博碩士論文 104821019 詳細資訊




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姓名 吳亭穎(Ting-Ying Wu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 生命科學系
論文名稱 野生植物的白粉菌鑑定在北台灣
(Identification of powdery mildews on wild plants in northern Taiwan)
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摘要(中) 白粉菌會感染觀賞型植物或是小麥這類經濟作物甚至是路邊的野草,因此他與我們生活息息相關,感染部位是植物的葉片莖花果實,明顯的症狀是在葉片產生白色的斑點,使植物扭曲萎縮,並且他們會用附著器和吸器等特殊構造來吸取植物養分。由於台灣位處於熱帶跟亞熱帶氣候之間,適合白粉菌生長,主要以無性世代繁殖,上一次關於白粉菌的分類紀錄是1998年,不過近年來有其他外來種的引進這可能會有更多關於宿主與寄生者之間的新紀錄,我們一般會用ITS DNA序列做分子鑑定能更明確的鑑定物種,不過我們也希望能用蛋白質基因的方式做更詳細的鑑定。目前更採集了20種樣本,四個Podosphaera xanthii新宿主的紀錄,兩個Golovinomyces屬的新宿主紀錄(Coccinia grandis as new host of Golovinomyces orontii, Bothriospermum zeylanicum as new host of Golovinomyces cynoglossi) 和一個Erysiphe屬的新宿主紀錄 (Melilotus indicus as new host of Erysiphe trifolii),另外我們使用了蛋白質基因(Beta-tubulin, RPB2, Histone 3, TEF1-α)嘗試在鑑定上能做出更精確的分類。
摘要(英) Powdery mildews infects ornamental plants, cash crops like wheat or even roadside weeds, so it is very relevant to our lives, and the infection is in the leaves of the plant, the stem flower fruit, and the obvious symptom is that it produces white spots on the leaves. Twist and shrink plants. And powdery mildews have special structures such as appressoria and haustoria to absorb plant nutrients. Because Taiwan is located between the tropical and subtropical climates, it is suitable for powdery mildew to grow and predominance of the asexual generation. The last checklist record of powdery mildew was on 1998. But in recent years, other exotic species have been introduced, which may lead to more new records of host and parasite. We usually use ITS DNA sequences to identify species more clearly, but we also want to use protein genes to identify species more precisely. In this study, twenty samples were collected, four new hosts of Podosphaera xanthii, two new hosts of Golovinomyces genus (Coccinia grandis as new host of Golovinomyces orontii), (Bothriospermum zeylanicum as new host of Golovinomyces cynoglossi) and a new host record of Erysiphe genus (Melilotus indicus as new host of Erysiphe trifolii). In addition, we used the protein genes (Beta-tubulin, RPB2, Histone 3, TEF1-α) to try to make more accurate classification in identification.
關鍵字(中) ★ 白粉菌
★ 鑑定
★ 北台灣
關鍵字(英) ★ powdery mildews
★ Identification
★ northern Taiwan
論文目次 Contents
中文摘要…………………………………………………………….…i
Abstract………………………………………………………..………ii
誌謝………………………………………………………..….………iii
Contents……………………………………………………….........…iv
Figures………………………………………………...……….……vi
Tables……………………………………………………………….vii
List of abbreviations…………………………………………..……..viii
1. Introduction…………………………………………….……….….1
1-1 Description of powdery mildews…………………...……....1
1-2 Sexual generation and asexual generation of powdery
mildew…………………………...…………………..……...2
1-3 The methods to study the fungi associated with
plants……………………………………...………..……..3
1-4 The order of Erysiphales……………………….…….......…4
1-5 Research aims………………………………………...……..4
2. Materials and Methods…………………………………….……….6
2-1 Collection and preparation of plants……………………......6
2-2 Preparation of fungi…………………………………………6
2-2-1 DNA isolation………………………………….....………7
2-2-2 Tissue Dissociation………………………….……………7
2-2-3 Lysis……………………………………...……………….7
2-2-4 DNA Binding……………………………………………..8
2-2-5 Wash………………………………………………………8
2-2-6 DNA Elution……………………………………………...9
2-3 PCR…………………………………………………………9
2-3-1 Agarose gel electrophoresis……………………………..13
2-3-2 DNA sequencing………………………………………...14
2-4 Identification………………………………………………14
2-5 Morphological identification………………………..……..14
2-6 Molecular identification………………………..………….15
3. Results……………………………………………………………16
3-1 Species richness of powdery mildews by DNA extraction
and Morphological identification……………………..…....16
3-2 Species richness of powdery mildews………………….….16
3-3 Description of species…………………………….........…..17
3-3-1 Golovinomyces artemisiae……………………………....18
3-3-2 Golovinomyces sordidus……………………………...…20
3-3-3 Erysiphe necator………………………………...........…22
3-3-4 Golovinomyces orontii…………………………...……...24
3-3-5 Golovinomyces cynoglossi…………………………..…..26
3-3-6 Golovinomyces sonchicola…………………………........28
3-3-7 Erysiphe trifolii……………………………………….…30
3-3-8 Podosphaera xanthii on Eclipta prostrata……………....32
3-3-9 Podosphaera xanthii on Pouzolzia zeylanica…………...34
3-3-10 Podosphaera xanthii on Emilia sonchifolia…………....36
3-3-11 Podosphaera xanthii on Utricularia gibba………….....38
3-3-12 Podosphaera xanthii on Cuphea hyssopifolia….……....40
3-4-1 Erysiphe sp. on Urena lobata……………………...…….41
3-4-2 Erysiphe sp. on Cleome spinosa………………….……...42
3-4-3 Golovinomyces sp. on Bidens pilosa…………….……....43
4. Discussion……………………………………………….…........…44
5. References…………………………………………...................….47
6. Appendixes…………………………………………………….......69


Figures

1. Golovinomyces artemisiae on Artemisia indica…………………..…50
2. Golovinomyces sordidus on Plantago asiatica…………………..….50
3. Erysiphe necator on Vitis sp. ……………………………………..…51
4. Golovinomyces orontii on Coccinia grandis ……………………......51
5. Golovinomyces cynoglossi on Bothriospermum zeylanicum……….. 52
6. Golovinomyces sonchicola on Sonchus asper…………………...…..53
7. Erysiphe trifolii on Melilotus indicus……………………………..... 54
8. Podosphaera xanthii on Eclipta prostrata………………….......... 55
9. Podosphaera xanthii on Pouzolzia zeylanica……………...…...….56
10. Podosphaera sp. on Emilia sonchifolia…….……………...……….57
11. Erysiphe sp. on Urena lobata…………….………………..…...…..58
12. Erysiphe sp. on Cleome spinosa……………………………………59
13. Golovinomyces sp. on Bidens pilosa…………………………….....60
14. Podosphaera sp. on Cleome rutidosperma…………….………......61
15. Podosphaera xanthii on Zinnia elegans…………….……………61
16. Podosphaera xanthii on Crotalaria juncea.…………………..…....62
17. Podosphaera sp. on Physalis angulata………………………….....62
18. The results of pie chart in field collection…….……………………63
19. The chasmothecium and asci in the microscope field………........…63
20. The chasmothecium and asci in the microscope field………..…..…63
21. Fibrosin bodies in conidia and conidiophore of Podosphaera ...…...64

Tables
1. Specimen information………………………………………..…..…..65
2. Podosphaera xanthii specimen information…………………..…...…66
3. Podosphaera sp. specimen information……………………...…...….66
4. DNA identification………………………………………..……….…67
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指導教授 羅南德 審核日期 2018-3-29
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