R. P. Feynman, “There′s plenty of room at the bottom.” Engineering and science, 23.5 (1960) 22-36.
 R. Kubo, “Electronic Properties of Metallic Fine Particles. I.” Journal of the Physical Society of Japan, 17 (1962) 975-986.
 S. Ciraci, and I. P. Batra, “Theory of the quantum size effect in simple metals.” Physical Review B, 33.6 (1986) 4294.
 R. Koole, E. Groeneveld, D. Vanmaekelbergh, A. Meijerink, and C. de M. Donega, “Size Effects on Semiconductor Nanoparticles.” In Nanoparticles: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, (2014) 13-51.
 S. L. Cheng, S. W. Lu, C. H. Li, Y. C. Chang, C. K. Huang, and H. Chen, “Fabrication of periodic nickel silicide nanodot arrays using nanosphere lithography.” Thin solid films, 494.1 (2006) 307-310.
 X. Huang, D. Ratchford, P. E. Pehrsson, and J. Yeom, “Fabrication of metallic nanodisc hexagonal arrays using nanosphere lithography and two-step lift-off.” Nanotechnology, 27.39 (2016) 395302.
 B. J. Y. Tan, C. H. Sow, T. S. Koh, K. C. Chin, A. T. S. Wee, and C. K. Ong, “Fabrication of size-tunable gold nanoparticles array with nanosphere lithography, reactive ion etching, and thermal annealing.” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, 109.22 (2005) 11100-11109.
 H. Li, J. Low, K. S. Brown, and N. Wu, “Large-area well-ordered nanodot array pattern fabricated with self-assembled nanosphere template.” IEEE Sensors Journal, 8.6 (2008) 880-884.
 W. W. Wu, J. H. He, S. L. Cheng, S. W. Lee, and L. J. Chen, “Self-assembled NiSi quantum-dot arrays on epitaxial Si0.7Ge0.3 on (001) Si.” Applied physics letters, 83.9 (2003) 1836-1838.
 X. Liu, B. Choi, N. Gozubenli, and P. Jiang, “Periodic arrays of metal nanorings and nanocrescents fabricated by a scalable colloidal templating approach.” Journal of colloid and interface science, 409 (2013) 52-58.
 Ghosh, Tanmay, B. Satpati, and D. Senapati, “Characterization of bimetallic core–shell nanorings synthesized via ascorbic acid-controlled galvanic displacement followed by epitaxial growth.” Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2.13 (2014) 2439-2447.
 J. H. He, W. W. Wu, Y. L. Chueh, C. L. Hsin, L. J. Chen, and L. J. Chou, “Formation and evolution of self-assembled crystalline Si nanorings on (001) Si mediated by Au nanodots.” Applied Physics Letters, 87.22 (2005) 223102.
 Z. A. Lewicka, A. Bahloul, W. W. Yu, and V. L. Colvin, “A facile fabrication process for polystyrene nanoring arrays.” Nanoscale 5.22 (2013) 11071-11078.
 J. Wallentin, N. Anttu, D. Asoli, M. Huffman, I. Aberg, M. H. Magnusson, G. Siefer, P. Fuss-Kailuweit, F. Dimroth, B. Witzigmann, H. Q. Xu, L. Samuelson, K. Deppert, and M. T. Borgstrom1, “InP nanowire array solar cells achieving 13.8% efficiency by exceeding the ray optics limit.” Science 339.6123 (2013) 1057-1060.
 C. T. Black, “Self-aligned self assembly of multi-nanowire silicon field effect transistors.” Applied Physics Letters, 87.16 (2005) 163116.
 W. C. Tian, Y. H. Ho, C. H. Chen, and C. Y. Kuo, “Sensing performance of precisely ordered TiO2 nanowire gas sensors fabricated by electron-beam lithography.” Sensors 13.1 (2013) 865-874.
 F. C. K. Au, K. W. Wong, Y. H. Tang, Y. F. Zhang, I. Bello, and S. T. Lee, “Electron field emission from silicon nanowires.” Applied Physics Letters, 75.12 (1999) 1700-1702.
 N. Verplanck, E. Galopin, J. C. Camart, and V. Thomy, “Reversible electrowetting on superhydrophobic silicon nanowires.” Nano letters, 7.3 (2007) 813-817.
 S. Jeong, E. C. Garnett, S. Wang, Z. Yu, S. Fan, M. L. Brongersma, M. D. McGehee, and Y. Cui, “Hybrid silicon nanocone–polymer solar cells.” Nano letters, 12.6 (2012) 2971-2976.
 F. Teng, N. Li, D. Xu, D. Xiao, X. Yang, and N. Lu, “Precise regulation of tilt angle of Si nanostructures via metal-assisted chemical etching.” Nanoscale, 9.1 (2017) 449-453.
 S. E. Han, and G. Chen, “Optical absorption enhancement in silicon nanohole arrays for solar photovoltaics.” Nano letters 10.3 (2010) 1012-1015.
 M. Ge, X. Fang, J. Rong, and C. Zhou, “Review of porous silicon preparation and its application for lithium-ion battery anodes.” Nanotechnology, 24.42 (2013) 422001.
 V. Vicky, N. A. Chaniotakis, “DNA Stabilization and Hybridization Detection on Porous Silicon Surface by EIS and Total Reflection FT?IR Spectroscopy.” Electroanalysis, 20.17 (2008) 1845-1850.
 I. Sumio, “Helical microtubules of graphitic carbon.” Nature, 354.6348 (1991) 56.
 F. D. Nayeri, M. Kolahdouz, E. Asl-Soleimani, and S. Mohajerzadeh, “Low temperature carving of ZnO nanorods into nanotubes for dye-sensitized solar cell application.” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 633 (2015) 359-365.
 N. Du, H. Zhang, B. Chen, X. Ma, Z. Liu, J. Wu, and D. Yang, “Porous Indium Oxide Nanotubes: Layer?by?Layer Assembly on Carbon?Nanotube Templates and Application for Room?Temperature NH3 Gas Sensors.” Advanced Materials, 19.12 (2007) 1641-1645.
 Z. Li, H. Wanga, P. Liu, B. Zhao, and Y. Zhang, “Synthesis and field-emission of aligned SnO2 nanotubes arrays.” Applied Surface Science, 255.8 (2009) 4470-4473.
 Q. Wang, K. Yu, and F. Xu, “Synthesis and field emission of two kinds of hierarchical SnO2 nanostructures.” Solid state communications, 143.4 (2007) 260-263.
 Y. H. Yang, K. M. Ahn, S. M. Kang, S. H. Moon, and B. T. Ahn1, “Fabrication of a high-performance poly-Si thin-film transistor using a poly-Si film prepared by silicide-enhanced rapid thermal annealing process.” Electronic Materials Letters, 10.6 (2014) 1081-1085.
 G. Liu, J. Zhang, C. K. Tan, and N. Tansu, “Efficiency-droop suppression by using large-bandgap AlGaInN thin barrier layers in InGaN quantum-well light-emitting diodes.” IEEE Photonics Journal, 5.2 (2013) 2201011-2201011.
 H. F. Hsu, C. A. Chen, S. W. Liu, and C. K. Tang, “Fabrication and Gas-Sensing Properties of Ni-Silicide/Si Nanowires.” Nanoscale research letters, 12.1 (2017) 182.
 L. Tsakalakos, J. Balch, J. Fronheiser, B. A. Korevaar, O. Sulima and J. Rand, “Silicon nanowire solar cells.” Applied Physics Letters, 91.23 (2007) 233117.
 S. Misra, L. Yu, M. Foldyna, P. R. Cabarrocas, “High efficiency and stable hydrogenated amorphous silicon radial junction solar cells built on VLS-grown silicon nanowires.” Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells, 118 (2013) 90-95.
 A. D. Mohite, D. E. Perea, S. Singh, S. A. Dayeh, I. H. Campbell, S. T. Picraux, and H. Htoon, “Highly efficient charge separation and collection across in situ doped axial VLS-grown Si nanowire p–n junctions.” Nano letters, 12.4 (2012) 1965-1971.
 L. Yu, P. R. Cabarrocas, “Morphology control and growth dynamics of in-plane solid–liquid–solid silicon nanowires.” Physica E: Low-dimensional Systems and Nanostructures, 44.6 (2012) 1045-1049.
 Y. Li, P. Liang, X. Yang, H. Cai,Q. You, J. Sun, N. Xu, J. Wu, “Fabrication and short-wavelength light emission of Si nanowires grown via quasi solid–liquid–solid mechanism.” Materials Letters, 134 (2014) 5-8.
 T. Shimizu, T. Xie, J. Nishikawa, S. Shingubara, S. Senz, U. Gosele, “Synthesis of Vertical High?Density Epitaxial Si (100) Nanowire Arrays on a Si (100) Substrate Using an Anodic Aluminum Oxide Template.” Advanced Materials, 19.7 (2007) 917-920.
 S. Merzsch, F. Steib, H. S. Wasisto, A. Stranz, P. Hinze, T. Weimann, E. Peiner, and A. Waag, “Production of vertical nanowire resonators by cryogenic-ICP–DRIE.” Microsystem technologies, 20.4-5 (2014) 759-767.
 Z. Huang, H. Fang, and J. Zhu, “Fabrication of silicon nanowire arrays with controlled diameter, length, and density.” Advanced materials, 19.5 (2007) 744-748.
 Z. Huang, X. Zhang, M. Reiche, L. Liu, W. Lee, T. Shimizu, S. Senz, and U. Gosele, “Extended arrays of vertically aligned sub-10 nm diameter  Si nanowires by metal-assisted chemical etching.” Nano letters, 8.9 (2008) 3046-3051.
 W. Chern, K. Hsu, I. S. Chun, B. P. de Azeredo, N. Ahmed, K. H. Kim, J. Zuo, N. Fang, P. Ferreira, and X. Li, “Nonlithographic patterning and metal-assisted chemical etching for manufacturing of tunable light-emitting silicon nanowire arrays.” Nano letters, 10.5 (2010) 1582-1588.
 Z. Huang, N. Geyer, P. Werner, J. de Boor, and U. Gosele, “Metal?assisted chemical etching of silicon: a review.” Advanced materials, 23.2 (2011) 285-308.
 K. Q. Peng, Y. J. Yan, S. P.Gao, and J. Zhu, “Synthesis of large-area silicon nanowire arrays via self-assembling nanoelectrochemistry.” Advanced Materials, 14.16 (2002) 1164.
 Y. Awad, E. Lavallee, K. M. Lau, J. Beauvais, D. Drouin, M. Cloutier, D. Turcotte, P. Yang, and P. Kelkar, “Arrays of holes fabricated by electron-beam lithography combined with image reversal process using nickel pulse reversal plating.” Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A: Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 22.3 (2004) 1040-1043.
 Z. P. Li, Z. M. Xu, X. P. Qu, S. B. Wang, J. Peng, and L. H. Mei, “Fabrication of nanopore and nanoparticle arrays with high aspect ratio AAO masks.” Nanotechnology, 28.9 (2017) 095301.
 D. Di, X. Wu, P. Dong, C. Wang, J. Chen, H. Wang, J. Wang, and S. Li, “Simple, fast, and cost-effective fabrication of wafer-scale nanohole arrays on silicon for antireflection.” Journal of Nanomaterials, 2014 (2014) 8.
 F. Wang, H. Y. Yu, X. Wang, J. Li, X. Sun, M. Yang, S. M. Wong, and H. Zheng, “Maskless fabrication of large scale Si nanohole array via laser annealed metal nanoparticles catalytic etching for photovoltaic application.” Journal of Applied Physics, 108.2 (2010) 024301.
 K. Q. Peng, X. Wang, L. Li, X. L. Wu, and S. T. Lee, “High-performance silicon nanohole solar cells.” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 132.20 (2010) 6872-6873.
 D. Brodoceanu, R. Elnathan, B. P. Simo?n, B. Delalat, T. Guinan, E. Kroner, N. H. Voelcker, and T. Kraus, “Dense arrays of uniform submicron pores in silicon and their applications.” ACS applied materials & interfaces, 7.2 (2015) 1160-1169.
 J. Jia, H. Zhanga, Y. Qiua, L. Wang, Y. Wang, L. Hua, “Fabrication and photoelectrochemical properties of ordered Si nanohole arrays.” Applied Surface Science, 292 (2014) 86-92.
 Z. Zhang, L. Liu, T. Shimizu, S. Senz, and U. Gosele, “Synthesis of silicon nanotubes with cobalt silicide ends using anodized aluminum oxide template.” Nanotechnology 21.5 (2009) 055603.
 J. Mallet, F. Martineau, K. Namur, and M. Molinari, “Electrodeposition of silicon nanotubes at room temperature using ionic liquid.” Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, 15.39 (2013) 16446-16449.
 A. Convertino, M. Cuscuna, and F. Martelli, “Silicon nanotubes from sacrificial silicon nanowires: fabrication and manipulation via embedding in flexible polymers.” Nanotechnology 23.30 (2012) 305602.
 J. Hu, Y. Bando, Z. Liu, J. Zhan, D. Golberg, and T. Sekiguchi, “Synthesis of crystalline silicon tubular nanostructures with ZnS nanowires as removable templates.” Angewandte Chemie International Edition, 43.1 (2004) 63-66.
 N. J. Quitoriano, M. Belov, S. Evoy, and T. I. Kamins, “Single-crystal, Si nanotubes, and their mechanical resonant properties.” Nano letters, 9.4 (2009) 1511-1516.
 R. Epur, P. J. Hanumantha, M. K. Datta, D. Hong, B. Gattuc, and P. N. Kumta, “A simple and scalable approach to hollow silicon nanotube (h-SiNT) anode architectures of superior electrochemical stability and reversible capacity.” Journal of Materials Chemistry A, 3.20 (2015) 11117-11129.
 Z. Li, Y. Chen, X. Zhu, M. Zheng, F. Dong, P. Chen, L. Xu, W. Chu, and H. Duan, “Fabrication of single-crystal silicon nanotubes with sub-10 nm walls using cryogenic inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching.” Nanotechnology, 27.36 (2016) 365302.
 Y. He, X. Che, and L. Que, “A Top-Down Fabrication Process for Vertical Hollow Silicon Nanopillars.” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 25.4 (2016) 662-667.
 S. Soleimani-Amiri, A. Gholizadeh, S. Rajabali, Z. Sanaee, and S. Mohajerzadeh, “Formation of Si nanorods and hollow nano-structures using high precision plasma-treated nanosphere lithography.” RSC Advances, 4.25 (2014) 12701-12709.
 H. Jeong, J. Lee, C. Bok, S. H. Lee, and S. Yoo, ”Fabrication of Vertical Silicon Nanotube Array Using Spacer Patterning Technique and Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching.” IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology, 16.1 (2017) 130-134.
 Y. Y. Kim, H. J. Kim, J. H. Jeong, J. Lee, J. H. Choi, J. Y. Jung, J. H. Lee, H. Cheng, K. W. Lee, and D. G. Choi, “Facile Fabrication of Silicon Nanotube Arrays and Their Application in Lithium?Ion Batteries.” Advanced Engineering Materials, 18.8 (2016) 1349-1353.
 P. Chen, Y. Fan, and Z. Zhong, “The Fabrication and Application of Patterned Si (001) Substrates with Ordered Pits Via Nanosphere Lithography,” Nanotechnology 20 (2009) 095303.
 G. M. Whitesides, and B. Grzybowski, “Self-Assembly at All Scales,” Science 295 (2002) 2418-2421.
 S. M. Yang, N. Coombs, and G. A. Ozin, “Micromolding in Inverted Polymer Opals (MIPO): Synthesis of Hexagonal Mesoporous Silica Opals,” Adv. Mater. 12 (2000) 1940-1944.
 H. J. Nam, D. Y. Jung, G. Y, and H. Choi, “Close-Packed Hemispherical Microlens Array from Two-Dimensional Ordered Polymeric Microspheres,” Langmuir 22 (2006) 7358-7363.
 F. Fleischhaker, A. C. Arsenault, Z. Wang, V. Kitaev, F. C. Peiris, G. V. Freymann, I. Manners, R. Zentel, and G. A. Ozin, “Redox-Tunable Defects in Colloidal Photonic Crystals,” Adv. Mater. 17 (2005) 2455-2458.
 J. Dutta and H. Hofmann, “Self-Organization of Colloidal Nanoparticles,” Encyclopedia of Nanosci. and Nanotech. (2003) 1-23.
 K. Nagayama, “Two-Dimensional Self-Assembly of Colloids in Thin Liquid Films,” Colloids Surf. A 109 (1996) 363-374.
 P. A. Kralchevsky and K. Nagayama, “Capillary Forces between Colloidal Particles,” Langmuir 10 (1994) 23-36.
 P. A. Kralchevsky, V. N. Paunov, I. B. Ivanov, and K. Nagayama, “Capillary Meniscus Interactions Between Colloidal Particles Attached to a Liquid-Fluid Interface,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 151 (1992) 79-94.
 P. A. Kralchevsky, V. N. Paunov, N. D. Denkov, I. B. Ivanov, and K. Nagayama, “Energetical and Force Approaches to the Capillary Interactions between Particles Attached to a Liquid-Fluid Interface,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 155 (1993) 420-437.
 N. D. Denkov, O. D. Velev, P. A. Kralchevsky, I. B. Ivanov, H. Yoshimura, and K. Nagayama, “Mechanism of Formation of Two-Dimensional Crystals from Latex Particles on Substrates,” Langmuir 8 (1992) 3183-3190.
 F. Jarai-Szabo, S. Astilean, and Z. Neda, “Understanding Self-Assembled Nanosphere Patterns,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 408 (2005) 241-246.
 Y. Li, W. Cai, G. Duan, F. Sun, B. Cao, and F. Lu, “2D Nanoparticle Arrays by Partial Dissolution of Ordered Pore Films,” Mater. Lett. 59 (2005) 276-279.
 H. Li, J. Low, K. S. Brown, and N. Wu, “Large-Area Well-Ordered Nanodot Array Pattern Fabricated With Self-Assembled Nanosphere Template,” IEEE Sensors Journal 8 (2008) 880-884.
 V. Ng, Y. V. Lee, B. T. Chen, and A. O. Adeyeye, “Nanostructure Array Fabrication with Temperature-Controlled Self-Assembly Techniques,” Nanotechnology 13 (2002) 554-558.
 P. Jiang and M. J. McFarland, “Large-scale Fabrication of Wafer-Size Colloidal Crystals, Macroporous Polymers and Nanocomposites by Spin-coating,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 126 (2004) 13778-13786.
 M. Marquez and B. P. Grady, “The Use of Surface Tension to Predict the Formation of 2D Arrays of Latex Spheres Formed via the Langmuir-Blodgett-Like Technique,” Langmuir 20 (2004) 10677-10683.
 S. L. Cheng, Y. H. Lin, S. W. Lee, T. Lee, H. Chen, J. C. Hu, and L. T. Chen, “Fabrication of Size-tunable, Periodic Si Nanohole Arrays by Plasma Modified Nanosphere Lithography and Anisotropic Wet Etching,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 263 (2012) 430-435.
 J. Ji, H. Zhang, Y. Qiu, L. Wang, Y. Wang, and L. Hu, “Fabrication and Photoelectrochemical Properties of Ordered Si Nanohole Arrays,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 292 (2014) 86-92.
 H. C. Wu, X. B. Xu, M. Y. He, M. Q. Zhang, K. J. Ma, and M. D. Bao, “Fabrication of Size-tunable Antireflective Nanopillar Array using Hybrid Nano-patterning Lithography,” Surf. Coat. Tech. 240 (2014) 413-418.
 J. C. Hulteen and R. P. V. Duyne, “Nanosphere Lithography: Amaterials General Fabrication Process for Periodic Particle Array Surface,” J. Vac. Sci. Tech. A13 (1995) 1553-1558.
 E. Vazsonyi, E. Szilagyib, P. Petrika, Z. E. Horvatha, T. Lohner, M. Frieda, G. Jalsovszky, “Porous silicon formation by stain etching.” Thin Solid Films, 388.1 (2001) 295-302.
 X. Li and P. W. Bohn, “Metal-assisted chemical etching in HF/H2O2 produces porous silicon.” Applied Physics Letters, 77.16 (2000) 2572-2574.
 J. Wang, G. Duan, Y. Li, G. Liu, and W. Cai, “Wet etching-assisted colloidal lithography: a general strategy toward nanodisk and nanohole arrays on arbitrary substrates.” ACS applied materials & interfaces, 6.12 (2014) 9207-9213.
 Y. H. Chang, W. H. Hsu, S. L. Wu, and Y. C. Ding, ‘The synthesis of a gold nanodisk–molecular layer–gold film vertical structure: a molecular layer as the spacer for SERS hot spot investigations.” Materials Chemistry Frontiers, 1.5 (2017) 922-927.
 J. M. McLellan, M. Geissler, and Y. Xia, “Edge spreading lithography and its application to the fabrication of mesoscopic gold and silver rings.” Journal of the American Chemical Society, 126.35 (2004) 10830-10831.
 M. Geissler, H. Wolf, R. Stutz, E. Delamarche, U. W. Grummt, B. Michel, and A. Bietsch, “Fabrication of metal nanowires using microcontact printing.” Langmuir, 19.15 (2003) 6301-6311.
 J. Li, J. D. Miller, “Reaction kinetics of gold dissolution in acid thiourea solution using ferric sulfate as oxidant.” Hydrometallurgy, 89.3 (2007) 279-288.
 T. Groenewald, “The dissolution of gold in acidic solutions of thiourea.” Hydrometallurgy, 1.3 (1976) 277-290.
 C. K. Chen, T. N. Lung, and C. C. Wan, “A study of the leaching of gold and silver by acidothioureation.” Hydrometallurgy, 5.2-3 (1980) 207-212.