T. R. Malthus, An Essay on the Principle of Population (J. Johnson, London, 1798).
 X. S. Liu, A. Vedlitz, and L. Alston, “Regional news portrayals of global warming and climate change,” Environ. Sci. Policy 11, 379-393 (2008).
 A. Zukauskas, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, Introduction to Solid-State Lighting (John Wiley & Sons, NEW York, 2002).
 D. A. Steigerwald, J. C. Bhat, D. Collins, R. M. Fletcher, M. O. Holcomb, M. J. Ludowise, P. S. Martin, and S. L. Rudaz, “Illumination with solid state lighting technology,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 310-320 (2002).
 E. F. Schubert and J. K. Kim, “Solid-state light sources getting smart,” Science 308, 1274-1278 (2005).
 F. Nguyen, B. Terao, and J. Laski, “Realizing LED illumination lighting applications,” Proc. SPIE 5941, 594105 (2005).
 Life-Cycle Assessment of Energy and Environmental Impacts of LED Lighting Products, by US Department of energy.
 D. Sun, “Challenges and opportunities for high power white LED development,” DOE SSL R&D Workshop (2012).
 J. C. Yu, Z, Y, Chen, and B, D, Kao, “Optical design and optimization of planar curved LED end-lit light bar,” Appl. Opt. 53, H67-H75 (2014).
 X. H. Lee, I. Moreno, and C, C, Sun, “High-performance LED street lighting using microlens arrays,” Opt. Express 21, 10612-10621 (2013).
 D. L. Nelson and M. M. Cox, Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry (Macmillan, 1970).
 C. L. Comar and F. P. Zscheile, “Spectroscopic analysis of plant extracts for chlorophylls a and b,” Plant Physiol. 16, 651-653 (1941).
 C. L. Comar and F. P. Zscheile, “Analysis of plant extracts for chlorophylls a and b by a photoelectric spectrophotometric method,” Plant Physiol. 17, 198-209 (1942).
 Z. Y. Ma, H. Shimizu, S. Moriizumi, M. Miyata, M. Douzono, and S. Tazawa, “Effect of light intensity, quality and photoperiod on stem elongation of chrysanthemum cv. Reagan,” Environ. Control Biol. 45, 19-25 (2007).
 H. M. Cathey and H. A. Borthwick, “Photoreactions controlling flowering of chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat. and Hemfl.) illuminated with fluorescent lamps,” Plant Physiol. 45, 235-239 (1970).
 K. E. Cockshull and A. P. Hughes, “The effects of light intensity at different stages in flower initiation and development of chrysanthemum morifolium,” Ann. Bot. 35, 915-926 (1971).
 M. G. Blanchard and E. S. Runkle, “Use of a cyclic high-pressure sodium lamp to inhibit flowering of chrysanthemum and velvet sage,” Sci. Hortic. 122, 448-454 (2009).
 M. Appelgren, “Effects of light quality on stem elongation of pelargonium in vitro,” Sci. Hortic. 45, 345-351 (1991).
 B. Viorel, Modeling Solar Radiation at the Earth Surface (Springer, 2008).
 億展光電科技, http://www.ledworld.tw/products_show.php?dmrecno=7987.
 凱創光電科技有限公司, http://www.kaichgd.com/zwscd.html.
 ATLEDTiS Limited, https://www.atledtis.com/blank-1.
 National Electrical Manufacturers Association, ANSI/IEC 60529-2004 : Degrees of Protection Provided by Enclosures (IP Code) (NEMA, Virginia, 2004).
 謝豪晃, 洪偉竣, 許純嘉, 盧佩佳, 賴辰瑋, 巴溫篤, “Effect of different light-emitting diode (LED) sources on laying interval and egg quality of laying hens,” 中國畜牧學會會誌 42, 319-328 (2013).
 台北市立動物園, http://www.zoo.gov.taipei/.
 N. Mihailov, D. Todorov, and L. Iliev, “Investigation of an efficient poultry lighting solution,” 2014 18th International Symposium on Electrical Apparatus and Technologies (SIELA), 1-4 (2014).
 G. Tosini and R. Avery, “Spectral composition of light influences thermoregulatory behaviour in a lacertid lizard (podarcis muralis),” J. Therm. Biol. 21, 191-195 (1996).
 V. N. Mahajan, Optical Imaging and aberration : Part Ⅰ Ray Geometrical Optics (SPIE Press, Washington,1998).
 Commission internationale de l′éclairage, CIE Publication NO. 86 : CIE 1988 2∘spectral luminous efficiency function for photopic vision (CIE, 1998).
 A. S. Sedra and K. C. Smith, Microelectronic Circuits, 4th ed. (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1998).
 Prolight Opto Technology Corporation, http://www.prolightopto.com/.
 Breault Research Organization, Inc., http://www.breault.com/.
 R. J. Bula, R. C. Morrow, T. W. Tibbitts, D. J. Barta, R. W. Ignatius, and T. S. Martin, “Light-emitting diodes as a radiation source for plants,” Hortscience 26 , 203-205 (1991).
 J. B. Lund, T. J. Blom, and J. M. Aaslyng, “LED lighting in horticulture,” Hortscience 42, 1947-1950 (2007).
 G. D. Goins, N. C. Yorio, M. M. Sanwo, and C. S. Brown, “Photomorphogenesis, photosynthesis, and seed yield of wheat plants grown under red light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with and without supplemental blue lighting,” J. Exp. Bot. 48, 1407-1413 (1997).
 R. C. Jao, C. C. Lai, W. Fang, and S. F. Chang, “Effects of red light on the growth of Zantedeschia plantlets in vitro and tuber formation using light-emitting diodes,” Hortscience 40, 436-438 (2005).
 R. C. Morrow, “LED lighting in horticulture,” Hortscience 43, 1947-1950 (2008).
 K. Ohashi-Kaneko, R. Matsuda, E. Goto, K. Fujiwara, and K. Kurata, “Growth of rice plants under red light with or without supplemental blue light,” Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 52, 444-452 (2006).
 G. D. Massa, H. H. Kim, R. M. Wheeler, and G. A. Mitchell, “Plant productivity in response to LED lighting,” Hortscience 43, 1951-1956 (2008).
 K. M. Folta and K. S. Childers, “Light as a growth regulator : controlling plant biology with narrow-bandwidth solid-state lighting systems,” Hortscience 43, 1957-1964 (2008).
 H. Li, Z. Xu, and C. Tang, “Effect of light-emitting diodes on growth and morphogenesis of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plantlets in vitro,” Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult. 103, 155-163 (2010).
 A. Shimada and Y. Taniguchi, “Red and blue pulse timing control for pulse width modulation light dimming of light emitting diodes for plant cultivation,” J. Photochem. Photobiol. B-Biol. 104, 399-404 (2011).
 R. Paradisoa, E. Meinenb, J. F. H. Snelb, P. D. Visserb, W. V. Ieperenc, S. W. Hogewoningc, and L. F.M. Marcelisb, “Spectral dependence of photosynthesis and light absorptance in single leaves and canopy in rose,” Sci. Hortic. 127, 548-554 (2011).
 K. J. McCree, “The action spectrum, absorptance and quantum yield of photosynthesis in crop plants,” Agric. Meteorol. 9, 191-216 (1972).
 K. J. McCree, “Test of current definitions of photosynthetically active radiation against leaf photosynthesis data,” Agric. Meteorol. 10, 443-453 (1972).
 C. C. Sun, T. X. Lee, S. H. Ma, Y. L. Lee, and S. M. Huang, “Precise optical modeling for LED lighting verified by cross correlation in the midfield region, ” Opt. Lett. 31, 2193-2195 (2006).
 J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill,1996).
 Rhinoceros by Robert McNeel & Associates, https://www.rhino3d.com/.
 Illuminating Engineering Society of North America, The IESNA Lighting handbook : reference and application, 9th ed. (IESNA, New York, 2000).
 KiCad Developers Team, http://kicad-pcb.org/.