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姓名 露西亞(Thandeka Lucia Dlamini)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 國際永續發展碩士在職專班
論文名稱 史瓦濟南墨巴本市都市固體廢棄物源分離方法之開發
(The Development of a Source Separation Approach for Municipal Solid Waste in Mbabane city, Swaziland)
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摘要(中) 隨著經濟的發展、人口的成長,以及都市化的結果,非洲地區的一般固體廢棄物產量近年來已顯著增加。有鑒於源頭分類的實施可減少廢棄物最終進入掩埋場的數量,且可延長掩埋場的使用年限,本研究即針對史瓦濟南 (Swaziland) 首都墨巴本市 (Mbabane) 發展一套廢棄物源頭分類之方法,以期最終可增加該城市、甚至該國的資源回收率。然而,本研究由於受限於史瓦濟南在固體廢棄物管理上的資訊極為缺乏,因此相關的資料多只能從文獻間接推敲所得,包括用來估算廢棄物產量與組成的公式及數據;除此之外,也藉由問卷的設計以及墨巴本市市府員工的受訪,取得該城市近期固體廢棄物的管理資料。而在所建議的廢棄物來源分離的方法上,本研究則藉由對南非、台灣和德國等回收系統的分析與比較,提出最終可能適合該城市運作實行的方法。研究結果顯示,若根據What A Waste & Global Waste Management Outlook兩篇文獻所提供的數據經調整後,史瓦濟南每人每天的廢棄物產量可合理假設為0.5 kg/ca/day,且可得知垃圾的組成含有約54%的有機物類、41%的可回收物類、以及5%的其他類別;當進一步以13.5%作為未來十年全國人口的增加率時,可知國內主要的垃圾來源地都市地區的人口數屆時將達311,268人,且每天所產生的垃圾總量將達155.63公噸。而根據墨巴本市2015年時的68,288居民人數,以及所產生主要來自住宅區與商業區約29,919公噸之垃圾總量,可計算出該市每天的人均垃圾量約1.2公斤;當以同樣的方式推估該市未來的居民人數時,可知在2025年時將達79,000人,屆時將產生35,353公噸的垃圾;而在2018年時將有約5,501噸的垃圾可予以回收,相當於節省87,000立方米的掩埋場容積。最後,由分析的結果發現適合墨巴本市的固體廢棄物管理系統主要還是傳統的源頭分類方式,且施行時需仰賴大眾的參與以及政策的立法與推廣,包括強制性的分類、垃圾產出的收費、可回收物的禁止掩埋、以及掩埋課稅等,而這樣的源頭分類法預估將可替墨巴本市節省約13%的掩埋容積。綜合以上的結果,本研究建議未來實質運行的細項可利用成本效益做最後的評估與界定。
摘要(英) As a result of economic development, exponential population growth and urbanization, the quantity of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Africa has increased remarkably. Source separation (SS) of waste can be practiced to reduce the amount of waste that ends up in landfills thus increasing landfill’s life span. The purpose of this study is to develop a source separation approach for the MSW in Mbabane city, Swaziland so as to increase recycling rates.
Due to the country’s lack of comprehensive data on solid waste management (SWM), data for this study were collected through desk study. Equations sourced from various literature sources were used to estimate the generation and composition of the waste stream in Swaziland. Additionally, the recycling systems of South Africa, Taiwan and Germany were studied to determine the various methods of practicing source separation of waste. Furthermore, a questionnaire was administered to the municipal council of Mbabane to gather MSW management data in the city.
Swaziland had an assumed waste constant per capita generation rate of 0.5 kg/ca/day composed of 54% organics, 41% recyclables and 5% other wastes. These estimates were done according to literature adjustments made using “What A Waste” document and the “Global Waste Management Outlook “document. The projected population showed a 13.5% increase of growth rate in the next decade with an urban population of about 311,268 people generating 155.63 tons/day. Mbabane’s per capita waste generation rate was calculated to be 1.2 kg/ca/day from a population of 68,288 inhabitants generating 29,919 tons in 2015. The residential and commercial areas were reported to be the major waste contributors. Additionally, the population in the city was projected to be as high as 79,000 people or so, generating a projected 35,353 tons in 2025. Out of the total waste generated in the city for year 2018, only about 5,501 tons of it could be recovered saving up about 87, 000 m3 of landfill capacity. The projected waste for both the country and city revealed an increase in waste generation in relation to the projected population increase thus concluding the need for a SS programme in the city and country as a whole. The SWM system employed in Mbabane was found to be conventional though informal recycling is practiced at a relatively small scale.
In conclusion, the approach developed relies on public’s participation and some policy tools in order to create a sustainable-living society with support from all relevant stakeholders uniting to create a sustainable environment. It utilizes a three-category rule for separation as a start with policy tools like; mandatory MSW sorting, waste charging policy, producer responsibility schemes, landfill disposal tax and disposal ban. Having studied the city’s current SWM situation and seen the expected 18 % increase in waste generation in the next decade, the study concluded that the proposed SS approach that could be able to save up about 13% of landfill capacity was best suited for Mbabane. A cost-benefit analysis of the study was recommended.
關鍵字(中) ★ 資源回收
★ 源頭分類
★ 一般固體廢棄物管理
★ 永續廢棄物管理
關鍵字(英) ★ Recycling
★ Source Separation
★ Sustainable waste management
★ Municipal solid waste management
論文目次
Table of Contents
摘要 i
Abstract ii
Acknowledgements iv
Table of Contents v
List of Figures vii
List of Tables viii
ACRONYMS ix
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background and Motivation 1
1.2 Problem Statement 4
1.3 Purpose of Study 4
Chapter 2 Literature Review 6
2.1 Solid Waste 6
2.2 Municipal Solid Waste Management 6
2.3 Functional Elements of a Waste Management System 7
2.4 Solid Waste Management in Mbabane City 12
2.4.1 Institutional Framework 12
2.4.2 Legal Framework 14
2.5 Integrated Solid Waste Management (ISWM) 17
2.6 Recycling 18
2.6.1 Types of materials recycled or recovered 19
2.6.2 Separation and Collection Approaches to recycling 20
2.6.3 Source Separation (SS) 20
2.6.4 Recycling in South Africa, Taiwan and Germany 33
2.7 Sustainable Development 45
2.8 Sustainable Waste Management 47
Chapter 3 Methodology 51
3.1 Research Framework 51
3.1.1 Secondary Data (Literature review) 51
3.1.2 Primary Data (Questionnaire) 51
3.2 First Phase – Estimating solid waste generation and composition in Swaziland 53
3.2.1 Urban solid waste generation in Swaziland 53
3.2.2 Solid Waste Composition in Swaziland 56
3.3 Second Phase – Examining the municipal solid waste management system in Mbabane, Swaziland 57
3.3.1 Solid Waste generation in Mbabane city 58
3.3.2 Data analysis 60
3.3.3 Limitation to usefulness of data 60
3.4 Third Phase – Developing a Source Separation approach for Mbabane city 60
Chapter 4 Results and Discussions 63
4.1 First Phase - Estimation of solid waste generation and composition 63
4.1.1 Urban Solid Waste generation 63
4.1.2 Solid Waste composition 67
4.2 Second Phase - Examining Mbabane’s solid waste management system 77
4.2.1 Functional Elements of the solid waste management system in Mbabane 77
4.3 Third Phase – Developing a Source Separation Approach for Mbabane city 101
4.3.1 Development of a source separation approach for municipal solid waste in Mbabane 102
4.3.2 Source Separation approach 104
4.3.3 Evaluation of the Approach 109
Chapter 5 Conclusions and Recommendations 115
5.1 Conclusions 115
5.2 Recommendations 116
References 117
Appendix I Questionnaire 133
Appendix II Solid Waste generation in Swaziland (2005-2015) 150
Appendix III Swaziland’s population projections (1960-2025) 151
Appendix IV Estimated Waste generation in Mbabane city (2005-2015) 153
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指導教授 林居慶、廖萬里(Chu-Ching Lin Wan-Li, Liao) 審核日期 2017-7-25
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