||In recent years, based on the development of information technology, the use of information technology in the teaching of music composition has become more and more important. Many studies have found that using information technology as a medium can help learners on music composition. However, the preferences, needs and prior experiences of each learner in music composition are obviously different. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the applicability of information technology to each learner, so it needs to be explored from the perspective of individual differences. In terms of individual differences, this study has explored the impact of gender and prior experiences on learners′ motivation and performance in learning music composition. In addition, in the process of teaching music composition, worked-out example teaching and collaborative composition mode are also common methods. The provision of examples or demonstrations helps learners understand the appearance of music composition, while collaborative composition can stimulate diverse creative ideas through the interaction of learners. Therefore, this study aims to explore the impact of composition medium (paper and pen or computer), individual differences (gender and prior experience), worked-out example teaching (with or without), and composition mode (individual or collaborative) on motivation and performance of music composition learning.|
In this study, the quasi-experimental research method for factor design was conducted for the ninth grade students (N=237). The independent variables included composition medium (paper and pen or computer), individual differences (gender and prior experience), worked-out example teaching (with or without), and composition mode (individual or collaborative). The dependent variables were motivations (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, work value, control beliefs, self-efficacy and success expectations) and performance (aesthetics, creativity and skills). Composition media, worked-out example teaching and composition mode were randomly assigned to different groups by class basis. The prior experience is grouped according to whether students have extracurricular music learning experience. The experimental teaching lasted for two weeks and the total time was 105 minutes. In the first week, the extracurricular music learning experience questionnaire and the music composition learning motivation scale were first tested. Then, learners began to compose music after the introduction of the composition medium and the composition task. In the second week, learners continued to compose music, and after the completion of the composition, the music composition learning motivation scale was measured. The composition work completed by learners was regarded as the learner′s learning performance.
The results of this study indicated that, in the part of learning motivation, the use of computer music editing software as a medium of composition had a significant impact on the progress scores of self-efficacy for learners with or without prior experience. More specifically, compared to those who had prior experienced, those who had no prior experience have improved their self-efficacy dimension after completing the music composition through computer music editing software. Moreover, there was no significant differences in the progress scores of other motivational degrees.
For the part of learning performance, when using computer music editing software as the medium of composition, learners′ overall performance and skill aspect were better than paper and pen group. Similar results can be found in the group with worked-out example teaching. The overall performance and skill of the learners were also better than those who were not accepted worked-out example teaching. However, the significant difference between the groups with or without prior experience was that there was a significant difference in aesthetics. More specifically, those who have prior experience were significantly better than those who have no prior experience.
In terms of the results of the interaction among those independent variables, this study only found that the worked-out example teaching and the composition mode had significant interactions in the motivation of music composition learning. For the collaborative composition group, when learners did not accept the worked-out example teaching, the composition can be completed based on the discussion and exchange between the group members, and the learning motivation was high. On the other hand, when learners had accepted the worked-out example teaching, the individual can exert his or her own ideas with the help of the example, and the motivation for learning was high.
Regarding the relationship between learning motivation and learning performance, when learners used computer music editing software as composition media, female learners, worked-out example teaching, and individual composition, their intrinsic motivation were positively correlated to both aesthetics and creativity. In addition, the extrinsic motivation and success expectation of female learners were positively correlated with overall performance and skill aspect. Despite this, in addition to the positive correlation between learning motivation and performance in this study, negative correlations were found. When learners used computers as media, male learners, and composition mode for collaborative composition, their control beliefs were negatively correlated with overall performance. Among them, the use of computers as a medium and the control beliefs of male learners were also negatively correlated with skill aspect. Moreover, the group of collaborative composition was negatively related to the aesthetic aspect of control belief.
The results presented in this study will help to understand the impact of using computer music editing software as a composition medium on the motivation and performance of music composition learning in different situations such as composition media, individual differences, worked-example teaching and composition mode. These findings can provide research scholars and educators to develop teaching and learning methods that meet the needs of each learner. In this way, the results of effective learning can be achieved, and the development of teaching and learning of music composition can be promoted.
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