博碩士論文 104621012 詳細資訊




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姓名 潘俊瑋(Jun-Wei Pan)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 大氣科學學系
論文名稱 McGill Algorithm for Precipitation nowcasting using Lagrangian Extrapolation(MAPLE)即時預報系統在臺灣複雜地形之可行性評估:颱風與梅雨鋒面個案分析
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摘要(中) 本研究使用加拿大麥基爾大學(McGill University)所發展之雷達回波外延預報系統(McGill Algorithm for Precipitation nowcasting using Lagrangian Extrapolation, MAPLE)結合中央氣象局(Central Weather Bureau, CWB)的整合最大回波資料,檢視及評估台灣地區的極短期(0~6小時)降水預報情形。其中MAPLE系統包含兩個程序,依序為:1.雷達回波變分追蹤法(Variational Echo Tracking, VET)決定降水系統的移動場;2.由半拉格朗日後推平流法(semi-Lagrangian backward advection)決定降水系統的預報場。
本研究選取兩種不同天氣型態的三個個案進行分析,分別為:1.南修(NAMTHEUN)颱風(2010年08月30日~31日)、2.鋒面系統(2012年06月11日~12日)與3.麥德姆(MATMO)颱風(2014年07月21日~23日)。首先對VET過程所使用的兩種參數──移動向量密度及回波資料時間間隔進行敏感度測試。接著,利用最佳化設定進行定量降水即時預報(Quantitative Precipitation Nowcasting, QPN)評估。整體而言,除系統生成或消散迅速之區域MAPLE預報掌握程度較為不足之外,1~3小時的累積降水量值評估和空間分佈情況,MAPLE即時預報系統具有相當程度的水準與能力。另外,藉由VET移動場與環境風場(ECMWF再分析風場)進行相關性分析。結果顯示,移動場會與不同天氣型態的環境風場產生不同程度的關聯,颱風系統相較於垂直結構複雜之鋒面系統,其移動場與環境風場有較高的關聯性。最後討論VET移動場與複雜地形之作用。當系統進入臺灣陸地時,移動速度大致都有下降情況,確實能夠反映出受到地形阻擋影響,減緩預報過程系統外延速率,接近短時間內的觀測資訊。但是主要影響外延預報能力隨時間下降的主因,依然為缺乏系統與地形交互作用下的生成和消散機制。
摘要(英)
In this study, the McGill Algorithm for Precipitation nowcasting using Lagrangian Extrapolation (MAPLE) system developed by McGill University is used to evaluate the very short-term forecast of precipitation in Taiwan. There are two procedures in MAPLE system. First, the motion field of precipitation is determined by Variational Echo Tracking (VET) technique. Second, a radar map is advected by means of a semi-Lagrangian backward advection scheme to be a precipitation forecast.
By using composite radar data from Central Weather Bureau (CWB), three real cases are selected for this study: a typhoon event occurred during 30-31 August 2010 (Namtheun typhoon); a Mei-Yu front case occurred during 11-12 June 2012; and a typhoon event occurred during 21-23 July 2014 (Matmo typhoon). Firstly, sensitivity tests between two parameters--vector density of motion field and time difference between each radar map in VET procedure is to determine the best setting of VET parameters for forecast. Secondly, the Quantitative Precipitation Nowcasting (QPN) would be evaluated. In general, forecasts by MAPLE system provide a certain degree capability about values and spatial patterns of the accumulated rainfall except for some rapidly growth and decay regions. Thirdly, the correlation of the VET motion field and the ECMWF reanalysis wind field is examined. It is found that most motion fields have a good relation with wind fields at each level in typhoon events, because the horizontal wind structure at one level is similar to the others. Finally, we focus on those VET motion fields that rainfall echoes are moving into Taiwan. The decrease of motion speed over Taiwan area is a good sign for extrapolation forecast, because it captures the blocking effect by orography to a certain extent. Must pay attention that main reason for rapid decrease in forecast ability is lack of growth and decay mechanism.
關鍵字(中) ★ 即時天氣預報
★ 拉格朗日持續法
關鍵字(英) ★ Nowcasting
★ Lagrangian persistence
論文目次
中文摘要 i
Abstract ii
誌謝 iii
目錄 iv
表目錄 vi
圖目錄 vii
第一章 緒論 1
1.1 前言 1
1.2 文獻回顧 2
1.3 研究目的 4
第二章 研究方法 5
2.1 雷達回波外延預報系統(MAPLE) 5
2.1.1 變分回波追蹤法(Variational Echo Tracking, VET) 5
2.1.2 VET參數介紹 6
2.1.3 半拉格朗日後推平流法(Semi-Lagrangian Backward Advection Scheme) 8
2.2 校驗方法 9
2.2.1 連續校驗法(Continuous Verification) 10
2.2.2 絕對校驗法(Categorical Verification) 11
第三章 資料來源及個案介紹 13
3.1 資料來源 13
3.1.1 臺灣雷達回波整合網 13
3.1.2 ECMWF ERA-Interim 14
3.2 個案介紹 14
3.2.1 南修颱風(2010) 15
3.2.2 鋒面系統(2012) 15
3.2.3 麥德姆颱風(2014) 16
第四章 結果分析 17
4.1 VET參數之敏感度測試和回波預報能力之評估 17
4.2 定量降水即時預報(QPN)之評估 19
4.3 VET移動場與ECMWF再分析風場之比較 25
4.4 VET移動場之地形作用與回波資料特性 26
第五章 結論與未來展望 28
5.1 結論 28
5.2 未來展望 29
參考文獻 30
附表 33
附圖 35
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指導教授 鍾高陞、陳台琦(Kao-Shen Chung Tai-Chi Wang Chen) 審核日期 2017-8-23
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