|| L. Deri, M. Martinelli, T. Bujlow, and A. Cardigliano, "nDPI: Open-source high-speed deep packet inspection," in 2014 International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2014, pp. 617-622.|
 T. Karagiannis, K. Papagiannaki, and M. Faloutsos, "BLINC: multilevel traffic classification in the dark," presented at the Proceedings of the 2005 conference on Applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA, 2005.
 L. Bernaille, R. Teixeira, I. Akodkenou, A. Soule, and K. Salamatian, "Traffic classification on the fly," SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev., vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 23-26, 2006.
 F. Constantinou and P. Mavrommatis, "Identifying Known and Unknown Peer-to-Peer Traffic," in Fifth IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications (NCA′06), 2006, pp. 93-102.
 C. Xu, S. Chen, J. Su, S. Yiu, and L. C. Hui, "A Survey on Regular Expression Matching for Deep Packet Inspection: Applications, Algorithms, and Hardware Platforms," IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 2991-3029, 2016.
 S. Alcock and R. Nelson, Libprotoident: Traffic Classification Using Lightweight Packet Inspection. 2012.
 T. Bujlow, V. Carela-Espanol, and P. Barlet-Ros, "Independent comparison of popular DPI tools for traffic classification," Computer Networks, vol. 76, pp. 75-89, 2015.
 T. Bujlow and V. Carela-Espanol, "Comparison of Deep Packet Inspection (DPI) Tools for Traffic Classification," 2013.
 M. Finsterbusch, C. Richter, E. Rocha, J.-A. Muller, and K. Hanssgen, "A survey of payload-based traffic classification approaches," IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 1135-1156, 2014.
 J. Khalife, "Novel approaches in traffic classification," 2016.
 S. Jeong, D. Lee, J. Hyun, J. Li, and J. W. K. Hong, "Application-aware traffic engineering in software-defined network," in 2017 19th Asia-Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium (APNOMS), 2017, pp. 315-318.
 張芸甄, "基於P4-Switch 的深度封包檢測 及流量動態服務品質保證," 碩士, 網路工程研究所, 國立交通大學, 新竹市, 2017.
 KDD Cup 1999. Available: http://kdd.ics.uci.edu/databases/kddcup99/
 M. Tavallaee, E. Bagheri, W. Lu, and A. A. Ghorbani, "A detailed analysis of the KDD CUP 99 data set," in Computational Intelligence for Security and Defense Applications, 2009. CISDA 2009. IEEE Symposium on, 2009, pp. 1-6: IEEE.
 The CAIADA Anonymized Internet Traces Dataset. Available: http://www.caida.org/data/passive/passive_dataset.xml
 T. A. Tang, L. Mhamdi, D. McLernon, S. A. R. Zaidi, and M. Ghogho, "Deep learning approach for network intrusion detection in software defined networking," in Wireless Networks and Mobile Communications (WINCOM), 2016 International Conference on, 2016, pp. 258-263: IEEE.
 N. Shone, T. N. Ngoc, V. D. Phai, and Q. Shi, "A deep learning approach to network intrusion detection," IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computational Intelligence, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 41-50, 2018.
 張鈺, "基於SVM之訊務分類機制及其於SDN網路之應用," 碩士, 軟體工程研究所, 國立中央大學, 桃園縣, 2016.
 L. M. Nair and G. Sajeev, "Internet traffic classification by aggregating correlated decision tree classifier," in Computational Intelligence, Modelling and Simulation (CIMSim), 2015 Seventh International Conference on, 2015, pp. 135-140: IEEE.
 Y. Ding, "A method of imbalanced traffic classification based on ensemble learning," in Signal Processing, Communications and Computing (ICSPCC), 2015 IEEE International Conference on, 2015, pp. 1-4: IEEE.
 F. Ghofrani, A. Jamshidi, and A. Keshavarz-Haddad, "Internet traffic classification using Hidden Naive Bayes model," in Electrical Engineering (ICEE), 2015 23rd Iranian Conference on, 2015, pp. 235-240: IEEE.
 F. Ghofrani, A. Keshavarz-Haddad, and A. Jamshidi, "Internet traffic classification using multiple classifiers," in Information and Knowledge Technology (IKT), 2015 7th Conference on, 2015, pp. 1-5: IEEE.
 周?松, "基於統計特徵之應用程式辨識系統研製," 碩士, 通訊工程研究所, 國立清華大學, 新竹市, 2015.
 N.-F. Huang, C.-C. Li, C.-H. Li, C.-C. Chen, C.-H. Chen, and I.-H. Hsu, "Application identification system for SDN QoS based on machine learning and DNS responses," in Network Operations and Management Symposium (APNOMS), 2017 19th Asia-Pacific, 2017, pp. 407-410: IEEE.
 U. Trivedi and M. Patel, "A fully automated deep packet inspection verification system with machine learning," in 2016 IEEE International Conference on Advanced Networks and Telecommunications Systems (ANTS), 2016, pp. 1-6.
 Active DNS Project. Available: https://www.activednsproject.org/
 OpenINTEL. Available: https://www.openintel.nl/
 M. Trevisan, I. Drago, M. Mellia, and M. M. Munafo, "Towards web service classification using addresses and DNS," in Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference (IWCMC), 2016 International, 2016, pp. 38-43: IEEE.
 A. Tongaonkar, R. Torres, M. Iliofotou, R. Keralapura, and A. Nucci, "Towards self adaptive network traffic classification," Computer Communications, vol. 56, pp. 35-46, 2015.
 P. Foremski, C. Callegari, and M. Pagano, "DNS?Class: immediate classification of IP flows using DNS," International Journal of Network Management, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 272-288, 2014.
 I. N. Bermudez, M. Mellia, M. M. Munafo, R. Keralapura, and A. Nucci, "DNS to the rescue: discerning content and services in a tangled web," in Proceedings of the 2012 Internet Measurement Conference, 2012, pp. 413-426: ACM.
 T. Mori, T. Inoue, A. Shimoda, K. Sato, K. Ishibashi, and S. Goto, "SFMap: Inferring services over encrypted web flows using dynamical domain name graphs," in International Workshop on Traffic Monitoring and Analysis, 2015, pp. 126-139: Springer.
 G. ETSI, "Network functions virtualisation (nfv): Architectural framework," ETsI Gs NFV, vol. 2, no. 2, p. V1, 2013.
 ETSI Multi-access Edge Computing. Available: https://www.etsi.org/technologies-clusters/technologies/multi-access-edge-computing
 Micro-operator concept for boosting local service delivery. Available: http://www.oulu.fi/oulubusinessschool/node/41297
 OSI Model.
 Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP Model).
 K. R. James Kurose, Computer networks: a top-down approach 7th Global ed. Pearson, 2016.
 Advertisement list. Available: https://pgl.yoyo.org/adservers/
 P. Bosshart et al., "P4: Programming protocol-independent packet processors," ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 87-95, 2014.