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姓名 溫宜潔(I-Chieh Wen)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 學習與教學研究所
論文名稱 幼童敘說中因果連接詞和因果類型之發展
(The development of causal connectives and causal categories in children′s narrative)
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摘要(中) 過去研究較少探討幼童如何表達故事中因果關係(因果連接詞的使用情形)以及因果類型在年齡上的發展。本研究第一部分以五歲幼兒為研究對象,探討幼兒如何表達故事中的因果關係(有無使用因果連接詞)並歸納出四種因果關係表達方式:(1)使用因果關係連接詞;(2)使用替代連接詞;(3)省略連接詞;(4)使用不適切。第二部分使用CHILDES兒童語料庫中三、五、七歲幼童敘說故事「青蛙,你在哪裡」的語料,依據Trabasso、van den Broek和Suh(1989)所提出的「因果關係網路分析模式」中故事組成元素的編碼定義、判斷因果關係原則及因果關係類型的分類(動機、心理、物理),以及上述四種因果關係表達方式進行分析,採用二因子變異數分析,探討年齡在因果關係表達方式的使用次數上的發展、年齡在因果關係類型的表達次數上的差異,以及在三種因果關係類型中,年齡與因果關係表達方式的關係。研究結果顯示:
1.幼兒經常「使用替代連接詞」或「省略連接詞」來表達因果關係,很少使用因果關係連接詞來表達。
2.從因果關係表達方式總次數來看,七歲大於五歲,五歲大於三歲,但七歲和五歲沒有顯著差異,由此可知,到五歲時,幼兒已經具備因果關係的表達能力,但多「使用替代連接詞」或「省略連接詞」來表達。
3.從三種因果關係類型來看,三歲幼兒以表達「物理上因果關係」為多,到了五歲以表達「動機上因果關係」為多,且隨年齡成長,表達次數越多。
4.三歲和五歲在三種因果關係類型中,多「使用替代連接詞」來表達,次之是「省略連接詞」。七歲在「心理上因果關係」和「物理上因果關係」中,多以「省略連接詞」的方式來表達,其次是「使用替代連接詞」。由此可知,幼童不會因為不同因果關係類型而有不同的因果關係表達方式。
上述研究結果將可以瞭解幼童表達故事中因果關係的方式以及年齡、因果關係表達方式和因果關係類型三者之間的關係,並在論文中討論研究結果並提出建議以作為幼兒教育及未來研究的參考。
摘要(英) There are few studies that explore the way of children expressing the causal relationships in stories (mainly how they use causal connectives) and the development of causal categories. The first part of this study examined how the 5-year-old children using causal connectives to express the causal relationships in stories. Four kinds of expression were proposed: (1) correctly using causal connectives; (2) using alternatives; (3) omitting connectives; (4) inappropriate expression.
The second part of this study used CHILDES database which included the corpus of three-, five- and seven-year-old children who all told the “Frog, where are you?” story. A causal network of discourse analysis was adopted. It was proposed by Trabasso, van den Broek and Suh (1989), including coding story components coding, causal relationship judgement and three causal categories (motivational, psychological, physical) analysis.
Two-way ANOVA was conducted to investigate the relationship among age, causal connectives and causal categories. The major findings were as following:
1.Children often expressed causal relationship by using alternative connectives or omitting connectives. They seldom used causal connectives to express causal relationships.
2.In terms of total frequency of four ways to express causal relationship, seven-year-old’s frequency had more than five-year-old’s and five-year-old children’s frequency had more than three-year-old’s.
3.Concerning three causal categories, three-year-old children told the physical causal relationship more often than the other two categories. Five- and seven-year-old children showed more expression of motivational causal relationship.
4.Three- and five-year-old children expressed three causal categories by using alternative connectives, then by omitting connectives. Seven-year-old children often omitted connectives to express motivational and physical causal relationships, or they used alternative connectives. This result shows that children do not express causal relationship differently because of different causal categories.
Finally, this study discussed the results in terms of future research recommendations and practical perspectives with the restriction of research design.
關鍵字(中) ★ 因果連接詞
★ 因果類型
★ 敘說
★ 幼童
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 中文摘要--------------------------------------------------I
英文摘要------------------------------------------------III
致謝-----------------------------------------------------V
目次----------------------------------------------------VI
圖次--------------------------------------------------VIII
表次----------------------------------------------------IX
第一章 緒論-----------------------------------------------1
第一節 研究背景與動機-------------------------------------1
第二節 研究目的與問題-------------------------------------4
第三節 名詞釋義------------------------------------------5
第二章 文獻探討-------------------------------------------8
第一節 故事基模與故事結構---------------------------------8
第二節 因果關係網路分析----------------------------------12
第三節 幼兒敘說故事能力與發展-----------------------------17
第三章 研究一--------------------------------------------27
第一節 研究對象-----------------------------------------27
第二節 研究工具-----------------------------------------28
第三節 實施流程-----------------------------------------33
第四節 語料處理分析--------------------------------------34
第五節 結果---------------------------------------------36
第四章 研究二--------------------------------------------39
第一節 研究對象-----------------------------------------39
第二節 研究工具-----------------------------------------40
第三節 語料處理分析--------------------------------------41
第四節 結果---------------------------------------------42
第五章 結論、綜合討論與建議-------------------------------65
第一節 結論---------------------------------------------65
第二節 綜合討論-----------------------------------------68
第三節 研究限制-----------------------------------------69
第四節 建議---------------------------------------------70
參考文獻-------------------------------------------------72
附件一:「青蛙,你在哪裡?」故事內容-----------------------76
附件二:三歲幼兒敘說故事語料-------------------------------80
附件三:五歲幼兒敘說故事語料-------------------------------81
附件四:七歲幼兒敘說故事語料-------------------------------83
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指導教授 柯華葳 審核日期 2018-7-27
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