博碩士論文 104554009 詳細資訊




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姓名 張立欣(Li-Hsin Chang)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 網路學習科技研究所
論文名稱 探討創作媒介、個別差異、範例式教學及創作模式對九年級學生音樂創作的學習動機及成效之影響
(Effects of Composition Media, Individual Differences, Worked-out Example Teaching and Composition Mode on Learning Motivation and Learning Performance of Ninth Grade Students′ Music Composition.)
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摘要(中) 隨著資訊科技的發展,在音樂創作教學中運用資訊科技輔助已越來越受到重視。許多研究指出使用資訊科技做為創作媒介可以提升學習者音樂創作的成效,但每個學習者在進行音樂創作學習時的偏好、需求及過去經驗是不同的,故需要從個別差異的角度來研究。在個別差異方面,本研究將探討性別及先備經驗對學習者在進行音樂創作學習時對於學習動機及成效的影響。此外,在音樂創作教學的過程中,提供範例及小組合作亦是常見的方式,範例有助於學習者了解音樂創作的樣貌,而小組合作進行創作則能透過學習者彼此之間的互相交流,激盪出多元的創作想法。因此,本研究將探討創作媒介(紙筆組或電腦組)、性別(男或女)、先備經驗(有或無)、範例式教學(有或無)以及創作模式(個人或合作),對於九年級國中生在音樂創作學習動機及成效的影響,並探討上述變項之間的交互作用,以及學習動機和成效之間的相關性。
本研究採因子設計之準實驗研究法,研究對象為國中九年級學生(N=237),自變項包含創作媒介(紙筆組或電腦組)、個別差異(性別及先備經驗)、範例式教學(有或無)以及創作模式(個人或合作),依變項則為學習動機(內在動機、外在動機、任務價值、控制信念、自我效能及期望成功)與成效(美學、創造力及技巧)。創作媒介、範例式教學及創作模式以班級為單位隨機分派至不同組別,先備經驗則是依照學生有無課外音樂學習經驗進行分組。實驗教學為期兩週,時間共105分鐘。第一週先進行課外音樂學習經驗問卷及音樂創作學習動機量表前測,接著,學習者在經過創作媒介及創作任務的介紹之後開始進行音樂創作;第二週學習者持續進行音樂創作,並在創作完成後進行音樂創作學習動機量表後測。學習者所完成之創作作品即為學習者之學習成效。
本研究結果顯示在學習動機的部分,使用電腦音樂編輯軟體作為創作媒介,對於無先備經驗者於自我效能向度的提升較有先備經驗者多,在其餘動機向度的進步分數上均無顯著差異。在學習成效的部分,使用電腦音樂編輯軟體作為創作媒介時,學習者整體成效及技巧向度的表現顯著較紙筆組佳,類似的結果亦可在有接受範例式教學組別中發現,有範例組在整體成效及技巧向度的表現亦較無範例組佳;然而有無先備經驗的顯著差異卻是在美學向度達到顯著差異,有先備經驗組較無經驗組在美學的表現較佳。
本研究在交互作用的結果僅發現範例式教學與創作模式在學習動機達顯著交互作用,合作創作的組別在學習者無接受範例式教學時,可透過組員之間的討論交流共同完成創作,學習動機較高;反之,個人創作的組別在學習者有接受範例式教學時,在範例的幫助之下個人又可以發揮自己的想法,學習動機較高。
本研究在學習動機與學習成效相關性的結果中發現,當學習者是使用電腦音樂編輯軟體作為創作媒介、女性學習者、有接受範例式教學以及創作模式為個人創作時,其內在動機與美學及創造力向度皆呈現正相關。另外,女性學習者的外在動機及期望成功與整體成效及技巧向度呈現正相關。然而,在本研究中學習動機與成效除了有呈現正相關之外,亦有呈現負相關的發現,當學習者是使用電腦作為媒介、男性學習者以及創作模式為合作創作時,其控制信念皆與整體成效呈現負相關,其中使用電腦作為媒介以及男性學習者的組別之控制信念亦與技巧向度呈現負相關,合作創作的組別則是在美學向度與控制信念呈現負相關。
本研究之結果有助於深入了解使用電腦音樂編輯軟體作為創作媒介,在創作媒介、個別差異、範例式教學以及創作模式等不同情況下對於音樂創作學習動機及成效所造成的影響,這些發現可供研究學者及教學者開發符合每個學習者需求的教學及學習方式,進而達到有效學習的結果,並促進音樂創作教學與學習的發展。
摘要(英) In recent years, based on the development of information technology, the use of information technology in the teaching of music composition has become more and more important. Many studies have found that using information technology as a medium can help learners on music composition. However, the preferences, needs and prior experiences of each learner in music composition are obviously different. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the applicability of information technology to each learner, so it needs to be explored from the perspective of individual differences. In terms of individual differences, this study has explored the impact of gender and prior experiences on learners′ motivation and performance in learning music composition. In addition, in the process of teaching music composition, worked-out example teaching and collaborative composition mode are also common methods. The provision of examples or demonstrations helps learners understand the appearance of music composition, while collaborative composition can stimulate diverse creative ideas through the interaction of learners. Therefore, this study aims to explore the impact of composition medium (paper and pen or computer), individual differences (gender and prior experience), worked-out example teaching (with or without), and composition mode (individual or collaborative) on motivation and performance of music composition learning.
In this study, the quasi-experimental research method for factor design was conducted for the ninth grade students (N=237). The independent variables included composition medium (paper and pen or computer), individual differences (gender and prior experience), worked-out example teaching (with or without), and composition mode (individual or collaborative). The dependent variables were motivations (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, work value, control beliefs, self-efficacy and success expectations) and performance (aesthetics, creativity and skills). Composition media, worked-out example teaching and composition mode were randomly assigned to different groups by class basis. The prior experience is grouped according to whether students have extracurricular music learning experience. The experimental teaching lasted for two weeks and the total time was 105 minutes. In the first week, the extracurricular music learning experience questionnaire and the music composition learning motivation scale were first tested. Then, learners began to compose music after the introduction of the composition medium and the composition task. In the second week, learners continued to compose music, and after the completion of the composition, the music composition learning motivation scale was measured. The composition work completed by learners was regarded as the learner′s learning performance.
The results of this study indicated that, in the part of learning motivation, the use of computer music editing software as a medium of composition had a significant impact on the progress scores of self-efficacy for learners with or without prior experience. More specifically, compared to those who had prior experienced, those who had no prior experience have improved their self-efficacy dimension after completing the music composition through computer music editing software. Moreover, there was no significant differences in the progress scores of other motivational degrees.
For the part of learning performance, when using computer music editing software as the medium of composition, learners′ overall performance and skill aspect were better than paper and pen group. Similar results can be found in the group with worked-out example teaching. The overall performance and skill of the learners were also better than those who were not accepted worked-out example teaching. However, the significant difference between the groups with or without prior experience was that there was a significant difference in aesthetics. More specifically, those who have prior experience were significantly better than those who have no prior experience.
In terms of the results of the interaction among those independent variables, this study only found that the worked-out example teaching and the composition mode had significant interactions in the motivation of music composition learning. For the collaborative composition group, when learners did not accept the worked-out example teaching, the composition can be completed based on the discussion and exchange between the group members, and the learning motivation was high. On the other hand, when learners had accepted the worked-out example teaching, the individual can exert his or her own ideas with the help of the example, and the motivation for learning was high.
Regarding the relationship between learning motivation and learning performance, when learners used computer music editing software as composition media, female learners, worked-out example teaching, and individual composition, their intrinsic motivation were positively correlated to both aesthetics and creativity. In addition, the extrinsic motivation and success expectation of female learners were positively correlated with overall performance and skill aspect. Despite this, in addition to the positive correlation between learning motivation and performance in this study, negative correlations were found. When learners used computers as media, male learners, and composition mode for collaborative composition, their control beliefs were negatively correlated with overall performance. Among them, the use of computers as a medium and the control beliefs of male learners were also negatively correlated with skill aspect. Moreover, the group of collaborative composition was negatively related to the aesthetic aspect of control belief.
The results presented in this study will help to understand the impact of using computer music editing software as a composition medium on the motivation and performance of music composition learning in different situations such as composition media, individual differences, worked-example teaching and composition mode. These findings can provide research scholars and educators to develop teaching and learning methods that meet the needs of each learner. In this way, the results of effective learning can be achieved, and the development of teaching and learning of music composition can be promoted.
關鍵字(中) ★ 音樂創作
★ 創作媒介
★ 個別差異
★ 範例式教學
★ 創作模式
★ 學習動機
★ 學習成效
關鍵字(英) ★ music composition
★ composition media
★ individual differences
★ worked-out example teaching
★ composition mode
★ learning motivation
★ learning performance
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract iii
致謝 vii
目錄 viii
圖目錄 xi
表目錄 xii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1研究背景與動機 1
1.2研究目的 3
1.3名詞釋義 3
第二章 文獻探討 6
2.1音樂創作教學 6
2.1.1創作媒介 7
2.1.2範例式教學 9
2.1.3創作模式 10
2.2音樂創作評量 12
2.3 個別差異與音樂創作 17
2.3.1性別 17
2.3.2先備經驗 18
第三章 研究方法 20
3.1研究設計與架構 20
3.2研究場域與研究對象 22
3.2.1研究場域 22
3.2.2研究對象 25
3.3研究工具 27
3.4研究流程 35
3.5資料分析 39
第四章 結果與討論 41
4.1創作媒介對於音樂創作學習動機及音樂創作學習成效之影響 41
4.1.1創作媒介對於音樂創作學習動機之影響 41
4.1.2創作媒介對於音樂創作學習成效之影響 43
4.2個別差異對於音樂創作學習動機及音樂創作學習成效之影響 45
4.2.1性別對於音樂創作學習動機之影響 46
4.2.2性別對於音樂創作學習成效之影響 48
4.2.3先備經驗對於音樂創作學習動機之影響 49
4.2.4先備經驗對於音樂創作學習成效之影響 52
4.3範例式教學對於音樂創作學習動機及音樂創作學習成效之影響 54
4.3.1範例式教學對於音樂創作學習動機之影響 54
4.3.2範例式教學對於音樂創作學習成效之影響 56
4.4創作模式對於音樂創作學習動機及音樂創作學習成效之影響 59
4.4.1創作模式對於音樂創作學習動機之影響 59
4.4.2創作模式對於音樂創作學習成效之影響 61
4.5各自變項於音樂創作學習動機及音樂創作學習成效之交互作用 62
4.5.1各自變項於音樂創作學習動機之交互作用 62
4.5.2各自變項於音樂創作學習成效之交互作用 65
4.6音樂創作學習動機與音樂創作學習成效之相關性分析 68
4.6.1創作媒介於音樂創作學習動機與學習成效之相關性分析 68
4.6.2不同性別於音樂創作學習動機與學習成效之相關性分析 72
4.6.3有無先備經驗於音樂創作學習動機與學習成效之相關性分析 76
4.6.4有無範例式教學於音樂創作學習動機與學習成效之相關性分析 79
4.6.5不同創作模式於音樂創作學習動機與學習成效之相關性分析 82
4.6.6動機與成效相關性小結 86
4.7綜合討論 89
4.7.1音樂創作學習動機 89
4.7.2音樂創作學習成效 89
4.7.3各自變項於動機及成效之交互作用 90
第五章 結論 93
5.1研究結論 93
5.2研究貢獻 102
5.3未來工作 103
參考文獻 105
中文部分 105
英文部分 108
附錄一 課外音樂學習經驗問卷 113
附錄二 音樂創作學習動機試題分析表 114
附錄三 音樂創作學習動機量表 117
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指導教授 楊接期(Jie-Chi Yang) 審核日期 2019-6-17
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