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姓名 林秀俊(Hsiu-Chun Lin)  查詢紙本館藏   畢業系所 應用地質研究所
論文名稱 利用岩心之孔隙率及滲透率量測結果推算孔隙率與滲透率隨深度之變化
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摘要(中) 本研究考量了岩性、力學壓密和應力歷史對沉積岩孔隙率和滲透率的影響,利用TPCS-M1鑽井岩心的孔隙率和滲透率量測結果,建立應力歷史相依孔隙率及滲透率模型以計算TPCS-M1鑽井地層的孔隙率和滲透率。首先將TPCS-M1試體依粒徑分析結果把岩性劃分為四群(砂岩類、泥質砂岩類、砂質泥岩類及泥岩類),其後量測各試體於不同有效圍壓下的孔隙率和滲透率,並建立此四群岩類的應力歷史相依孔隙率/滲透率模型,最後利用此模型計算鑽井地層的孔隙率和滲透率隨深度之變化。為檢驗計算所得的孔隙率結果之合理性,本研究蒐集井測之孔隙率資料並和計算結果進行比較。結果發現,砂岩類地層中,本研究計算之孔隙率非常接近中子井測/密度井測所推求的孔隙率(僅略低估於1 - 3 %),而四種岩性的孔隙率計算結果則介於中子井測/密度井測與波速井測的推求結果之間。另外,本研究亦計算鑽井地層解壓至常壓下時的孔隙率,發現和台電報告中之常壓下影像孔隙率在各深度間隨岩性的跳動情形有大致相同的趨勢,以上顯示本研究以岩心試驗結果和應力歷史相依孔隙率模型,可合理估計砂岩孔隙率且可評估地層的孔隙率在各深度間隨岩性的變化趨勢。另一方面,本研究根據四群岩類之應力歷史相依孔隙率-滲透率關係方程式,可快速地從井測資料推算滲透率,並與透過試驗結果所計算的滲透率進行比較。結果發現,透過孔隙率-滲透率關係式所計算的滲透率,和利用試驗結果所計算的滲透率,在相同岩段下,其兩者差異不大,皆不超過一個數量級,但在不同岩段的滲透率卻相差甚鉅,顯示地層岩性的劃分與建立結果對於滲透率的推算有非常顯著的影響,因此若希望以上述兩種方法來推算地層滲透率隨深度的變化,則地層岩性的劃分與建立將為最重要的課題。
摘要(英) To calculate the porosity-depth and permeability-depth relationship in TPCS-M1 borehole, we establish the stress-history dependent porosity/permeability model of rock cores based on rock sample porosity/permeability measurements. First, we categorize the sedimentary lithology of each rock samples into four types (sandstone, muddy sandstone, sandy mudstone and mudstone) according to their pore size distribution information. Second, we measure the porosity/permeability of sedimentary rock samples under various effective confining pressure to establish the stress-history dependent porosity/permeability model for four types of sedimentary rocks. Last, we calculate the porosity-depth and permeability-depth relationship in TPCS-M1 borehole based on these model. To check if the calculated porosity is reasonable or not, we compare the calculated result with porosity derived from log and porosity derived from image of thin section. We find using porosity measurement from lab and stress-history dependent porosity model can well calculate the porosity in sandstone layer, and also can estimate the trend of porosity changing in depth with lithology. On the other hand, we use the porosity derived from log and stress-history dependent porosity-permeability relationship for four types of sedimentary rocks to quickly estimated the permeability, comparing with the calculated permeability. The result shows that, the permeability estimated by the stress-history dependent porosity-permeability relationship is always close to the permeability calculated by experimental data and stress-history dependent permeability model in the same layer (same lithology type and depth), but totally different in different layer, it indicates the result of categorizing and building the strata’s lithology will significantly influence the permeability estimated result. Thus, if we want to estimate the permeability-depth relationship by these two methods, the most critical issue will be how to well categorize and build the strata’s lithology.
關鍵字(中) ★ 孔隙率
★ 滲透率
★ 沉積岩岩性
★ 力學壓密
★ 應力歷史
關鍵字(英)
論文目次 摘要 i
Abstract ii
致謝 iv
目錄 v
圖目錄 viii
表目錄 xii
一、緒論 1
1.1 研究動機與目的 1
1.2 研究流程與論文架構 2
1.3 論文架構 5
二、文獻回顧 6
2.1 影響沉積岩孔隙率與滲透率之因素 6
2.2 以岩心試驗結果計算孔隙率/滲透率隨深度變化之研究案例 12
2.2.1 以TCDP深井岩心計算鑽井地層孔隙率隨深度之變化 12
2.2.2 以三鶯淺井岩心計算桃園近海地層孔隙率隨深度之變化 15
2.2.3 以北海道地表露頭及鑽井岩心推算地層之滲透率分布 18
2.3 二氧化碳封存先導試驗場址之計畫-TPCS-M1鑽井 20
三、研究方法 23
3.1 實驗試體來源 23
3.2 鑽井岩心之岩性分類 28
3.2.1 粒徑分析 28
3.2.2 碎屑沉積岩之岩性分類法 29
3.3 鑽井地層之岩性劃分建立方法 30
3.4 室內孔隙率/滲透率之量測方法 31
3.4.1 孔隙率之量測 31
3.4.2 滲透率之量測 35
3.4.3 克林堡效應修正 36
3.5 應力歷史相依孔隙率/滲透率模型 38
3.5.1 試體最大預壓密應力之決定方法 38
3.5.2 應力歷史相依孔隙率/滲透率模型 42
3.5.3 應力歷史相依孔隙率-滲透率關係式 44
3.6 孔隙率隨深度之變化 45
3.6.1 以岩心試驗結果計算孔隙率 45
3.6.2 以井測結果推算孔隙率 45
3.7 滲透率隨深度之變化 46
3.7.1 以岩心試驗結果計算滲透率 46
3.7.1 以井測結果推算滲透率 46
四、研究成果 47
4.1 孔隙率/滲透率之量測結果 47
4.2 粒徑分布與岩性分類 49
4.3 應力歷史相依孔隙率/滲透率模型 54
4.4 鑽井地層之岩性劃分結果 60
4.5 孔隙率隨深度變化之分布結果 68
4.5.1 以岩心試驗結果計算現地孔隙率之結果 68
4.5.2 以密度井測推算現地孔隙率之結果 70
4.6 滲透率隨深度變化之分布結果 72
4.6.1 以岩心試驗結果計算現地滲透率之結果 72
4.6.2 以中子井測推算現地滲透率之結果 74
4.6.3 以密度井測推算現地滲透率之結果 76
五、討論 78
5.1 影響孔隙率/滲透率隨深度變化之計算的因素探討 78
5.1.1 軸差應力對於現地有效應力之影響 78
5.1.2 試體的最大預壓密應力之選取 81
5.1.3 不同岩性之沉積岩模型參數 87
5.2 以試驗結果與井測結果推算現地孔隙率之比較 90
5.3 計算解壓至常壓下的孔隙率與影像孔隙率之比較 97
5.4 以試驗結果與井測結果推算現地滲透率之比較 99
六、結論 102
參考文獻 105
附錄A 111
附錄B 137
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指導教授 董家鈞 審核日期 2018-8-1
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