶人茶道思想的形成,大抵是以融合儒、釋、道三家的哲學思想作為基礎,提出各種自己的茶道理論,藉由舉辦各種不同的茶會形式,實踐茶人所秉持的茶道理念,例如:林易山的「蓮花茶會」、蔡榮章的「無我茶會」等。蔡榮章又提出茶道藝術家純茶道的主張,讓茶道聚焦以泡茶、品茗、奉茶為核心的茶道思想。
茶藝館是臺灣茶藝復興時期的產物,由於茶藝文化的推廣而蓬勃發展。茶藝
館對於帶動起臺灣飲茶風氣的興盛,可謂功不可沒。在第五章〈臺灣飲茶形態與品茗空間的流變〉裡,筆者針對茶藝館的風格、經營策略、茶藝館的興衰以及目前茶空間多元性的經營發展,透過訪談與實地考察的方式,深入探討飲茶形態與茶空間的流變。
綜觀,臺灣茶產業、茶文化發展的面向,早期是以單純承襲大陸原鄉的種茶、製茶技藝、茶文化內涵及精神為依歸,在歷經日本殖民、戰後政府諸多政策的變革,與社會、經濟、文化及全球化等因素的變遷下,隨著物換星移,目前不斷朝向演變與創新發展,再結合設計、包裝、行銷等跨領域的統整概念,發展出屬於獨特品牌的商品,配合劇場型茶會及茶席文化的盛行,形成當代茶產業、茶文化另一種美學經濟的趨勢。
摘要(英) Taiwan is an island whose population is primarily composed of immigrants from different
places and ethnics in different eras. These immigrants had merged with the indigenous
peoples and formed a society with diverse culture. Also, due to the habit of tea-drinking on
the island, I can look into the trace of history and development during these 400 years. This
is a display of the tea industry and tea culture in Taiwan.
In this dissertation, I take “Study on the Inheritance and Evolution of Tea Industry
and Tea Culture in Taiwan” as the subject with a diachronic approach, starting from Dutch
and Spanish Formosa, thru Kingdom of Tungning, Qing Rule, Japanese Occupation, Restoration
to ROC, and finally to the contemporary era. On the other hand, I also adopted a
synchronic approach to explore the influence of political, economic, social, and cultural
backgrounds upon the tea industry and tea culture in Taiwan. In terms of the study on tea
industry, the scope covers the origin of Taiwan tea, as well as the production, consumption,
and policies regarding tea leaves. For the tea culture, it includes the various kinds of teabrewing
techniques, drinking, ceremonies, tea houses, drinking space design, snacks for tea,
and the philosophies and practices of contemporary tea experts.
The introduction covers the background, goal, literature review and comments, methodology
and scope, and structure of the dissertation. In the second chapter “Evolution and
Features of Tea Production and Sale in Taiwan,” I want to explore the origin of the tea
industry in Taiwan; the spread of tea by our ancestors, who introduced the tea planting and
production of their homeland to Taiwan which then became their new home; and the production
and features of contemporary teas in Taiwan. During the period of Dutch Formosa, Taiwan was on the transportation route in the Age of Sail, and it became a trade hub for tea
between China and Europe. This was the root of the policy of exporting Taiwan tea in the
following centuries. During the Japanese Occupation Era, under the government’s banner
of “Industry in Japan and Agriculture in Taiwan,” the research, breeding, plantation, and
mechanized production of tea set a good and stable basis for the development of tea industry
in Taiwan in the next century. After WW2, the government continued to take the production
& sale system since Japanese Occupation Era and export of black tea as the primary policy
direction. It’s not until the 1970s when the tea industry turned from export to domestic
sales due to the two occurrences of global energy crisis.
In the third chapter “Split and Convergence of Tea Industry and Tea Culture in Taiwan,”
I found that the shaping, forming, and development of tea culture in Taiwan are
inseparable with the immigration of our ancestors. In addition to the Period of Tungning
Kingdom and the Qing Rule when our ancestors introduced the “Gongfu Tea Practice”
to Taiwan, the immigrants from different provinces in China also brought their customs of
tea to the island in 1949. The tea became a symbol of nostalgia, which also reflected the fact
that Taiwan’s tea drinking customs are the results of immigration. After 1980, as the government
stressed on domestic sale of Taiwan tea and adopted the “separation of production
and sale” model, with which it promoted tea industry with the tea culture. In that way, the
tea industry and tea culture, which used to develop on their own individually, could now
converge and thrive together. I looked deeper to see the context of the development of tea
culture. In the 1980s, the revitalization of tea art started from the Gongfu Tea Practice, which
led to different kinds of scenes of tea brewing and tea drinking at the time. In the 1990s, a
tea culture centering around Taiwan itself began to emerge. After 2000, the contemporary
tea culture is mixed with the cultures of other countries. The tea in Taiwan then undergoes
a change in its essence, forming the borderless and post-modern tea culture that is rich and diverse.
In the past 20 years, the tea drinking pattern and tea ceremony activities in contemporary
Taiwan have become mature. Discussing the philosophy in tea has been leading to a
new trend. In the fourth chapter “Theories and Practices of Tea Philosophy in Contemporary
Taiwan,” I investigated the forming of tea philosophies of contemporary tea experts,
who basically start from the perspectives of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism and propose
their different theories regarding the tea. By hosting different kinds of tea ceremonies,
they realize and fulfill the philosophies they’re holding; such ceremonies include “Lotus
Tea Ceremony” by Lin, Yi-Shan and “Wu-W Tea Ceremony” by Tsai, Jung-Chang.
Tsai, Jung-Chang further advocates the idea of “Tea Artist’s Pure Tea Ceremony,” in
which tea brewing, tasting, and serving shall be the focus.
Teahouses are the products of the Revitalization of Tea in Taiwan. They became popular
thanks to the promotion of tea ceremony. Teahouses are definitely the MVP for driving
the trending of tea drinking in Taiwan. In the fifth chapter “Evolution of Tea Drinking and
Tasting Space,” I stressed on the style of teahouses, operation strategies, rise and fall of
teahouses, and the diverse development of current tea spaces. Through interviews and field
investigation, I shall dig deeper and see the evolution of tea drinking and the tea space.
In sum, the development of tea industry and tea culture in Taiwan was based on the
plantation, production, connotation, and spirits that are derived from China. After Japanese
Occupation and the transition to the ROC government, along with the changes of society,
economy, culture, and globalization, the tea is now heading towards further evolution and
innovation. Combined with design, packaging, and marketing, the Taiwan tea has made its
own unique brands of products. The theater-like ceremonies has also become another trend
of aesthetic economy in terms of contemporary tea industry and tea culture.
關鍵字(中) ★ 臺灣茶
★ 茶文化
★ 功夫茶
★ 茶藝復興
★ 茶藝館
★ 茶道思想
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 中文摘要 .......................................................................................................................... i
英文摘要 ........................................................................................................................ iii
誌 謝 ............................................................................................................................ vii
目 錄 ............................................................................................................................. ix
圖目錄 .......................................................................................................................... xvii
表目錄 ............................................................................................................................ xx
第一章 緒論 ................................................................................................................. 1
第一節 研究背景與目的 ............................................................................................ 1
一、研究背景............................................................................................................. 1
(一)有關文化釋義................................................................................................. 1
(二)中國歷代飲茶文化的演變............................................................................. 4
二、研究動機與目的................................................................................................. 8
三、問題意識............................................................................................................. 9
第二節 文獻回顧與評述 ............................................................................................ 11
一、臺灣茶葉、茶藝發展史研究........................................................................... 13
二、臺灣茶藝、茶道現象研究............................................................................... 17
三、茶藝、茶道理論研究....................................................................................... 19
四、與茶道相關理論研究....................................................................................... 21
(一)美學理論....................................................................................................... 21
(二)茶道文化學習............................................................................................... 23
第三節 研究方法與論文架構 ................................................................................. 26
一、研究方法........................................................................................................... 26
(一)文獻分析法................................................................................................... 26
(二)田野調查法................................................................................................... 26
二、研究範圍與論文架構....................................................................................... 28
(一)研究範圍....................................................................................................... 28
(二)論文架構....................................................................................................... 28
第二章 臺茶生產、銷售的變遷與特色 ................................................................. 31
第一節 臺茶的原住民-臺灣山茶 ......................................................................... 32
x
一、臺灣茶界的櫻花鉤吻鮭-臺灣山茶............................................................... 32
二、重塑當代臺灣山茶新意象............................................................................... 37
第二節 臺灣烏龍茶、包種茶、紅茶之歷史淵源 ................................................ 39
一、他故鄉變故鄉................................................................................................... 39
二、地理環境........................................................................................................... 47
(一)北臺灣、桃竹苗的烏龍茶區....................................................................... 50
(二)中部紅茶區之發展....................................................................................... 52
(三)南部茶區的發展........................................................................................... 54
三、探源烏龍茶、包種茶、紅茶製作之歷史演變............................................... 54
(一)武夷茶的製作............................................................................................... 54
(二)番庒烏龍茶/東方美人............................................................................... 58
(三)薫花包種茶(花香茶)............................................................................... 62
(四)改良式包種茶............................................................................................... 67
(五)紅茶............................................................................................................... 69
四、文化意涵........................................................................................................... 74
(一)茶的故事傳說............................................................................................... 75
(二)東方美人茶的客家意象............................................................................... 78
第三節 臺灣當代茶葉的特色及發展 ..................................................................... 82
一、當代臺灣茶的分類、製作、特性與發展....................................................... 82
(一)不發酵茶....................................................................................................... 85
(二)部分發酵茶的烏龍茶家族系列................................................................... 86
1、輕發酵烏龍茶 .................................................................................................... 87
2、中發酵烏龍茶 .................................................................................................... 93
3、重發酵茶 .......................................................................................................... 102
(三)全發酵茶..................................................................................................... 106
二、臺灣正味......................................................................................................... 109
第四節 臺灣茶產業外銷的景象 ........................................................................... 113
一、荷據時期(1624-1662)福爾摩沙的經貿流轉 ........................................ 113
二、明鄭時期(1662-1683)茶在臺灣 ............................................................ 115
三、清領時期(1683-1895)臺灣茶的外銷途徑 ............................................ 117
四、日治時代(1895-1945)邁向多元國際化的臺茶 .................................... 123
(一)日本殖民下的茶產業政策......................................................................... 123
(二)包種茶外銷................................................................................................. 125
xi
(三)紅茶外銷..................................................................................................... 127
五、戰後(1950 年代中期-1981 年)綠茶外銷的黃金期 .............................. 131
(一)北非綠茶(1950-1960 年代) ............................................................... 131
(二)日本煎茶代工(1960 年代-1981 年) .................................................. 137
第三章 臺灣茶產業、茶文化的分流與匯合 ....................................................... 142
第一節 臺灣茶文化的醞釀與形成 ....................................................................... 142
一、承襲:功夫茶的平行輸入............................................................................. 142
二、戰前飲茶:上流社會風雅生活的象徵......................................................... 145
三、斷裂:殖民下臺灣茶文化的面向................................................................. 148
(一)日人尊寵的臺灣番庒烏龍茶..................................................................... 148
(二)茶產業與茶文化的消長............................................................................. 153
四、鄉愁的滋味..................................................................................................... 158
五、從解渴飲料化身休閒社交的活動................................................................. 165
第二節 現代茶藝文化之建構與發展 ................................................................... 167
一、茶藝文化復興運動......................................................................................... 167
二、現代茶藝文化之構形..................................................................................... 171
三、茶藝文化之媒體傳播..................................................................................... 174
第三節 茶產業、茶文化共融之開展 ................................................................... 178
一、以茶文化行銷茶產業政策............................................................................. 178
二、產製銷茶產業生態的蛻變............................................................................. 180
三、重構本土飲茶文化的特色............................................................................. 186
四、跨界/創新..................................................................................................... 191
(一)開展「飲」與「食」的新觀念................................................................. 191
(二)拓展當代茶文化的新格局......................................................................... 193
第四節 當代茶產業、茶文化共生共榮之關係 .................................................... 196
一、茶產業的現況................................................................................................. 196
(一)外銷面臨的困境......................................................................................... 196
(二)茶產業鏈生態的改變................................................................................. 199
(三)平價茶/精品茶......................................................................................... 202
1、平價茶 .............................................................................................................. 202
2、精品茶 .............................................................................................................. 207
xii
二、茶產業發展的趨勢......................................................................................... 212
(一)樹立品牌形象............................................................................................. 212
(二)評茶/品茶 ................................................................................................... 218
第五節 臺灣當代茶文化的景觀 ........................................................................... 223
一、茶產業、茶文化統整的經營策略................................................................. 223
二、精緻劇場型茶會的省思................................................................................. 226
三、匯流茶文化的國際觀..................................................................................... 229
(一)日本茶道..................................................................................................... 230
1、抹茶道 .............................................................................................................. 230
2、煎茶道 .............................................................................................................. 231
................................................................................................................................. 232
(二)韓國茶道..................................................................................................... 232
四、重構後現代茶文化的新趨勢......................................................................... 235
(一)茶事活動的形式......................................................................................... 235
(二)多元混搭風的茶席文化............................................................................. 237
(三)拓展飲茶多元的面向................................................................................. 238
第四章 臺灣當代茶道理論與實踐 ........................................................................ 241
第一節 以中國哲學思想為底蘊的茶道思想 ........................................................ 242
一、本儒家思想的茶道......................................................................................... 243
(一)重視修身..................................................................................................... 243
(二)展現博愛的精神......................................................................................... 245
(三)具儒家義的茶儀......................................................................................... 247
二、取法道家思想之茶道..................................................................................... 254
(一)展現道法自然之意境................................................................................. 255
(二)強調虛靜無為之境界................................................................................. 259
三、融入禪宗智慧之茶道..................................................................................... 263
(一)茶與佛教之淵源......................................................................................... 263
(二)茶禪三昧..................................................................................................... 264
(三)具佛教茶禮的實踐..................................................................................... 267
第二節 當代茶道理念與茶會形式的呈現 .......................................................... 270
一、純茶道藝術的主張......................................................................................... 271
二、茶道的空寂美學............................................................................................. 276
三、無我茶會體現的美學..................................................................................... 282
xiii
(一)極簡蘊含空寂的茶境................................................................................. 282
(二)無我茶會「無」的意象............................................................................. 285
四、茶文化的體與用............................................................................................. 289
第三節 茶道與茶文學 ............................................................................................ 290
ㄧ、論品茗之美..................................................................................................... 290
二、茶詩中品茗的美學......................................................................................... 292
(一)春茶............................................................................................................. 292
(二)包種茶......................................................................................................... 294
(三)紅茶............................................................................................................. 296
1、〈可飲白鷺〉 .................................................................................................. 296
2、〈紅玉〉 .......................................................................................................... 298
(四)凍頂烏龍茶................................................................................................. 300
(五)東方美人..................................................................................................... 301
第五章 臺灣飲茶形態與品茗空間的流變 ........................................................... 305
第一節 當代各種飲茶形式的演變 ....................................................................... 305
一、功夫茶............................................................................................................. 306
(一)源流............................................................................................................. 306
(二)泡茶的技藝與茶器物................................................................................. 308
二、臺灣當代具特色的泡茶形式......................................................................... 317
(一)陸羽茶藝中心小壺茶法泡法及理念......................................................... 317
(二)屏東潮州式功夫茶(簡稱潮州式功夫茶)泡法及理念......................... 319
(三)臺灣詔安式泡茶法與理念......................................................................... 321
(四)臺灣安溪式泡茶法與理念......................................................................... 323
三、飲茶形式與當代茶器..................................................................................... 325
(一)農村飲茶的形式與茶器............................................................................. 325
(二)當代陶藝家茶器之理念............................................................................. 327
(三)茶碗............................................................................................................. 328
四、新世代飲茶觀................................................................................................. 332
第二節 臺灣茶藝館發展的歷史脈絡 ................................................................... 338
一、早期茶館的樣貌............................................................................................. 338
(一)茶攤文化的形成......................................................................................... 338
(二)清茶館......................................................................................................... 340
(三)茶室............................................................................................................. 341
xiv
二、當代茶藝館的形成......................................................................................... 342
(一)當代茶館的萌芽期..................................................................................... 342
(二)再造/風起雲湧......................................................................................... 344
1、茶藝館名詞的由來 .......................................................................................... 344
2、重塑/開展 ...................................................................................................... 345
第三節 當代茶藝館、茶空間之景觀 ................................................................... 348
一、茶藝館經營的形態......................................................................................... 349
(一)傳統的經營樣貌......................................................................................... 350
(二)茶資收費標準............................................................................................. 350
(三)茶與餐結合的模式..................................................................................... 353
二、品茗環境之特色............................................................................................. 353
(一)文人品茗空間............................................................................................. 354
(二)鄉土懷舊風格............................................................................................. 358
(三)複合式藝廊茶空間..................................................................................... 362
(四)西式下午茶茶空間..................................................................................... 365
(五)時尚創新的茶空間..................................................................................... 366
三、南北傳統茶館風格之比較............................................................................. 370
(一)北部以個人特色見長................................................................................. 370
(二)中南部以寬敞氣派取勝............................................................................. 371
第四節 茶藝館的困境及對社會的影響力 .......................................................... 373
一、傳統茶藝館沒落的成因................................................................................. 373
(一)臺灣產業外移、經濟蕭條......................................................................... 373
(二)複合式茶道教室的崛起............................................................................. 374
(三)西化的飲料觀............................................................................................. 374
(四)便捷飲料的革新......................................................................................... 375
二、茶藝館的社會功能......................................................................................... 377
(一)提供身心安頓之所..................................................................................... 377
(二)茶藝文化的推廣......................................................................................... 378
第五節 茶食文化之探討 .......................................................................................... 382
一、食不厭細的茶食............................................................................................. 382
(一)歷代茶食的景觀......................................................................................... 382
(二)臺灣當代茶藝館的茶食文化..................................................................... 384
二、社會文化的角色與功能................................................................................. 387
(一)生理與心理的滿足..................................................................................... 387
xv
(二)建立人際關係的媒介................................................................................. 387
三、從地域到後現代跨界文化的發展................................................................. 388
第六章 結論與建議 ................................................................................................. 392
壹、結論 ..................................................................................................................... 392
一、產業方面......................................................................................................... 392
二、茶文化方面..................................................................................................... 396
貳、建議 ..................................................................................................................... 400
叁、本文的限制 ........................................................................................................ 401
參考書目 ..................................................................................................................... 402
一、古籍................................................................................................................. 402
二、近人論著......................................................................................................... 404
(一)專書............................................................................................................. 404
(二)專書論文..................................................................................................... 411
(三)期刊論文..................................................................................................... 412
(四)會議論文..................................................................................................... 414
(五)社團手冊.報章∙雜誌................................................................................ 415
(六)網站∙臉書.................................................................................................... 416
附錄一 ......................................................................................................................... 419
附錄二 ......................................................................................................................... 428
訪談一 ......................................................................................................................... 428
訪談二 ......................................................................................................................... 430
訪談三 ......................................................................................................................... 432
訪談四 ......................................................................................................................... 435
訪談五 ......................................................................................................................... 440
訪談六 .......................................................................................................................... 442
訪談七 ......................................................................................................................... 445
訪談八 ......................................................................................................................... 447
訪談九 ......................................................................................................................... 449
訪談十 ......................................................................................................................... 450
訪談十一 ..................................................................................................................... 453
xvi
訪談十二 ..................................................................................................................... 455
訪談十三 ..................................................................................................................... 458
訪談十四 ..................................................................................................................... 460
訪談十五 ..................................................................................................................... 462
訪談十六 ..................................................................................................................... 463
訪談十七 ..................................................................................................................... 466
訪談十八 ..................................................................................................................... 467
訪談十九 ..................................................................................................................... 469
訪談二十 ..................................................................................................................... 471
訪談二十一 ................................................................................................................. 473
訪談二十二 ................................................................................................................. 475
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指導教授 葉振富 審核日期 2023-7-25
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