博碩士論文 105326016 詳細資訊




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姓名 呂佳明(Chia-Ming Lu)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 環境工程研究所
論文名稱 燃煤及垃圾焚化程序之PM2.5與PAHs排放特性研究
(Characteristics of PM2.5 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emitted from coal combustion and waste incineration processes)
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摘要(中) 國內外研究顯示空氣中細懸浮微粒會導致循環系統和呼吸系統方面的健康危害,尤其是粒徑小於2.5 微米的細微粒(PM2.5)被人體吸入後會深入支氣管,干擾肺部的氣體交換,超細微粒甚至可通過支氣管和肺泡進入血液,另外多種有害空氣污染物如多環芳香碳氫化合物及其他空氣污染物等,皆可能附著於細懸浮微粒上,隨血液進入人體循環,對人體健康造成顯著危害。為進一步維護民眾健康及生活環境品質,針對環境細懸浮微粒中 PAHs 及其他空氣污染物分佈特性進行調查實屬必要。本研究已針對本土大型燃煤電廠(A廠)、小型燃煤鍋爐(B廠)及都市廢棄物焚化爐(C廠)完成PM2.5及PAHs之檢測分析作業。A廠煙囪排放之FPM2.5 (0.45 mg/Nm3)明顯低於B廠(1.91 mg/Nm3)之排放,C廠煙囪排放之FPM2.5濃度1.93 mg/Nm3,數據結果得知A廠BH+SWFGD對於FPM2.5去除效率高達99.83%。
PM部分,A廠袋式集塵器(BH)入口濃度高達4,923 mg/Nm3,FPM2.5僅占PM的5.38%,BH+SWFGD對於PM之去除效率達99.98%,而B廠於煙囪檢測之PM濃度為2.55 mg/Nm3,C廠ESP入口、SCR入口及煙囪PM濃度分別為2248、2.47及2 mg/Nm3,C廠之ESP+WS對PM之去除效率達99.91%,本研究結果顯示ABC三廠之CPM濃度均大於FPM2.5及PM濃度,A廠之BH+SWFGD對CPM之去除效率僅38.3%。金屬元素部份,B廠FPM2.5所分析之金屬元素中以Na、Ca、Mg及Fe占比較高,而B廠FPM之水溶性離子以SO42- 佔比最高(606-1279 μg/m3),其次則為NH4+(191 – 475 μg/m3)。 A廠煙囪排氣24種gas-phase PAHs濃度介於6.93~5297 ng/Nm3,solid-phase PAHs則介於0.40-9.45 ng/Nm3,BH inlet之24種gas-phase PAHs 濃度介於151-50239 ng/Nm3,solid-phase PAHs濃度介於39.1-832 ng/Nm3,而B廠PAHs亦主要分佈於氣相,24種 gas-phase PAHs 濃度遠高於 solid-phase PAHs。A廠BH+SWFGD對於固相PAHs之去除效率平均達98.59%,但對於氣相PAHs表現較差,C廠ESP入口之氣固相PAHs總濃度分別為40862及145 ng/Nm3,SCR入口分別為6.11及7882 ng/Nm3,而煙囪排氣濃度僅3.6及1560 ng/Nm3,數據顯示ESP+WS對於24種PAHs去除效率介於30.35-98.43%,而SCR的去除效率則介於30.87-88.28%。
摘要(英) It is well known that particulate matter (especially PM2.5) causes adverse effects on human health. Besides, toxic air pollutants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) may be attached to particulate matter. In this study sampling and analysis of PM and PAHs emitted from one coal-fired power plant (plant A), one coal-fired boiler (plant B) and one MWI (plant C) are conducted. The concentration of filterable particulate matter (FPM2.5) emitted from plant A (0.45 mg/Nm3) is significantly lower than that from plant B (1.91 mg/Nm3). The concentration of plant C is 1.93 mg/Nm3. In plant A, the removal efficiency of FPM2.5 achieved with the APCD (baghouse and seawater flue gas desulfurization) reaches 99.83%. The PM concentration measured at BH inlet of plant A is 4,923 mg/Nm3 and FPM2.5 accounts for only 5.38% of PM. the removal efficiency of PM achieved with the APCD (baghouse and seawater flue gas desulfurization) reaches 99.98%. For plant B, PM concentration of stack gas is 2.55 mg/Nm3 and FPM2.5 accounts for 75% of PM. Moreover, concentration of CPM is higher than FPM2.5 and PM in three plants. It’s worth noting that the removal efficiency of CPM achieved with BH+SWFGD in plant A is 38.3%, which is significantly lower than that of FPM2.5 (99.83%) and PM (99.98%). Besides, 24 gas-phase PAHs and solid-phase PAHs concentrations emitted from plant A are 20.3-34.0 μg/Nm3 and 111-137 ng/Nm3, respectively. The removal efficiency of BH+SWFGD for solid-phase PAHs is 98.59%. but for gas-phase PAHs is lower than solid-phase. Relatively, plant B emits more gas-phase PAHs (35-50 μg/Nm3) and solid-phase PAHs (156-285 μg/Nm3) if compared with plant A. Toxic PAHs are dominant in gas phase for three plants. This study also evaluates the emission factors of PAHs and FPM2.5 for both plants. For plant A, the average emission factors of PAHs and FPM2.5 are 316 μg/kg-coal, 5.25 μg/kg-coal, respectively. For plant B, average emission factors of PAHs and PM2.5 are 382 μg/kg-coal and 16 μg/kg-coal, respectively. As a result, plant A emits less FPM2.5 and PAHs due to higher combustion efficiency and better air pollution control devices. The concentrations of gas and solid phase PAHs at the ESP inlet of Plant C are 40862 and 145 ng/Nm3, respectively, and the SCR inlets are 6.11 and 7882 ng/Nm3, respectively. The concentration of stack are 3.6 and 1560 ng/Nm3. The removal efficiency of PAHs achieved with ESP+WS is between 30.35-98.43%, and that achieved with SCR is between 30.87-88.28%.
關鍵字(中) ★ 空氣污染
★ PM2.5
★ 多環芳香烴
★ 燃煤程序
★ 焚化爐
關鍵字(英) ★ Air pollution
★ PM2.5
★ PAHs
★ Coal combustion
★ MWI
論文目次 摘要 I
Abstract III
目錄 VI
圖目錄 VIII
表目錄 X
第一章 研究緣起 1
1.1前言 1
1.2 研究目的 1
第二章 文獻回顧 3
2.1 煙道氣及大氣懸浮微粒排放特性 3
2.1.1煙道氣中懸浮微粒濃度及成份分布特性 3
2.1.2大氣懸浮微粒濃度及成份分布特性 7
2.2煙道氣及大氣中多環芳香烴化合物濃度及特性 10
2.2.1多環芳香烴化合物基本特性 10
2.2.2 煙道氣中多環芳香烴之排放特性 12
2.2.3 不同污染來源排放之飛灰PAHs濃度特性 20
2.2.4 國內外大氣中多環芳香烴化合物濃度 22
2.3國內外PM及PAHs之排放標準 28
2.4 PM及PAHs控制技術 30
2.4.1粒狀物控制技術 30
2.4.2 PAHs控制技術及效率 32
第三章 研究方法 35
3.1研究流程設計 35
3.2採樣對象 36
3.3煙道氣採樣方法 38
3.4實驗室設備、材料、藥品及溶劑 41
3.4.1 實驗設備 41
3.4.2 實驗材料 41
3.4.3 實驗藥品 43
3.4.4 實驗室溶劑 44
3.5 採樣之品保品管程序 45
3.6 多環芳香烴前處理與分析方法 45
3.7 HRGC/HRMS 45
3.8 離子層析儀分析原理 47
3.9 感應耦合電漿質譜儀操作原理 49
第四章 結果與討論 51
4.1 燃煤程序PM 濃度特性 51
4.1.1 ABC三廠之PM排放濃度及特性 51
4.1.2 ABC三廠之PM排放係數推估 54
4.1.3 A廠FPM及CPM之水溶性離子及金屬元素成分比率 58
4.1.4 B廠FPM及CPM之水溶性離子及金屬元素成分比率 59
4.2 燃煤及焚化程序之PAHs濃度及特性 61
4.2.1 ABC三廠之PAHs排放濃度 61
4.2.2 ABC三廠之PAHs氣固相分布 64
4.2.3 ABC三廠之PAHs同源物分佈 69
4.2.4 ABC三廠之PAHs毒性濃度特性 72
4.2.5 A及C廠之PAHs去除效率探討 75
4.2.6 PAHs之排放係數推估 77
第五章 結論與建議 80
5.1 結論 80
5.2 建議 83
參考文獻 84
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指導教授 張木彬(Moo-Been Chang) 審核日期 2018-8-23
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