博碩士論文 104327021 詳細資訊




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姓名 陳智怡(Jr-Yi Chen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 光機電工程研究所
論文名稱 應用投射疊紋技術於齒輪精度量測
(Gear Measurement by Projection Moire Technology)
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摘要(中) 近年來齒輪檢測發展趨勢走向非接觸式量測,有別於傳統齒輪檢測所使用的接觸式探針量測,非接觸式量測具有高效率、不受限於探針尺寸或齒輪材質等優勢,因此本研究建立一套非接觸式之光學量測方法應用於齒輪檢測,利用鹵素光源經自準直儀投射平行光束,穿透兩道線性光柵產生疊紋條紋後投射於待測齒面上,並透過影像擷取系統分析疊紋條紋影像以及計算齒輪各項誤差。
本研究中首先將校正片置於待測位置,接著利用CCD感測器拍攝校正片進行影像畸變校正以確保光學量測結果不因鏡頭失真之影響而降低量測精度。完成影像畸變校正後,將待測位置上的校正片更換為齒輪,擷取投射於待測齒面上之疊紋條紋影像,疊紋因齒面之曲率變化產生變形,並藉由相移技術計算齒面上各量測點之相位變化,最後經由相位還原技術可得齒輪之三維輪廓。為驗證本研究之系統量測精度,分別利用三次元量測儀所量測之數據及理想齒形數據作為基準值建立一標準曲面,並且將本研究所計算齒面上各量測點之數據與標準曲面進行誤差比對,計算量測點至曲面之正交距離,即可得到齒面拓樸、齒形及導程誤差。由量測齒輪之拓樸誤差結果顯示,可得知本研究之系統量測精度為2.81 μm。
本研究利用疊紋之高靈敏度的特性建立此齒輪檢測系統,藉由CCD感測器擷取疊紋條紋影像,並配合鏡頭畸變校正參數及影像處理,將光學量測點之數據與理想曲面進行比對後繪製誤差結果,其法不僅為高效率非接觸式之齒輪檢測系統,也可藉由調整疊紋條紋之密度及鏡頭以顯微鏡擷取疊紋影像來提高解析度達到高精度目的,若結合工業用之機台便可達到快速檢測齒輪之目的。
摘要(英)
In recent years, non-contact measurement becomes a mainstream technique for gear detection. Different from the traditional contact probe measurement method, non-contact measurement contains some advantages such as high efficiency and without the restriction from probe size or gear material. Therefore, in this study, a non-contact optical measurement method was adopted to gear detection. For the system architecture, a halogen lamp was chosen as the light source and a collimated beam was produced by autocollimator. Further, moiré fringe was built up as the collimated beam going through the two linear grating. Finally, the moiré fringe projected on the tooth surface and the errors of gear would be calculated by the image capture system.
The process of the measurement system includes: (1) Placing the calibration piece at the testing position first. (2) Executing the distortion correction by CCD sensor in case of the image distortion caused by the optical elements. (3) Replacing the calibration piece with the gear after the correction step being completed. (4) Capturing the deformation of the moiré fringe projected on the tooth surface. (5) Calculating the phase change of the measured points by the phase shift technology and finally gather the available gear three-dimensional contour by the phase unwrapped technology. In addition, in order to verify the accuracy of the system, a real tooth profile measured by the coordinate measuring machine (CMM) would define as the reference profile. The tooth topography, tooth profile and lead errors could be obtained by comparing the deviation between measured and referenced data, and calculating the perpendicular distance from measurement point to the surface. The results of the spur gear show that the accuracy of the system developed by this research are 2.81μm.
In this study, the high sensitivity of the moiré fringe was applied for the gear detection. The image was captured by the CCD sensor, and the data of the optical measurement points were compared with the ideal surface with the parameters of lens distortion correction and image processing. The method is not only implemented a high efficiency non-contact gear detection system, but also achieved the goals of high precision and resolution by adjusting the density of the moiré fringe and capturing the superimposed image by microscope. The ultimate goal of rapid detection of gears may be realized by combining the non-contact measuring system with industrial machine in the future.
關鍵字(中) ★ 疊紋條紋
★ 齒輪檢測
★ 相位移技術
★ 相位還原技術
★ 影像處理
★ 拓樸誤差
關鍵字(英) ★ Moiré fringe
★ Gear measurement
★ Phase shift technology
★ Phase unwrapped technology
★ Image processing
★ Error of topography
論文目次
摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
圖目錄 vii
表目錄 xii
符號定義 xiv
第一章、緒論 1
1.1研究背景 1
1.2文獻回顧 2
1.2.1 光學式齒輪檢測方法之文獻回顧 3
1.2.2 疊紋效應之文獻回顧 8
1.3研究動機與目的 13
1.4論文架構 14
第二章、基礎理論 15
2.1 影像擷取系統 15
2.1.1 CCD與CMOS之比較 15
2.1.2 CCD主要結構與原理 17
2.1.3 CCD與鏡頭各部參數定義 18
2.2 疊紋效應 23
2.2.1 疊紋基本原理 23
2.2.2 疊紋旋轉原理 28
2.2.3 疊紋位移原理 29
2.2.4 疊紋縮放原理 30
2.3 相位移分析理論 31
2.3.1 相位移法 31
2.3.2 相位還原技術 33
2.3.3 相位與高度轉換 34
2.4 影像處理(Image Processing) 35
2.4.1 影像二值化(Binary) 35
2.4.2 邊緣檢測(Edge Detection) 37
2.4.3 離散傅立葉轉換(Discrete Fourier Transform, DFT) 41
2.4.4 雜訊濾波(Noise Filter) 42
2.4.5 影像畸變校正(Distortion Correction) 44
2.5 齒輪拓樸誤差 48
第三章、研究內容與方法 49
3.1齒輪量測系統架構 49
3.1.1 實驗設備 49
3.1.2影像畸變校正 (Distortion Correction) 53
3.1.3影像處理流程 (Image Processing) 56
3.1.4相位分析流程 57
3.2系統量測流程 58
3.3計算齒輪誤差方法 60
3.3.1 齒輪誤差檢測 60
3.3.2 量測系統精度驗證 62
第四章、疊紋量測實驗結果分析 67
4.1 塊規量測實驗結果 67
4.2 齒條之誤差檢測結果 69
4.2.1 與三次元量測儀量測結果比對 69
4.2.2 與數學模式推導之理想齒形比對 74
4.3 正齒輪之齒輪誤差檢測結果 79
4.3.1 與三次元量測儀量測結果比對 79
4.3.2 與數學模式推導之理想齒形比對 84
4.4 正齒輪量測結果與討論 89
4.4.1 正齒輪之拓樸誤差量測校正結果探討 89
4.4.2 三次元量測儀量測正齒輪之結果與理想齒形之比對 100
第五章、結論與未來展望 106
5.1 結論 106
5.2 未來展望 108
參考文獻 109
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指導教授 陳怡呈(Yi-Cheng Chen) 審核日期 2017-8-24
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