博碩士論文 104322041 詳細資訊




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姓名 許家駿(Jia-Jun Xu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 土木工程學系
論文名稱 以離心振動臺試驗模擬緩衝材料中廢棄物罐之振動反應
(Centrifuge shaking table tests on dynamic response of canister surround with buffer material)
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摘要(中) 由於高階核廢料外洩將對環境與生物造成巨大的危害,因此目前對高階核廢料最常見的處置方式,核廢料的處置場多挑選在相當深度的岩盤地層中,藉由工程和天然的障壁形成複數障壁系統,將高放射性核廢料放置在地底深處與自然環境隔絕。其中,鑽挖岩洞將貯放核廢料的廢棄物罐放置其中,周圍設置緩衝材料,讓廢棄物罐不易受到地表環境、人為和地層作用的影響,是國際核能先進國家咸認為較可行的方式。然而台灣位於環太平洋地震帶,地震發生的頻率相當的高,由於地震引發的振動,對廢棄物罐、周圍緩衝材料及處置孔之安全評估有一定影響,值得進一步的研究與探討。
本研究假設廢棄物罐處置於地底下一定深度的完整花崗岩岩盤中,處置孔視為完整無變形及無破裂的處置空間。參考KBS3-V設計概念,以1/10的縮尺比例進行縮尺模型設計,以鋁合金試驗箱模擬岩體,透過地工離心機提供10倍地球重力場的加速度力場,振動事件輸入15週期之等振幅類正弦波,量測不同位置的加速度反應與孔隙水壓力及總壓力計,藉以瞭解廢棄物罐與緩衝材料於處置孔內受振時的振動行為。
考量緩衝材料於不同時期下的狀況進行共計6組振動試驗,緩衝材料於17%含水量下,於廢棄物罐表面量測到較大的加速度與接觸壓力反應。但在有水入侵時,緩衝材料於17%含水量或是近飽和狀態下,廢棄物罐的加速度與接觸壓力降低。在試驗結束後進行檢視,發現緩衝材料於17%含水量下,無地下水入侵及有地下水入侵條件下,有裂隙存在於緩衝材料。
摘要(英)
For high-level waste (HLW) disposal, the HLW is isolated from natural environment by multi-barrier systems including engineering and natural barriers in the deep ground. The disposal holes would be drilled in host rock and set up with canister and buffer. Then the canister is not easily affected by natural operation, humanity activities and tectonic movement with high stability. However, Taiwan is located at Circum - Pacific seismic zone which earthquake occurs frequently. As a result, the effect of earthquake-induced vibration on the canister, buffer and disposal hole is needed to be investigated.
This research assumes that the deposition is set up in granite layer at certain depth. The disposal hole is regard as an entire intact space without deformation and cracks. Referring to KBS-3V concept and geometry, the test model is built with 1/10 scale of prototype. Through the centrifuge modeling, 10 g artificial acceleration field is created to simulate in situ stress of canister from buffer material. Seismic events is input by shaking table with 15-cycle sinusoidal waves. During shaking, acceleration, pore water pressure and total pressure histories are measured in order to realize the seismic behavior of canister and buffers in the disposal hole.
Considering different states of buffer material and conditions, in total, 6 dynamic models are conducted. In buffer at 17% water content condition, large acceleration and contact pressure is measured at the surface of canister. When water invades to buffer at 17% water content and close to saturated conditions, the acceleration and the contact pressure on the canister are both reduced. After the test, cracks were found on the surrounding buffer materials for the model buffer at 17% water content condition without water invasion and water invasion cases.
關鍵字(中) ★ 廢棄物罐
★ 振動測試
★ 離心模擬試驗
關鍵字(英) ★ Canister
★ Seismic test
★ Centrifuge modling test
論文目次
第 1 章. 緒論 1
1.1. 研究動機 1
1.2. 研究目的與內容 1
1.3. 論文架構 2
第 2 章. 文獻回顧 3
2.1. 各國深層地質處置概念 3
2.2. 台灣最終處置概況 3
2.3. KBS-3最終處置場概念 11
2.4. 深層地質處置-多重障壁系統 13
2.4.1. 廢棄物本體(用過核子燃料): 13
2.4.2. 廢棄物罐 15
2.4.3. 緩衝材料 16
2.4.4. 回填材料 18
2.5. 深層地質處置場情境評估 18
2.6. 膨潤土基本性質與回脹機制 20
2.6.1. 基本性質 20
2.6.2. 回脹機制 20
2.6.3. 影響回脹因素 21
2.7. THMC 22
2.8. 靜態離心模型試驗 24
2.9. 縮尺試驗與數值模擬處置孔受震反應 27
2.9.1. 縮尺物理模型受震反應 27
2.9.2. 數值模型受震反應 29
2.10. 離心機模型試驗原理 34
2.10.1. 離心模型之基本相似律 34
2.10.2. 動態離心模型之相似律 35
2.10.3. 科氏加速度影響 37
2.10.4. 模型模擬 37
第 3 章. 直接剪力試驗 40
3.1.1. 試驗材料、儀器與試驗條件 40
3.1.2. 鋁合金試驗結果 43
3.1.3. 花崗岩試驗結果 44
3.1.4. 結論 45
第 4 章. 試驗設備、材料及試驗程序 46
4.1. 試驗設備 46
4.1.1. 中央大學地工離心機 46
4.1.2. 單軸向振動臺與資料擷取系統 47
4.1.3. 圓桶試驗箱 52
4.1.4. 各式感測器 53
4.1.5. 縮尺1/10廢棄物罐 55
4.1.6. 載重塊 55
4.2. 試驗材料 57
4.2.1. 膨潤土SPV200 57
4.2.2. 壓實緩衝材料塊 57
4.3. 試驗程序 58
4.3.1. 準備緩衝材料塊 58
4.3.2. 離心模型試體準備 59
4.3.3. 離心模型試驗程序 60
第 5 章. 試驗結果與討論 61
5.1. 試驗方式 61
5.2. 試驗配置 61
5.3. 試驗結果 65
5.3.1. D-N 試驗(處置完成初期:緩衝材料含水量17%,無地下水入侵狀況) 65
5.3.2. D-N-MX-80 試驗(處置完成初期:緩衝材料含水量17%,無地下水入侵狀況,緩衝材料MX-80) 71
5.3.3. D-W24 試驗(處置完成初期:緩衝材料含水量17%,常溫地下水入侵狀況) 74
5.3.4. D-W42 試驗(處置完成初期:緩衝材料含水量17%,高溫地下水入侵狀況) 80
5.3.5. W-W23 試驗(長期處置:緩衝材料含水量27%,常溫地下水入侵狀況) 86
5.3.6. W-W43 試驗(長期處置:緩衝材料含水量27%,高溫地下水入侵狀況) 91
5.4. 綜合討論 96
5.4.1. 自然頻率 96
5.4.2. 加速度 98
5.4.3. 加速度放大倍率 98
5.4.4. 加速度歷時 100
5.4.5. 接觸壓力 100
5.4.6. 總壓力與加速度 101
5.4.7. 孔隙水壓力 102
5.4.8. 緩衝材料塊裂隙 103
第 6 章. 結論與未來建議 105
6.1. 結論 105
6.2. 未來建議 106
第 7 章. 參考文獻 108
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指導教授 洪汶宜(Wen-Yi Hung) 審核日期 2017-8-21
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